Agreement No. CE 57/2001

 

Environmental and Traffic Impact Assessment

Study for

Fill Bank at Tseung Kwan O Area 137

 

Environmental Impact Assessment Report

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project Consultancy Team:

 

CH2M HILL (China) Limited

in association with

MVA Hong Kong Limited

ACL Asia Limited

        

 

 

 

Reference      :

 

EN-R014F-2ADD.02

 

Client             :

 

Civil Engineering Department

 

Date                :

 

March 2002

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

1.         Introduction

1.1       Background

1.2       Urgent Demand on Public Filling Facilities

1.3       Project Design and Technical Assessments

1.4       Objectives of the EIA Study

1.5       Public Inputs

1.6       Structures of the EIA Report

2.         Site Selection History and Design Alternatives Consideration

2.2       Site Selection History

2.3       Design Alternatives Consideration

3.         Project Description

3.1       The Subject Site and its Environs

3.2       Project Design

3.3       Do-Nothing Scenario

4.         Air Quality Impact Assessment

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Assessment Criteria

4.3       Study Area and Air Sensitive Receivers

4.4       Baseline Air Quality

4.5       Establishment Phase

4.6       Operational Phase

4.7       Decommissioning Phase

4.8       Environmental Monitoring & Audit (EM&A) Requirements

4.9       Assessment Conclusions

5.         Noise Impact Assessment

5.1       Introduction

5.2       Relevant Legislation and Standards

5.3       Study Area and Noise Sensitive Receivers

5.4       Establishment Phase

5.5       Operational Phase

5.6       Decommissioning Phase

5.7       Environmental Monitoring and Audit Requirements

5.8       Conclusion

6.         Water Quality Impact Assessment

6.1       Introduction

6.2       Relevant Legislation and Guidelines

6.3       Existing Water Quality and Sensitive Receivers

6.4       Environmental Impact Identification and Evaluation

6.5       Mitigation Measures

6.6       Residual Impact

6.7       Cumulative Environmental Impacts

6.8       Environmental Monitoring and Audit

6.9       Conclusions

7.         lANDFILL gaS hazard ASSESSMENT

7.1       Introduction

7.2       Environmental Legislation, Policies, Plans, Standards and Criteria

7.3       Nature of Landfill Gas and its Concern

7.4       SENT Landfill

7.5       Landfill Gas and Groundwater/ Leachate Monitoring

7.6       Qualitative Risk Assessment

7.7       Recommended Protection Measures

7.8       Precautionary and Protection Measures

7.9       Conclusion

8.         Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment

8.1       Introduction

8.2       Project Description - Fill Bank at Tseung Kwan O - Area 137

8.3       Standards and Legislation

8.4       Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment Methodology

8.5       Baseline Study - Landscape

8.6       Baseline Study - Tree Survey Methodology

8.7       Baseline Study - Visual

8.8       Review of Planning and Development Control Framework

8.9       Impact Assessment  - Landscape (unmitigated)

8.10      Impact Assessment - Visual (unmitigated)

8.11      Impact Assessment - Tree Survey

8.12      Mitigation Measures

8.13      Residual Impacts

8.14      Conclusion

9.         Summary of Environmental outcomes

9.1       Introduction

9.2       Environmental Benefits

10.       EM&A Requirements and Implementation Schedule of Environmental Mitigation Measures

10.1      Introduction

10.2      EM&A Requirements

10.3      Implementation Schedule of Environmental Mitigation Measures

11.       Overall conclusion

11.1      Introduction

11.2      Key Environmental Issues

11.3      Air Quality Impact

11.4      Noise Impact Assessment

11.5      Water Quality Impact Assessment

11.6      Landfill GAs Hazard Assessment

11.7      Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment

11.8      Other Environmental Factors

11.9      Overall Conclusion


LIST OF FIGURES

 

Figure 1‑1       Location of the existing Public Filling Facilities

Figure 1‑2       Location of the Subject Site

Figure 2‑1       Locations of the reclamation project sites that would be receiving public fill commencing from 2003 through 2005

Figure 2‑2       Location of Tan Kwai Tsuen Borrow Area and Quarry considered before in the initial site search process for the fill banks

Figure 2‑3       The former Kai Tak Airport apron and runway area considered as an alternative site in the site selection process

Figure 3‑1       Area situated within 300m or 500m radius of the site boundary and representative uses along Wan Po Road

Figure 3‑2       Fill Bank Preliminary Development Programme

Figure 3‑3       General layout of the existing reclaimed land at TKO Area 137

Figure 3‑4       Preliminary design of the fill bank

Figure 3‑5       Representative fill bank profile (southern site portion)

Figure 3‑6       North-south cross section of the fill bank (north and southern site portion)

Figure 3‑7       North-south cross section of the fill bank (southern site portion)

Figure 3‑8       Preliminary design of the C&DMSF

Figure 3‑9       Preliminary design of the barging point onsite

Figure 4‑1       The 500 Study Area for Air Quality Impact Assessment and Air Sensitive Receivers along Wan Po Road

Figure 4‑2        Location of the Representative Assessment Points adopted in the Air Quality Impact Assessment (a, b, c, d)

Figure 4‑3       Mitigated maximum hourly average TSP concentrations predicted at 1.5m above ground under Scenario 2, Operational Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Figure 4‑4       Mitigated daily average TSP concentrations predicted at 1.5m above ground under Scenario 2, Operational Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Figure 4‑5       Labels of Road Carriageways, Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment

Figure 4‑6       Location of existing and assumed Diesel Fuel Consuming Stacks modelled in the air quality impact assessment

Figure 4‑7       Cumulative Maximum 1-hour NO2 Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 4‑8       Cumulative Maximum 24-hour NO2 Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment  (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 4‑9       Cumulative Maximum 24-hour RSP Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment  (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 4‑10     Mitigated maximum hourly average TSP concentrations predicted at 1.5m above ground, Decommissioning Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Figure 4‑11     Mitigated daily average TSP concentrations predicted at 1.5m above ground, Decommissioning Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Figure 4‑12     Cumulative Maximum 1-hour NO2 Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Decommissioning Phase (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 4‑13     Cumulative Maximum 24-hour NO2 Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Decommissioning Phase (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 4‑14     Cumulative Maximum 24-hour RSP Concentrations predicted at worst-affected height (1.5m above ground), Decommissioning Phase (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Figure 5‑1       The 300 Study Area for Noise Impact Assessment and Noise Sensitive Receivers along Wan Po Road

Figure 5‑2       Location of the Representative Assessment Points adopted in the Noise Impact Assessment (a, b, c, d)

Figure 6‑1       Location of the Eastern Buffer Water Control Zone and Junk Bay Water Control Zone

Figure 6‑2       Location of the Water Monitoring Stations

Figure 6‑3       Location of Tung Lung Chau Fish Culture Zone and nearby WSD saltwater intakes

Figure 6‑4       Alignment of the temporary stormwater drainage system

Figure 6‑5       Preliminary design of stormwater intercepting facility at the C&DMSF

Figure 6‑6       Use of backhoe fixed on a well designed flat-top pontoon

Figure 6‑7       Use of hopper barges with mobile crane

Figure 6‑8       Use of derrick barges with built-in crane

Figure 7‑1       Portion of the Site situated within the 250m consultation zone of SENT landfill

Figure 7‑2       Plan showing the landfill gas control measures implemented at SENT landfill

Figure 7‑3       Location of landfill gas and leachate monitoring wells at or near the south-western boundary of the SENT landfill

Figure 8‑1       Location Plan

Figure 8‑2       Landscape Character Areas

Figure 8‑3       Landscape Character Photographs (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Figure 8‑4       Landscape Resources

Figure 8‑5       Locations of Visual Envelop, VSRs, PVSRs, Photomontages

Figure 8‑6       Planning and Development Plan

Figure 8‑7       Visual Impact Assessment

Figure 8‑8       Mitigation Measures (a,b)

Figure 8‑9       Photomontage View from Clearwater Bay Country Club (a,b)

Figure 8‑10     Photomontage View from Area 86 (a,b)

Figure 8‑11     Photomontage View from Siu Sai Wan (a,b)

 

 

 


LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 2‑1     Forecast Data on Public Fill Generation, Public Filling Capacity, and Shortfall in Public Fill Receiving Capacity from Years 2002 to 2004

Table 2‑2     Reclamation sites currently planned to receive public fill

Table 2‑3     Distance Separation between TKO Area 137 and nearby sensitive receivers in comparison with that of the old airport site

Table 2‑4     Key Factors considered in the Site Selection Process

Table 3‑1     Fill Bank Traffic Distribution by Time

Table 4‑1     Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (AQOs)

Table 4‑2     Air Sensitive Receivers located within the 500m Study Area and along Wan Po Road

Table 4‑3     Long-term Average (1996 to 2000) Air Quality Data obtained at EPD’s Air Quality Monitoring Stations at Sham Shui Po, Central/ Western and Kwun Tong

Table 4‑4     Summary on Scenarios considered in the Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Table 4‑5     Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentration predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(a) and 2(a))

Table 4‑6     24-hour Average TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(a) and 2(a))

Table 4‑7     Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(b) and 2(b))

Table 4‑8     2002 Vehicular Emission Factors

Table 4‑9     Year 2004 A.M. Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Table 4‑10   Year 2004 Fill Bank Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Table 4‑11   Year 2004 P.M. Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Table 4‑12   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2004 Fill Bank Peak Hour, Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑13   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2004 A.M. Peak Hour; Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑14   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2004 P.M. Peak Hour; Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑15   Fossil Fuel Consuming Stacks in the Study Area

Table 4‑16   Predicted Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 at the RAPs (2004 Fill Bank Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 4‑17   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2  at the RAPs (2004 A.M. Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 4‑18   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2  at the RAPs (2004 P.M. Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 4‑19   Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Decommissioning Phase) (based on averaged dust emission rates calculated from daily truckloads)

Table 4‑20   24-hour Average TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Decommissioning Phase)

Table 4‑21   Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Decommissioning Phase)

Table 4‑22   2005 Vehicular Emission Factors

Table 4‑23   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2007 Fill Bank Peak Hour, Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑24   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2007 A.M. Peak Hour; Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑25   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 and RSP at the RAPs (2007 P.M. Peak Hour; Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment)

Table 4‑26   Predicted Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2 at the RAPs (2007 Fill Bank Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 4‑27   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2  at the RAPs (2007 A.M. Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 4‑28   Maximum 1-hour NO2 and Average Daily NO2  at the RAPs (2007 P.M. Peak Hour; with Aerial Industrial Emissions)

Table 5‑1     Representative Assessment Points selected for Noise Impact Assessment

Table 5‑2     Noise Limits for Daytime Construction Activities

Table 5‑3     Area Sensitivity Ratings of NSRs

Table 5‑4     Representative Inventory on PME used during the Operational Phase

Table 5‑5     Representative Inventory of PME used in the Contract CV/97/01

Table 5‑6     Representative Inventory on PME used during the Decommissioning Phase

Table 5‑7     Noise Levels predicted at the RAPs F1 and F2

Table 5‑8     Operational Phase Traffic Noise Assessment Scenarios

Table 5‑9     Noise Levels predicted at the RAPs F1, F2 and F3 during the decommissioning phase of the fill bank

Table 6‑1     Water Quality Monitoring Data (averaged values) obtained in 2000 at EPD’s Monitoring Stations in the Eastern Buffer and Junk Bay Water Control Zone

Table 7‑1     Classification of Risk Category

Table 7‑2     Summary of General Categorisations of Risk

Table 7‑3     Source-Pathway-Target Analysis

Table 7‑4     Specifications of LFG Monitoring Equipment Requirement

Table 7‑5     Action Plan - LFG Monitoring During the Construction Stage

Table 8‑1     Existing Landscape Character Areas (Refer to Figure 8‑2)

Table 8‑2     Existing Landscape Resources (Refer to Figure 8‑4)

Table 8‑3     Summary of Visually Sensitive Receivers

Table 8‑4     Review of Existing Planning and Development Control Framework (Refer to Figure 8‑6)

Table 8‑5     Impact Assessment of Landscape Character Areas

Table 8‑6     Impact Assessment of Landscape Resources

Table 8‑7     Significance of Visual Impact anticipated to be received by VSR.

Table 8‑8     Landscape Works Responsibilities

Table 8‑9     Residual Visual Impact

Table 9‑1     Environmental Sensitive Areas and Population Protected


 

LIST OF APPENDICES

 

Appendix 1-1     WBTC No. 4/98 and WBTC No. 5/99

Appendix 1-2     Project Profile

Appendix 1-3     EIA Study Brief No. ESB-083/2001

Appendix 4-1     Indicative alignment of the main haul roads modelled and Worksheets showing Calculation of Dust Emission Rates, Operational Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 4-2     Typical FDM Result File, Maximum 1-hour TSP modelling, Operation Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment, Scenario 1 and 2

Appendix 4-3     Typical CALINE4 result files, Operational Phase Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 4-4     Typical ISCST3 modelling result file, Industrial Emission Modelling for Operational and Decommissioning Phase Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 4-5     Worksheets showing Calculation of Dust Emission Rates, Decommissioning Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 4-6     Typical FDM Result File, Mitigated Maximum 1-hour TSP modelling, Decommissioning Phase Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 4-7     Typical CALINE4 Result Files, Decommissioning Phase Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-1     Spreadsheets showing breakdown of calculations, Operational Phase Fixed Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-2     Worst-Case 2004 Traffic Forecast, Operational Phase Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-3     Letter from Transport Department showing endorsement of the Traffic Forecast

Appendix 5-4     Existing direct at-source traffic noise mitigation measures implemented on Wan Po Road – Operational Phase Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-5     Detailed Traffic Noise Modelling Results, Operational Phase Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-6     Sample Calculations at 5 Assessment Points, Operational Phase Traffic Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 5-7     Further mitigated noise levels in the presence of the existing 4m high noise barrier along road edge future noise barrier along the Central Divider

Appendix 5-8     Spreadsheets showing breakdown of calculations, Decommissioning Phase Fixed Noise Impact Assessment

Appendix 6-1     Statement of Water Quality Objectives (Eastern Buffer Water Control Zone)

Appendix 6-2     Statement of Water Quality Objectives (Junk Bay Water Control Zone)

Appendix 6-3     Standard Sand Trap Design (CED Drawing No. GC 1034)

Appendix 7-1     Landfill Gas Monitoring Data obtained at the southern edge of SENT landfill near the Fill Bank Site

Appendix 7-2     Leachate Monitoring Data obtained at the southern edge of SENT landfill near the Fill Bank Site

Appendix 10-1   Implementation Schedule of recommended Environmental Mitigation Measures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1.               Introduction

1.1            Background

1.1.1        Construction and Demolition Material (C&D Material) is generated from civil engineering projects, roadworks, new building construction, demolition works, and building renovation.  The major portion of C&D Material consists of excavated earth, asphalt, building debris, broken rock and concrete.  These are inert material (i.e. do not decompose), do not cause bad smell, and are collectively referred to as “public fill”.  Public fill is reusable in reclamation and earth filling projects.  In 2000, the construction industry in the territory generated about 7.7 million cubic metres of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Material.  Of which, 6.1 million cubic metres of public fill was reused in reclamation projects.

1.1.2        It is the government policy to make beneficial use of public fill generated by the construction industry.  The beneficial use of public fill in reclamation and earth filling projects reduce the demand on general fill and help to conserve natural resources and avoid environmental impact from earth borrowing activities and marine sand extraction.  Relevant Technical Circulars (TC) have been issued by Works Bureau (WB) to promulgate the policy and as measures to maximise the reuse of public fill and minimise the incidences of illegal dumping. The WBTC No. 4/98 Use of Public Fill in Reclamation and Earth Filling Projects and WBTC No. 5/99 Trip-ticket System for Disposal of Construction and Demolition Material are presented in Appendix 1-1 for reference. 

1.1.3        The Public Fill Committee (PFC) is responsible for co-ordinating the provision and operation of public filling facilities, which include public filling areas, public filling barging points and public fill stockpiling areas.  The public filling facilities are operated to receive public fill from construction and demolition sites of Government/ Public Corporations’ contracts and private sectors.

1.1.4        At the planning stage of a Government public works contract, under the requirement of WBTC No. 5/99, the project officer is required to seek confirmation from the PFC through its Secretary as to whether public filling facilities would be available for the disposal of public fill generated.  The Secretariat of the Committee is provided by the Port Works Division of Civil Engineering Department (CED).  The PFC would designate the public filling facilities, if available, for the contract.  CED implements and manages public filling facilities and dumping licences in the territory. 

 

1.2            Urgent Demand on Public Filling Facilities

1.2.1        The reuse of public fill relies on programmes of reclamation and earth filling projects.  However, it is impracticable to perfectly match programmes of reclamation and earth filling works with public fill generated from the Construction Industry.  The consultancy study “Review of the Public Filling Strategy and Programme” commissioned by Civil Engineering Department (CED) completed in 1998 recommended that fill banks shall be established in the territory for temporary storage of public fill when the demand is low such that they can be effectively delivered for reuse when the demand is high.

1.2.2        The public filling capacity provided by the existing Category A reclamation projects including the public filling areas in Tseung Kwan O, Pak Shek Kok, Tung Chung Development Phase 3A, Jordan Road Reclamation Phase III and Tuen Mun Area 38 Reclamation Stage 2 will all be exhausted by October 2002.  Figure 1-1 shows the locations of these public filling areas and the existing short-term barging points around the territory. 

1.2.3        CED identified that the new reclamation projects such as North Tsing Yi reclamation and Reclamation for Yam O Public Transport Interchange planned to commence in 2002 through 2004 will not be able to absorb all public fill generated during the coming years.  It was also identified not practicable to further advance programme of other reclamation projects, taking into account the relevant statutory procedures, programme and contract requirements. 

1.2.4        It was identified that from late 2002 to 2005 there will be a significant shortfall in public filling capacity.  In April 2001, the Government put forward the proposal of establishing temporary fill banks for storage of public fill so that the material can be transported to reclamation (and earth filling) project sites for reuse as they commence.  The Government will also take all practical steps to ensure that the reclamation projects starting before 2005 will proceed under the planned programmes.

1.2.5        Area 137 at Tseung Kwan O (TKO), which has served as a public filling area, has been identified to be a suitable site for establishment of a temporary fill bank from late 2002 to end of 2004 after a site search process.  The fill bank will be able to accommodate a total quantity of approximately 6 million cubic metres (Mm3) of public fill.  Figure 1-2 shows the location of the subject site.

 

1.3            Project Design and Technical Assessments

1.3.1        The proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137 is planned and designed by in-house staff of Civil Engineering Department (CED).  Establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank will be carried out by a contractor under the supervision of CED.

1.3.2        CH2M HILL (China) Limited (CH2M), in association with MVA Hong Kong Limited (MVA) and ACL Asia Limited (ACLA), has been commissioned by CED on 23 November 2001 to undertake an Environmental and Traffic Impact Assessment Study for the proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137. 

1.3.3        The proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137 is a designated project by virtue of C.11 in Section C Reclamation, Hydraulic and Marine Facilities, Dredging and Dumping in Schedule 2, Part I of the EIA Ordinance.  C.11 specifies that a public dumping area of not less than 2 hectare in size is a designated project.  A project profile prepared and submitted by CED to Director of Environmental Protection (DEP) was displaced to the public for inspection from 18 August 2001 to 31 August 2001. DEP then issued an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Study Brief (No. ESB-083/2001) for carrying out of the EIA study.  The Project Profile and EIA Study Brief are given in Appendices 1-2 and 1-3, respectively. 

1.3.4        This EIA report is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the EIA Study Brief as well as the requirements laid down in the Technical Memorandum on EIA Process (EIAO-TM).  An Environmental Permit will only be issued by DEP for the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the project after gaining approval of the EIA Report from the Authority.

1.4            Objectives of the EIA Study

1.4.1        The main objective of this EIA study is to provide information on the nature and extent of the potential environmental impacts arising from the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the proposed fill bank development and related activities taking place concurrently.  This information will contribute to decisions by DEP on:

(i)            the overall acceptability of any adverse environmental consequences that are likely to arise as a result of the Project;

(ii)           the conditions and requirements for the detailed design, establishment, operation and decommissioning of the Project to mitigate against adverse environmental consequences wherever practicable; and

(iii)         the acceptability of residual impacts after implementation of the proposed mitigation measures.

1.4.2        The specific objectives of the EIA study for the fill bank at Tseung Kwan O Area 137 are as stated in Section 2.1 of the EIA Study Brief and consist of:

(i)               to describe the Project and associated works together with the requirements for carrying out the Project;

(ii)             to identify and describe the elements of the community and environment likely to be affected by the Project and/or likely to cause adverse impacts to the Project, including both the natural and man-made environment;

(iii)            to consider alternatives with a view to avoiding or minimizing the potential environmental impacts, to compare the environmental benefits and dis-benefits of each of the different options, to provide reasons for selecting the preferred option and to describe the part environmental factors played in the selection;

(iv)            to identify and quantify emission sources and determine the significance of impacts on sensitive receivers and potential affected uses;

(v)             to identify any potential water quality impacts on sensitive receivers during the establishment, operation and decommissioning stages;

(vi)            to identify and quantify any potential landscape and visual impacts and to propose measures to mitigate these impacts;

(vii)          to propose the provision of infrastructure or mitigation measures so as to minimize pollution, environmental disturbance and nuisance during establishment, operation and decommissioning of the Project;

(viii)         to investigate the feasibility, effectiveness and implications of the proposed mitigation measures;

(ix)            to identify, predict and evaluate the residual environmental impacts (i.e. after practicable mitigation) and the cumulative effects expected to arise during establishment, operation and decommissioning of the Project in relation to the sensitive receivers and potential affected uses;

(x)             to identify, assess and specify methods, measures and standards to be included in the detailed design, establishment, operation and decommissioning of the Project which are necessary to mitigate these environmental impacts and reduce them to acceptable levels;

(xi)            to investigate the extent of side-effects of the proposed mitigation measures that may lead to other forms of impacts;

(xii)           to identify constraints associated with the mitigation measures recommended in the EIA study, as well as provision of any necessary modification; and

(xiii)         to design and specify environmental monitoring and audit requirements, if required, to ensure effective implementation of the recommended environmental protection and pollution control measures.

 

1.5            Public Inputs

1.5.1        DEP has not received any inputs/ comments formally under the EIAO Process when the Project Profile was displaced to the public from 18 August 2001 to 31 August 2001.  Nevertheless, in view of the potential concern of the Sai Kung District Council members, a meeting was held between the Project Proponent and the Council on 7 September 2001 and subsequently on 9 April 2002.  The key environmental issues of interest raised by some members that are related to the EIA study are summarised below and reference to the relevant Sections of the EIA study are highlighted for ease of reference:


*    The Project Proponent should consider the orgins of the public fill material and the locations of the future reclamation sites in the selection of the best location for the proposed fill bank to prevent duplication of transportation trips in short time period – these factors have been considered in the site selection process and are presented in Section 2 of the report;

*    The Project Proponent should consider other possible site (e.g. the ex-Kai Tak Airport) in the selection of an appropriate location for establishment of the temporary fill bank – the site selection history is presented in Section 2 of the report.  The ex-Kai Tak Airport was not identified to be available from October 2002 to 2004 for the fill bank operation and subsequent decommissioning from 2005 to 2007 due to the planned developments under the South East Kowloon Development Scheme;

*    The Project Proponent should consider the use of barges in delivery of public fill to minimise the impact on the local traffic - In view of the key concern on potential traffic, traffic noise and vehicular emission impact, CED has planned to establish a barging facility at TKO Area 137.  Through the existing trip-ticket system, truckloads generated from Government/ Public Corporations’ contracts, except those generated within Tseung Kwan O, will be diverted away from Wan Po Road. This will be achieved through designating the planned public filling barging point at South East Kowloon (SEK) ex-Kai Tak Airport as the public fill tipping location.  As these contracts in Kowloon and part of the New Territories will account for half of the supply of public fill, this control measure will reduce the number of truckloads using Wan Po Road from an average of about 2,000 truckloads per day to an average of 1,000 truckloads per day.  This truckload volume would be below the average of about 1,200 truckloads per day encountered in the operation of the existing public filling area at TKO Area 137.

*    Potential air quality, noise, water quality and visual impact arising from the operation of the fill bank – these issues are addressed under Section 4, 5, 6 and 8 of this EIA report.  Summary of the assessment findings can be found in Section 11;

*    Strict control shall be in place to prevent any pollution problems during the transportation of fill material  - environmental control measures in respect of air quality, noise and water quality have been recommended and are presented in details in the relevant sections of the EIA report.  In brief, on the air quality side, only trucks with a valid dumping licence are allowed to use the proposed fill bank.  It is required under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation that trucks carrying dusty materials should be properly covered when they leave construction sites. Through the dumping licence requirements, CED will also require the truck drivers using the fill bank to have their dusty load covered with suitable impervious sheeting.  Otherwise, the truck drivers would be refused from using the fill bank.  During the decommissioning phase, the truck drivers will also be required to have their public fill load covered by suitable impervious sheeting before leaving the fill bank site.  Potential vehicular emission and traffic noise have been minimised by the provision of the planned Kai Tai barging point to share the truckloads on Wan Po Road.  Water quality control measures have been recommended to prevent potential water quality impact arising from the transportation of public fill by barges;

*    The fill material shall not contain asbestos or radioactive containing materials – The fill bank are designed for temporary storage of inert public fill and will not accept chemical wastes such as asbestos containing materials and radioactive wastes. Asbestos has been commonly used in the past by households for various purposes, including as fire protection material or insulation material for heat, sound, or electricity.  It is a requirement under the existing legislation that in all demolition works, asbestos containing materials have to be identified by a Registered Asbestos Consultant and removed by a Registered Asbestos Contractor before demolition works are permitted to take place.  The import, export, possession and handling of radioactive substance and irradiating apparatus in Hong Kong are governed by the Radiation Ordinance (Cap. 303) and are subject to licensing control. Small quantities of low-level radioactive waste are generated from the industry, medical and educational institutions in Hong Kong.  Such waste mainly comprises of smoke detector parts, rayon mantles for kerosene lanterns, luminous watch dials and hands, lightning protection conductor heads, and weakened radiation sources from hospitals and educational institutions.  Disposal of radioactive waste is subject to stringent control.  The wastes are properly packaged in containers of specified standard according to the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency and their storage at specified locations are subject to   stringent control and monitoring.  With these measures, the fill bank operation will unlikely generate any potential hazard associated with asbestos and radioactive containing materials.

*    Height and associated visual impact of the fill bank should be considered – these have been considered in the fill bank design and have been assessed in details in Section 8 Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment.

 

1.6            Structures of the EIA Report

1.6.1        This section describes the background, project needs, and objectives of the EIA study.  The site selection history, key environmental factors and design alternatives considered are reported in Section 2.  Section 3 describes the project, including the programme and key activities in the establishment, operation and decommissioning phases of the fill bank.  Sections 4 to 8 focus on each of the key environmental aspects, and present the assessment criteria, approach/ methodologies, findings, and where necessary, mitigation measures recommended.  Section 9 presents a summary on environmental outcomes.  The overall conclusion of the EIA study is presented in Section 11.

1.6.2        The content in Sections 1 through 11 are listed below:

    Section 1 Introduction – presents the background and explains the urgency of the project, the EIA and TIA study team members, objectives of the EIA Study, public inputs provided during the Project Profile inspection stage, and structures of the EIA report;

*    Section 2 Site Selection History and Design Alternatives Consideration – describes and compares the environmental impacts, environmental benefits and dis-benefits of the alternatives in respect of project sitting, design, establishment, operation and decommissioning methods with an aim to avoid, or minimise, the potential environmental impacts arising from the project;

 *   Section 3 Project Description – describes the site and its environs, project design in respect of fill bank heights, project timetable and phasing, key activities involved in the establishment, operation and decommissioning phases, and the “do-nothing” scenario;

 *   Section 4 Air Quality Impact Assessment – presents an impact assessment on air quality associated with the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank.  Potential dust impact and vehicular emission impacts were studied in details;

 *   Section 5 Noise Impact Assessment – presents an impact assessment on noise impact associated with the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank.  Construction noise, fixed noise and traffic noise impacts were studied in details;

 *   Section 6 Water Quality Impact Assessment – assesses the potential impact on the nearby water sensitive receivers during the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank.  The major sources of impact and mitigation measures required were identified;

 *   Section 7 Landfill Gas Hazard Assessment - assesses the potential hazard on the fill bank site from landfill gas/ leachate migration in the operation of the nearby SENT landfill;

 *   Section 8 Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment – assesses the potential landscape and visual impact arising from the fill bank and propose practicable mitigation measures accordingly;


*    Section 9 Summary of Environmental Outcomes – presents a summary on the environmental outcomes associated with the project;

*    Section 10 Environmental Monitoring and Audit and Implementation Schedule of Environmental Mitigation Measures – presents a summary on the key environmental monitoring and audit requirements recommended as detailed in the EM&A Manual, and present the Implementation Schedule of the recommended environmental mitigation measures;

 *   Section 11 Overall Conclusion – presents the assessment conclusion for each of the key environmental issues.

 


2.               Site Selection History and Design Alternatives Consideration

2.1.1        This section presents the site selection history and design alternatives considered with a target to avoid or minimise the potential environmental impacts arising from the proposed fill bank project in accordance with the requirements specified under Section 3.4 of the EIA Study Brief.

 

2.2            Site Selection History

Forecast on Shortfall of Public Filling Capacity

2.2.1        Table 2-1 presents a broad estimate on quantities of public fill generated in 2002 to 2004, and compares them with the overall available public filling capacities during the same years.  Efforts have been made to maximise the use of public fill in the committed reclamation projects.  The difference between the two set of figures give an estimate on the shortfall of public fill receiving capacity in the territory from late-2002 to 2004.

Table 21          Forecast Data on Public Fill Generation, Public Filling Capacity, and Shortfall in Public Fill Receiving Capacity from Years 2002 to 2004

Year

2002

2003

2004

Forecast on Public Fill generation (Mm3)

6.2

6.5

6.8

Forecast on Public Filling Capacity (Mm3)

4.4

1.6

2.0

Forecast on Shortfall in Public Fill Receiving Capacity (Mm3)

1.8

4.9

4.8

Total Shortfall in Public Receiving Capacity from 2002 to 2004 (Mm3)

11.5

 

2.2.2        It is expected that from 2003, there will be a number of reclamation projects ready for implementation and other long term measures being investigated, such as recycling and export, that might absorb the public fill temporarily stored at the proposed fill bank, as well as those generated direct from the construction and demolition industry during these years.  These planned reclamation projects include Penny’s Bay Reclamation Stage 2, South East Kowloon Development, Development in Tung Chung and Tai Ho Phase 3, Wanchai Development Phase II, Sham Tseng Development, etc.  The latest programme for accepting public fill in these reclamation project sites are summarised in Table 2-2 below.  Locations of these reclamation sites are illustrated in Figure 2-1.


Table 22          Reclamation sites currently planned to receive public fill

commencing from 2003 through 2005

Projects

Latest Programme for Public Fill Intake (Approx.)

 

 

Penny’s Bay Reclamation Stage 2

Mid-2003 to Mid- 2007

South East Kowloon Development

July 2004 to Dec. 2010

Development in Tung Chung and Tai Ho Phase 3

Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010

Wanchai Development Phase II

Early 2004 to End 2007

Central Reclamation Phase III

Feb. 2003 to June 2005

Sham Tseng Development

Aug. 2005 to July 2007

 

Site Selection

2.2.3        The sites for setting up the fill banks must be available from October 2002 to about 2007 to allow sufficient time for temporary stockpiling and subsequent removal of the stockpiled public fill, and of substantial size to allow the stockpiling of public fill that cannot be immediately reused in reclamation (or earth filling) projects generated from late 2002 through 2005. 

Initial Consideration

2.2.4        Based on the findings of the consultancy study “Review of the Public Filling Strategy and Programme” completed in 1998, establishment of a fill bank at Tan Kwai Tsuen Borrow Area and Tan Kwai Tsuen Quarry was first considered in the initial site search process.  Tan Kwai Tsuen Borrow Area and Tan Kwai Tsuen Quarry occupy an area of about 30.4 ha and 32.4 ha, respectively. Figure 2-2 shows the location of these sites.  Access to the sites would need to make use of either the local Hung Shun Road and Tan Kwai Tsuen Road from Castle Peak Road (Hung Shui Kiu section) followed by local access roads.  There are numerous indigenous villages with at grade village houses abutting the local roads in this area. The site is located away from the coast and will not allow access by barges.  There were identified problems associated with access to the site after further consideration of this section option which may not be surmountable.

 

Further Consideration

2.2.5        Truckload records on the public filling facilities operated in the territory in recent years provided the best available data for projection of likely geographical distribution for public fill arising from the construction industries.  The data suggests that Kowloon districts, Northeast New Territories, Tseung Kwan O and Sai Kung will account for about 70% of the public fill generated in Kowloon and New Territories.  It is therefore necessary to provide a public filling outlet in the Eastern region of the territory.

2.2.6        From a review of the location of the planned reclamation sites commencing from 2003 through 2005, location-wise, it is considered appropriate to set up a fill bank in both the Eastern and Western regions of the territory for temporary storage of public fill.  The candidate sites for establishing the fill banks must be:

    Of sufficient areas to accommodate the public fill that cannot be immediately reused in reclamation (or earth filling) projects generated from October 2002 to 2005.  Stockpiling of 6Mm3 fill material will require a site area up to 100 ha, taking into consideration of the slope stability, safety, environmental and engineering factors;

*    Strategically located to facilitate and encourage access by the public fill delivery truck drivers. The possible uses of both land-based and marine-based access routes are preferable to allow the truckloads be shared among the road carriageways leading to the fill banks and the public filling barging points.  Selecting a site near the coast is also preferable to make possible the effective delivery of stockpiled public fill to reclamation sites by barges without double handling by trucks during the decommissioning of the fill banks;

    Sufficient buffer shall be provided between the fill bank sites and the nearby sensitive receivers as far as practicable to avoid direct environmental impact due to dust and noise emissions and visual intrusion from the material stockpiling;

    The site must be available from October 2002 to 2007 to allow sufficient time for public fill intake and subsequent decommissioning of the fill bank. 

2.2.7        On the eastern side of the territory, sites with an area of about 100 hectares and that are available from 2002 to 2007 were identified to be rare.  The only available site was identified to be the subject site at Area 137 in Tseung Kwan O (TKO), which has an area of approximately 104 hectares.

2.2.8        An alternative site that meets the site area requirement for establishing the fill bank is the former Kai Tak Airport apron and runway which has a total area of 280 hectares.  Figure 2-3 shows the location of the former Kai Tak airport and its surrounding environs.

2.2.9        However, in terms of programme, the old airport site cannot be made available for establishment of the fill bank for operation and subsequent decommissioning in 2002 to 2007. Construction activities for longer-term development at the old airport under the South East Kowloon Development Scheme have long been planned.  Contaminated land remediation works have been taking place on this land, and after then, demolition of existing buildings and construction of new roads and drains will occupy the site from 2003.  Even the runway area has already been allocated for the temporary stockpiling of excavated fill material generated from Contract No. CV/2000/06 “Formation and Associated Infrastructure Works for Development at Choi Wan Road and Jordan Valley”, and would also be used for temporary storage of excavated material generated from “Development at Anderson Road” from September 2002 based on the latest programme. 

2.2.10     Comparing the likely environmental performance of the two alternative sites – TKO Area 137 and the old airport site, it was also considered that TKO Area 137 would have a better performance when used as a fill bank, given its remote location from most nearby sensitive receivers.  With the great distance separation for most sensitive receivers, direct noise and dust impact and visual intrusion associated with stockpiling activities for establishing the fill bank at TKO Area 137 would not be the concerns.  For the few sensitive receivers such as air sensitive receivers located within the TKO Industrial Estate (TKOIE), it was expected that the potential impact could be mitigated with practicable control measures. 

2.2.11     Table 2-3 presents a comparison of distance separation between TKO Area 137 (measured from its site boundary) and the nearby representative sensitive receivers against the old airport site’s situation.   


Table 23          Distance Separation between TKO Area 137 and nearby sensitive receivers in comparison with that of the old airport site

Sensitive Receiver

Distance from TKO Area 137, m (approx.)

Sensitive Receiver

Distance from former Kai Tak airport apron, m (approx.)

Oscar by the Sea

3220

37-39A, Sa Po Road

60

La Cité Noble

4020

Regal Kai Tak Hotel

75

Nan Fung Plaza

4140

Po Shing Court

85

On Ning Garden

4320

South Mansion

75

TVB Broadcast and Production Centre

100*

24-26, Kai Tak Road

75

Nearest planned residential developments and school in Area 86

1757

Nearest existing school

80

* As stated in Para. 10.2.4 in the Project Profile, in view of the proximity of the adjacent TVB Broadcast and Production Centre, a buffer zone of 100m would be allowed between the edge of the stockpile and the boundary of the production centre.

 

2.2.12     Both site options could pose potential environmental impact, if unmitigated, on the nearby air/ noise sensitive receivers in terms of traffic noise and vehicular emission impact generated from the vehicles using the fill bank.  Although both site options would allow the establishment of barging facilities to minimise the volume of cross district public fill delivery traffic, it is anticipated that this measure will be more effective for the TKO Area 137 site.  It is because the former Kai Tai Airport site is more centrally located in the territory than TKO Area 137 and hence be relatively more accessible to most public fill delivery trucks.  For access to Tseung Kwan O, a toll is payable for trucks using the Tseung Kwan O Tunnel which may likely discourage its use. 

2.2.13     Taking into account, as illustrated above, the requirements on site area, site availability, and location of the site in terms of accessibility, distance separation from nearby sensitive receivers, and surmoutability of the potential traffic noise and vehicular emission impact associated with land-based transportation of public fill, the newly reclaimed land at TKO Area 137 was selected by the Government for the establishment of a fill bank.  To ensure that the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank at TKO Area 137 will not pose any unacceptable traffic and environmental impact on the nearby sensitive receivers, the current EIA and TIA study was commissioned for assessing the impact and to identify required control/ mitigation measures.

2.2.14     The Government is considering the establishment of another fill bank at the western side of the territory in order to provide sufficient room for temporary stockpiling of the public fill material generated from years 2002 to 2005.  The available site currently under consideration is Area 38 in Tuen Mun.

2.2.15     Table 2-4 summarises the key related factors considered in the site selection history of the fill bank.

 


Table 24          Key Factors considered in the Site Selection Process

Establishment of Project Need:

·                  Large quantity of C&D Material is generated from the territory each year;

·                  A major portion of the C&D Material known as public fill is inert material and can be reused beneficially in reclamation/ earth filling projects;

·                  It was identified that between October 2002 and 2005 there will be a significant shortfall in public filling capacity (estimated to be approximately 11.5Mm3 up to end 2004);

·                  If fill banks are not established for the temporary storage of the public fill, the reusable material would have to be disposal of to landfills, thus occupying valuable and limited space at the strategic landfills reserved for disposal of municipal waste;

·                  The reuse of public fill in reclamation projects will reduce demand on general fill and contribute to conserve natural resources and environmental protection by avoiding unnecessary earth borrowing activities and marine sand extraction;

·                  Fill bank establishment represents the Government actions taken as part of the overall strategies in the management of C&D material in parallel with municipal waste in the territories.

 

Comparison of the Site Candidates:

Key Parameters/ Site Candidates

 

Tan Kwai Tsuen Borrow Area and Quarry

Former Kai Tak Airport Apron and Runway

TKO Area 137

Site Availability (from October 2002 to 2007)

P

O

P

Site Area (Minimum requirement is about 100 hectares*)

O

P

P

Site Accessibility (alternative marine access is present)

O

P

P

Proximity and accessibility to planned reclamation project sites

O

P

P

Sufficient buffer distance allowed between the site and the nearby sensitive receivers

O

O

P

Surmountability of environmental impact associated with onsite activities during establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank

P

P

PPP

Surmountability of environmental impact associated with land-based public fill transportation

P

PP

PPP

Selected Site for Establishment of the Public Fill Bank

TKO Area 137

* Assuming that a similar fill bank is also established in the western side of the territory to receive public fill;

P - meet demand (no. of ticks represents level of preference);

O - cannot meet demand.


2.3            Design Alternatives Consideration

Introduction

2.3.1        Section 3.4 of the EIA Study Brief states that the project proponent shall indicate in the EIA report that he has considered different alternatives and means in respect of design, establishment, operation and decommissioning methods in addition to appropriate site selection.  These considerations in the design process are demonstrated in this section.

 

Key Environmental Factors Consideration

2.3.2        The key environmental factors related to the design, establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank which have been identified in the design process include:

(i)               Air Quality Impact – the key interest is to minimise, as far as practicable, vehicular emission associated with land-based transportation of C&D Material by trucks via Wan Po Road as well as dust impact arising from the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank;

(ii)             Noise Impact – the key interest is on minimising traffic noise associated with land-based transportation of C&D Material by trucks via Wan Po Road;

(iii)            Water Quality Impact – the key interest is on minimising potential impact on Tung Lung Chau fish culture and other nearby sensitive receivers.  The design factors include the provision of sufficient buffer between the stockpiling area and the sea front, and provision of proper and sufficient drainage and water pollutants abatement systems.  Locating the planned C&D Material Sorting Facility (C&DMSF) at sufficient distance away from the waterfront, together with provision of water pollutants suppression system for the operation the C&DMSF and the public filling barging points are also important consideration.

(iv)           Waste Management – The dumping licence issued to lorry owners requires the public fill to be free from contaminants such as household refuse, plastic, etc. However, from the past experience of CED in the operation of public filling areas, it is anticipated that small quantity of degradable material would still be identified in the C&D material delivered to the fill bank.  The degradable material, referred to as C&D waste and sorted out onsite at the C&DMSF has to be disposed of to landfill.  The key interest is to minimise the traffic noise and air emissions associated with the regular transportation of C&D waste from the fill bank to a landfill for disposal;

(v)             Landscape and Visual Impact – the key interest is to adopt a design of the fill bank such that the stockpiling height is minimised as far as practicable, as well as retaining sufficient space along the perimeter of the site to allow provision of landscape and visual mitigation measures.  The stockpiling process in respect of allowing early and effective colour/ camouflage treatment to the sides of the fill bank to minimise visual impact is also important;

(vi)            Landfill Gas Hazard – the design focus is to avoid potential landfill gas accumulation and installation of underground facilities (i.e. pipelines) that may facilitate landfill gas migration;

2.3.3        Potential impact on ecology was avoided through proper site selection.  As TKO Area 137 was formed by reclamation, there are no recognised sites of conservation importance and important ecological habitats.  Besides, a buffer distance of at least 10m will be provided along the eastern boundary to separate the site from the western boundary of the Clear Water Bay Country Park.

2.3.4        As TKO Area 137 is a reclaimed land, there is no cultural heritage concern onsite.  Junk Island House Ruin on Fat Tong Chau is located to the north of the project site.  While there will not be any works associated with the establishment, operation and decommissioning of fill bank at Fat Tong Chau, a 2.4m high site fencing will be erected and maintained along the northern site boundary abutting Fat Tong Chau to avoid any accidental disturbance of the cultural heritage site by the workers.

2.3.5        Considerations on the key environmental factors identified above are further described below. 

 

Air Quality and Noise Impact

2.3.6        Direct air quality and noise impact from dust and noise emissions associated with stockpiling activities, loading/ unloading from/to trucks and barges, and truck movement on unpaved haul roads are minimised by locating the fill bank at a remote area away from most air/ noise sensitive receivers as far as practicable.  The boundary of the fill bank is situated at more than 3km from the nearest existing residential development (Oscar By the Sea).  Planned residential uses such as the Comprehensive Development Area (CDA) in Area 86 is also situated at more than 1.6 km from the boundary of the fill bank.  Potential vehicular and traffic noise impact associated with land-based transport of public fill for air/ noise sensitive receivers located along Wan Po Road would be minimised by establishment marine-based transport facility.

2.3.7        Potential air quality impact on TVB Broadcast and Production Centre and industrial undertakings located within TKO Industrial Estate situated to the north of the fill bank is minimised through providing at least a 100m wide buffer zone between the edge of the fill bank stockpiling area and the boundary of the Broadcast and Production Centre.  In accordance with the recommendations on minimum buffer distance given in the “Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines Chapter 9 Environment”, the provision of a 100 buffer distance between dusty uses and air sensitive receivers should be sufficient.  To further minimise potential dust impact from the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank, sufficient dust control/ mitigation measures will be implemented (details will be described in the Air Quality Assessment Section in the EIA report).

2.3.8        By locating the proposed fill bank at the coast and the provision of barging facilities onsite at TKO Area 137, marine-based transport of public fill to the site is also made possible in addition to direct land-based transport.  The environmental benefits in relation to air quality and noise aspects are as follows: 

    Land-based truck traffic to TKO and associated vehicular emission and traffic noise impact can be substantially minimised – by allowing the continuous operation of the two barging facilities at Sai Ying Pun and Quarry Bay on the Hong Kong Island, and provision of an additional barging facility in the Kowloon region (at the former Kai Tak airport runway), amount of cross district public fill traffic can be minimised;

    Maximised use of marine-based transportation of public fill for reuse during the decommissioning phase – During the decommissioning period from 2004 to 2007, it was estimated that about 90% of the stockpiled material could be delivered offsite by barges, leaving only 10% to be handled by land-based truck traffic i.e. the potential traffic noise and air emission impact can be further minimised during the decommissioning phase.  Use of marine based transportation of fill material can also avoid double handling of fill material by trucks by allowing the direct bottom placement of public fill by appropriately designed barges at reclamation sites under control;

    Allow direct transportation of the stockpiled fill material for reclamation projects planned on outlying islands - the presence of marine access will also allow the direct transportation of public fill to areas that are not accessible by trucks.  This will avoid the need to transport the fill material to a barging point in other districts first (and generate traffic noise and emission impact) before subsequent delivery by barges.

2.3.9        Marine-based transportation of public fill to TKO Area 137, and mechanism to minimise land-based transportation of public fill by trucks will be considered in details in the EIA study. 

 

Water Quality Impact

2.3.10     To avoid potential water quality impact from the establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank, the following design considerations were considered:

(i)               Maximise the distance separation of potential water pollution sources including the stockpiles and C&DMSF from the waterfront as far as practicable to allow the buffer zone to act as an infiltration ground;

(ii)             Use of existing and new drainage channels to be constructed at the perimeter of the site to retain water pollutants in surface runoff through provision and maintenance of silt traps and oil traps.

2.3.11     Practicable location for establishing the onsite C&DMSF has to take into consideration the area reserved for the stockpiling of fill material. Potential water quality impact arising from the operation of the barging facilities and C&DMSF can be alleviated through implementation of standard water pollution control measures in the same way as other similar facilities.

 

Waste Management

2.3.12     Potential secondary environmental impact associated with the transportation of C&D waste from the C&DMSF to the landfill is minimised through selecting the TKO Area 137 site for establishing the fill bank.  The site is located right next to SENT landfill.  Trucks travelling distance for handling of C&D wastes can be minimised and potential air quality and noise impact from the truck traffic on most sensitive receivers can be avoided.

 

Landscape and Visual Impact

2.3.13     The zone of visual influence will be largely contained to the north and east by Fat Tong Chau (Junk Island) and the headland of Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  However, the works will be visible to residential developments in TKO to the north through the gap between Fat Tong Chau and the Peninsula, and will also be visible from Clear Water Bay Country Club and Tai Miu Wan (Joss House bay) to the east through the gap between the Clearwater Bay Peninsula and Tit Cham Chau. The Zone of Visual Influence will extend more widely to the west and south, as the works will be visible along the coast of Hong Kong Island from Heng Fa Chuen and Lei Yue Mun Gap in the west, to Shek O in the south. 

2.3.14     The potential Visually Sensitive Receivers (VSRs) of interest are identified to include:

    Existing and planned residential developments along the north-east coast of Hong Kong island, particularly at Siu Sai Wan which is closest to Area 137 – the closest developments include Island Resort and Fullview Garden;

    Planned residential developments in Tseung Kwan O at Area 86 (Dream City) and Area 85;

    Planned TVB Broadcast and Production Centre; and

    Clearwater Bay Country Club;

    Hillwalkers in Clearwater Bay Country park, in particular along the High Junk Peak Country Trail and Shek O Country Park; and

    Leisure boat traffic in Lam Tong Hoi Hap (Tathong Channel)

2.3.15     Significant visual impact from the operation of the fill bank was avoided by limiting the maximum height of the fill bank to about +35.2mPD, which is less than the maximum height of the nearby local terrain i.e. 603mPD at the western end of Clear Water Bay Country Park and about 100mPD at Fat Tong Chau.

 

Landfill Gas Hazard

2.3.16     Underground utilities such as drainage and sewerage systems are avoided in the design of the fill bank. Facilities such as the contractor’s and resident supervising staff’s site offices that may be relatively more sensitive to landfill gas migration due to their enclosed nature are planned to be located outside the 250m consultation zone of the SENT landfill as far as practicable.  For those facilities which inevitably have to be located within the consultation zone (e.g. the site entrance office), practicable landfill gas protection measures will be provided.  The site entrance office can be supported by raised platform to avoid accumulation of landfill gas.


3.               Project Description

3.1            The Subject Site and its Environs

3.1.1        Area 137 is located at the southern side of Tseung Kwan O.  The site will occupy an area of approximately 104 hectares upon completion of the on-going reclamation works at the northern side of the site by end of 2003.  The reclamation site has served as a public filling area since January 1997 to receive public fill generated from the construction industry.  Location of the site is shown in Figure 1-2. 

3.1.2        Existing landuses in TKO located within 3 km of the site are all of industrial nature.  TKO Industrial Estate, Fat Tong Chau (Junk Island) and SENT landfill are located to the north of the site.  To the east of the site is the hillside along the eastern boundary of Clear Water Bay Country Park.  TVB Broadcast and Production Centre is located adjacent to the northern boundary of the site.

3.1.3        Existing residential developments and schools are all located at further distances from the site.  The nearest existing residential development, Oscar By The Sea (OBS), is located at some 3.2km from the boundary of the site.  Planned residential developments in Area 85 and Area 86 are also located at more than 1.5km and 2.0km from the site, respectively.  The first phase of these planned developments are not anticipated to have population intake until 2006 according to information provided by Planning Department.

3.1.4        Tseung Kwan O Tunnel is the existing strategic route linking TKO with the Kowloon districts.  To the east of the TKO Tunnel lies the TKO Tunnel Road and Wan Po Road which is the most direct access to the site at TKO Area 137.  Po Lam Road is the other connection between TKO and Kowloon.  However, it is a less direct route and lower standard route than Tseung Kwan O Tunnel.  Po Lam Road is a single carriageway of three lanes along most of its length, with various sections of four lanes, in particular at junction approaches.  Hang Hau Road provides a convenient access from Tseung Kwan O to Sai Kung and Clear Water Bay.  It is a local distributor with one lane in each direction.

3.1.5        Figure 3-1 shows the area situated within 300m or 500m radius of the site boundary as well as some representative uses along Wan Po Road.

3.1.6        The major committed transport infrastructure in TKO is the MTR Tseung Kwan O Extension, which is scheduled to be operational in September 2002.  The MTR provides an alternative mode of transport to/ from the Kowloon districts and within TKO for the TKO population.  The Government has also planned the Cross Bay Link and Western Coast Road which will become an alternative major access route to/ from the area.

 


3.2            Project Design

Establishment, Operation and Decommissioning Programme

3.2.1        Figure 3-2 presents a preliminary programme for the establishment, operation and decommissioning phases of the fill bank. 

3.2.2        Mobilisation and establishment works are planned to commence in early October 2002 to prepare for intake of public fill.  Public fill intake would commence in mid October 2002 for stockpiling activities (Phase 1) to commence at the southern side of the site.  The remaining works of the Contract CV/97/01 “TKO Port Development at Area 137 Stage 2 – Construction of Seawalls and Reclamation” would be completed by end of 2003 for stockpiling activities (Phase 2) to also proceed at the northern side of the site from January 2004. 

3.2.3        TKO Area 137 has been planned for longer-term industrial uses commencing from mid/late 2007 under the latest programme.  To allow sufficient time for removal of stockpiled material for long term development in TKO Area 137, decommissioning of the fill bank is planned to start early in January 2004 beginning on the northern side of the site.  Early removal of the public fill would also be beneficial in providing a steady and reliable supply of sorted fill material to meet required quality to meet the programme of those reclamation projects that have commenced from 2004.  A minimum area of approximately 55 hectares of land at the northern side of the site would be cleared by September 2005 to allow infrastructure works to commence to prepare for the future industrial uses from mid/ late 2007 in TKO Area 137 planned under the latest programme.

 

Establishment Phase

3.2.4        The establishment phase will involve minor activities as the reclamation site/ public filling area has been established for similar activities.  Existing site offices have been established at the northern tip of the site, wheel washing facilities are installed at the site exits, and temporary trapezoidal drainage channels have been installed at the perimeter of the reclaimed land within which surcharge mounds are stockpiled to enhance the soil consolidation process on the reclaimed land.  The works during the establishment phase will mainly involve site clearance activities, fabrication of machinery for the Construction and Demolition Material Sorting Facility (C&DMSF) and steel structures for the barging point, and realignment of the existing trapezoidal drainage channels to fit the fill bank design as the stockpiling works proceed for controlling potential water quality impact during the public fill stockpiling activities which will commence from the southern side of the site. 

 

Operational Phase

Fill Bank Design

3.2.5        Figure 3-3 presents a general layout of the existing reclaimed land.  Figure 3-4 presents the preliminary design of the fill bank showing the stockpiling area, representative fill bank profile when it is fully completed, location of the barging facility and C&DMSF and alignment of the temporary stormwater drainage system to be constructed/ modified from the existing trapezoidal drainage channels along the perimeter of the site. Figure 3-5 presents a representative profile of the fill bank when it is about half completed occupying the southern part of the site.  Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7 show the corresponding north-south cross section of the fill bank when it is fully and half completed, respectively.  Figure 3-8 and Figure 3-9 present the preliminary design of the C&DMSF and barging facility, respectively. 

3.2.6        To accommodate a total quantity of 6 Mm3 public fill, the fill bank would need to be filled up to a maximum height of approximately +35mPD (i.e. about 30m above ground). The fill bank will be constructed platform-by-platform, with compaction and application of adequate load on required areas.  The lateral pressure induced and the slope stability and other engineering factors have been carefully considered by CED in the detailed design of the fill bank profile and the implementation will be closely monitored by CED. Measures including the provision of temporary intercepting drains, hydroseeding, coloured geo-textile matting and/or water spraying would be applied for slope protection and reduction of dust emissions.  The layout of the temporary intercepting drains at the stockpiling area could be altered from time to time to suit the stockpiling sequence to effectively divert stormwater collected to the trapezoidal channels provided along the perimeter of the fill bank.

3.2.7        In view of the proximity of the adjacent TVB Broadcast and Production Centre, a buffer zone of 100m would be allowed between the edge of the stockpile and the boundary of the production centre.  Within this buffer zone, no dusty material would be stockpiled and no loading/ unloading and similar activities should be allowed.  In addition, the slope surface of the stockpile facing the production centre will be protected to minimise any dust impact.  A buffer will also be provided between the stockpiling area and the coastline along the eastern and southern side of the site, and between the stockpiling area and the slope along the eastern boundary of the Clear Water Bay Country Park. 

3.2.8        Capacity of the fill bank would be available in phases.  The fill bank will receive public fill at the southern part of the site commencing from mid October 2002.  From October 2002 to December 2003 the available public fill stockpiling capacity will be limited to about 2Mm3 at the southern part of the site.  Upon the completion of the ongoing reclamation works in end of 2003, the northern portion of the site will also be made available for stockpiling of an additional quantity of 4Mm3 public fill. 

3.2.9        The C&DMSF will occupy a site area of about 2 hectares on the eastern side of the site. A minimum buffer distance of 20m will be maintained between the C&DMSF and the waterfront.  Oversized C&D materials received at the fill bank by trucks or barges will be broken down into specified size range.  Imported materials that do not require sorting (i.e. the materials are already sorted at the origins) could be directly delivered to the stockpiling area after checking.  Oversized material will be broken down into specified size ranges.  Limited quantity of C&D waste separated from the public fill will be delivered offsite to the nearby SENT landfill on a daily basis for disposal.

 

Fill Bank Operating Hours

3.2.10     The proposed fill bank will be open to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. daily except during the Chinese New Year holidays, which is the same the operation hours of the public filling area operated at TKO Area 137. This will provide a convenient outlet of public fill for the construction industry and is considered as an important measure to minimise the disposal of reusable fill material to landfill or illegal dumping.  The barging point and the C&DMSF will be closed from 7:00p.m. to 8:00 a.m. daily and will prevent potential visual impact on sensitive receivers from glare. 

 

Truckload Distribution by Time

3.2.11     Based on the truckload records in the operation of the public filling area at TKO Area 137 provided by CED, the truckload distribution by time for the operating hours in the operation from January to December 2001 has been reviewed by the traffic consultant.  As this distribution has demonstrated consistency with records from past years, it is expected that the daily vehicle arrival pattern at the proposed fill bank at the same site will be largely similar in the future operation of the proposed fill bank. 

 


Table 31          Fill Bank Traffic Distribution by Time

Time (hr)

Percentage of Daily Truckloads

0800 to 0900

6

0900 to 1000

10

1000 to 1100

12

1100 to 1200

16

1300 to 1400

9

1400 to 1500

12

1500 to 1600

11

1600 to 1700

10

1700 to 1800

8

1800 to 1900

4

1900 to 2000

2

2000 to 2100

< 0.5

Total

100

 

From these data, it is expected that the vehicle flows before 9:00a.m. and after 6:00 p.m. in the operation of the fill bank would be low.  These data is consistent with the anticipated working practice of the construction industry. 

 

Truckloads Estimation

3.2.12     In year 2000, the public filling facilities operated in the territory receiving public fill were located in Tseung Kwan O, Tuen Mun, Pak Shek Kok, Quarry Bay, Sai Ying Pun, Tung Chung and Mui Wo.  The total truckloads of public fill received at these facilities were 944,962 during the year.  Of which, the barging points at Quarry Bay and Sai Ying Pun and the public filling area at Tuen Mun accounted for a total of 266,469 truckloads.  The remaining 678,493 truckloads were mainly handled by Pak Shek Kok and TKO Area 137.  With the closure of Pak Shek Kok in mid 2002, it is reasonable to assume that this number of truckloads would need to make use of the proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137 as the public fill outlet from 2002 to 2004.  Taking 360 operating days per year, the average daily truckloads are calculated to be 1,885 vehicles/day. A similar review indicated that the total truckloads in 2001 were 1,011,826.  Of which, the Sai Ying Pun barging point, Quarry Bay barging point and Tuen Mun public filling area received 319,789 truckloads.  The remaining truckloads were 692,037. Therefore, based on the 2001 data, the average daily truckloads using the proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137 can be estimated to be 1,923 vehicles/day.

3.2.13     With the above data, it is considered conservative to assume that there will be an average of about 2,000 truckloads per day using the proposed fill bank from 2002 to 2004. 

 

Public Fill Intake by Barges

3.2.14     Results from a joint survey undertaken by CED and EPD between September 1999 and January 2000 revealed that inert C&D material generated from Government/ Public Corporations’ contracts generally constitute about half of the total inert C&D material produced.  The findings are in line with that of the survey conducted as part of the CED’s study “Review of the Public Filling Strategy and Programme” (Mouchel, 1998).

 


3.2.15     To minimise the potential traffic and environmental impact associated with the public fill delivery trucks going in and out of the proposed fill bank using Wan Po Road, a barging facility will be established onsite to allow public fill intake by barges as an alternative route to land-based transportation of public fill via Wan Po Road.  Through the trip-ticket system, truckloads generated from Government/ Public Corporations’ contracts, except those generated within Tseung Kwan O which are expected to be limited, will be diverted away from Wan Po Road.  This will be achieved through designating the planned public filling barging point at South East Kowloon (SEK) ex-Kai Tak Airport as the public fill tipping location.  As these contracts in Kowloon and part of the New Territories will account for half of the supply of public fill, this control measure will reduce the number of truckloads using Wan Po Road from an average of about 2,000 truckloads per day to an average of 1,000 truckloads per day.  This truckload volume would be below the average of about 1,200 truckloads per day encountered in the operation of the existing public filling area at TKO Area 137.

3.2.16     As presented in Section 3 and Section 4, taking into account possible daily fluctuation in truckloads due to, for example, expedition of certain site formation works after wet season, in the assessment of potential air quality and noise impact associated with the public fill delivery trucks using the fill bank, a maximum daily truckload of 1,500 vehicles/day, or a maximum hourly truckloads of 240 per hour during the fill bank peak, has been adopted in the study as a conservative approach.   

 

Decommissioning Phase

3.2.17     Activities carried out during the decommissioning phase will be the reverse of the operational phase.  Stockpiled materials will be removed commencing from the northern side of the fill bank to the southern end for delivery to reclamation sites mainly by barges for reuse.  To minimise the potential cumulative environmental impact arising from the public fill delivery traffic, all public fill removed from the fill bank will be by barges during the period when decommissioning overlap with the operational phase (i.e. from January 2004 to December 2004).

3.2.18     During the overlapping period of the operation and decommissioning phases (from about January 2004 to December 2004), to avoid double handling, incoming trucks containing public fill that meets the specified technical requirements and quality will be directed to the barging point for transportation to reclamation sites without sorting/ stockpiling.  Therefore, depending on the public fill demand at the reclamation sites in 2004 and the incoming rate of C&D material, public fill storage at the fill bank may gradually build up and reach the maximum capacity of 6 Mm3 under the worst-case situation in December 2004.  The fill bank will not receive further fill material by trucks or barges commencing from January 2005.

3.2.19     Between January 2005 to December 2007, use of barges in delivery of stockpiled public fill will also be maximised but a land-based route will be retained to allow the effective delivery of fill material to land-based project sites (e.g. earth filling project sites) and to nearby construction sites in the area where public fill are demanded.  This will avoid double handling of the material by barges and trucks offsite.  At least 90% of stockpiled public fill is going to be transported off the site by barges, leaving only 10% of material to be transported by trucks.  The maximum public fill delivery truckloads of the fill bank will be controlled to 200 vehicles/day and 30 vehicles/hour during the decommissioning phase through agreeing the public fill dispatch rate by trucks with the users of the public fill.

 


3.3            Do-Nothing Scenario 

3.3.1        All existing public filling areas operated in Tseung Kwan O, Pak Shek Kok, Tung Chung Development Phase 3A, Jordan Road Reclamation phase III and Tuen Mun Area 38 Reclamation Stage 2 (except for the ongoing reclamation works in TKO Area 137 which may receive further public fill) would be exhausted by October 2002.  The new reclamation projects planned in 2002 through 2003 will not be able to absorb all public fill and it is expected that there will be a significant shortfall in the public fill receiving capacity.  Without the proposed fill bank at TKO Area 137 (i.e. the Do-Nothing Scenario), the large quantity of reusable public fill generated by the construction industry may need to be disposed of to landfills.  As one of the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong, it is inevitable that additional truck traffic would be generated on Wan Po Road in the delivery of the C&D material to the landfill.  More important environmental concerns would be associated with the handling and disposal of biodegradable, non-inert municipal waste under the scenario of very much reduced lifespan of the three landfills when the expensive landfill spaces were extensively used for the disposal of inert C&D material.

 


4.               Air Quality Impact Assessment

4.1            Introduction

4.1.1        This section presents an air quality impact assessment for the establishment, operation and decommissioning phases of the proposed temporary fill bank at TKO Area 137.

4.1.2        Preparation of the site for the fill bank operation will not require major construction activities.  Existing site offices have been established at the northern tip of the site, and temporary drainage channels have been installed at the perimeter of the newly reclaimed land under CED’s Contract “CV/97/01 Tseung Kwan O Port Development at Area 137 Stage 2 – Construction of Seawalls and Reclamation”.  Site clearance activities, erection of the Construction and Demolition Material Sorting Facility (C&DMSF), site offices, site fencing, etc. will only require some minor earthmoving and excavation activities.  The establishment phase is planned to commence in early October 2002.

4.1.3        Operational phase of the fill bank will involve transportation of public fill to the fill bank by trucks and barges; loading and unloading activities; sorting of C&D material, crushing and sorting of over-sized materials at the C&DMSF; stockpiling of public fill at the fill bank.  Significant dust emission could be generated from these onsite activities, if unmitigated.  Besides, potential offsite air quality impact on Air Sensitive Receivers (ASRs) along Wan Po Road could result from vehicular emissions associated with the public fill delivery trucks.  The operation phase is planned to take place from mid October 2002 to December 2004.  A total quantity of approximately 6 million cubic metres of public fill will be stockpiled.

4.1.4        Decommissioning of the fill bank will involve removal of the stockpiled material from the fill bank for transportation to reclamation sites as they commence.  Dust would be generated from excavation activities, handling and loading of public fill to barges and trucks.  The decommissioning phase is planned to take place from January 2004 to December 2007.  In 2004, the decommissioning phase will overlap with the operational phase but removal of any stockpiled public fill will all by means of barges.

4.1.5        The assessment covers an area within 500m radius of the project site as for most local scale EIA studies, but have also been extended to include other ASRs located along Wan Po Road in accordance with the requirements of the EIA Study Brief (Section 3.5.1.2 refers).  Figure 4-1 shows the area covered within 500m radius of the project site and ASRs along Wan Po Road. 

 

4.2            Assessment Criteria

4.2.1        The principal legislation regulating air quality in Hong Kong is the Air Pollution Control Ordinance (APCO) (Cap. 311).  Air Quality Objectives (AQOs) are set for the whole territory which specify statutory concentration limits for various criteria pollutants and the maximum numbers of times allowed to exceed over a specified period of time.  The AQOs for Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) and Respirable Suspended Particulates (RSP), which are relevant to the assessments, are summarised in Table 4-1.


Table 41          Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (AQOs)

Pollutant

Pollutants Concentration (mg/m3)

 

Averaging Time

 

1 hour (i)

8 hours (ii)

24 hours (ii)

1 year (iii)

CO

30,000

10,000

N.A.

N.A.

NO2

300

N.A.

150

80

TSP

N.A.

N.A.

260

80

RSP

N.A.

N.A.

180

55

   (i)         Not to be exceeded more than 3 times per year;

   (ii)        Not to be exceeded more than once per year;

   (iii)       Arithmetic means;

   N.B.     Concentrations measured at 298 K and 101.325 kPa (one atmospheric pressure).

 

4.2.2        In addition to the AQOs, EPD requires under Annex 4 in the Technical Memorandum on EIA Process (EIAO-TM) issued under the EIA Ordinance an hourly TSP limit of 500mg/m3 for construction dust impact assessment.

4.2.3        The Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation came into effect since 16 June 1997.  Stockpiling of dusty materials; loading, unloading or transfer of dusty materials; transfer of dusty materials using a belt conveyor system; use of vehicles; debris handling, excavation or earth moving, and site clearance, etc. are classified as “Regulatory Work” under the Regulation.    A Schedule, which specifies dust control requirements for a variety of construction activities, is included in the Regulation.  The contractor carrying out a Regulatory Work is required under the Regulation to ensure that the dust control measures required under the Regulation are being implemented.

 

4.3            Study Area and Air Sensitive Receivers

4.3.1        TKO Area 137 located at the southern end of Wan Po Road is a topographically flat site.  Located along Wan Po Road include industrial uses (e.g. SENT landfill and TKO Industrial Estate, etc.) in the southern side and residential developments (e.g. Nan Fung Plaza, On Ning Garden, etc.)  in the northern side of the road. 

4.3.2        Representative ASRs situated within the study area and along Wan Po Road have been identified according to the criteria set out in Annex 12 of EIAO-TM through site inspection and review of relevant landuse plans and programme of property development in the study area obtained through liaison with Planning Department.  Under the EIAO-TM, domestic premises, hotel, hostel, hospital, clinic, nursery, temporary housing accommodation, school, education institution, office, factory, shop, shopping centre, place of public worship, library, court of law, supports stadium or performing arts centre are classified as ASRs.

4.3.3        The ASRs of interest during the establishment, operation and/or decommissioning phases of the fill bank are summarised in Table 4-2.  Distance of the ASRs from the boundary of the fill bank is also shown in Table 4-2.  It can be noted from these figures that most of the ASRs are located at substantial distances away from the fill bank.  For planned developments, the ASRs of interest were identified by a comparison of the programme for establishment, operation and decommissioning of the fill bank against the latest information on the implementation programme of the planned developments. 

4.3.4        A number of Representative Assessment Points (RAPs – A1 through A18) have been selected to represent the identified ASRs.   With dust emissions from the fill bank site and emissions of criteria pollutants from public fill delivery trucks as the key study focus, the rationale of the assessments was to select the worst affected RAPs located nearest to the fill bank site or along Wan Po Road.  Compliance of the AQOs at these RAP located closest to the emission sources (i.e. the fill bank/ Wan Po Road) will reveal that the potential air quality impact at ASRs situated at further distance away from the sources will also be within acceptable levels.  Locations of the RAPs are shown in Figure 4-2.

Table 42          Air Sensitive Receivers located within the 500m Study Area and along Wan Po Road

RAP

Location of ASR

Distance from boundary of

P Represents Presence of ASRs

 

 

fill bank* (Approximate)

Establish-ment

Operation

Decommiss-ioning

ASR located outside 500m radius of the fill bank site but along Wan Po Road

A1, A2

On Ning Garden

4.3 km

P

P

P

A3

Fung Ching Memorial Primary School

4.2 km

P

P

P

A4

Nan Fung Plaza

4.2 km

P

P

P

A5

Leung Sing Tak Primary School

4.1 km

P

P

P

A6

La Cité Noble and Maritime Bay

4.0 km

P

P

P

A7, A8

Oscar By the Sea in Area 51

3.2 km

P

P

P

A9

Wong’s Circuits (PTH) Ltd.**

1.4 km

P

P

P

A15

Two Planned Schools in Area 50***

3.3 km

 

 

P

A16

Planned School & Residential Development in Area 85***

2.0 km

 

 

P

A17, A18

Planned Residential Development and RTHK Site in Area 86***

1.5 km

 

 

P

ASR located within 500m radius of the fill bank site

A10

Yang Hing Industrial Building

437m

P

P

P

A11 to A13

 

 

Planned TVB Broadcast and Production Centre

100m****

P

P

P

HAECO Component Overhaul Building

272m

P

P

P

A14

Exhibition Services & Logistics Centre

493m

P

P

P

*   Shortest distance between the ASR and the fill bank boundary;

** Selected RAP location which also represents other existing/ planned industrial uses along Wan Po Road at more than 500m from the fill bank boundary;

*** Initial Phase of residential and school developments at Area 86 and Area 85 would not be completed until 2006 according to information provided by Planning Department;

**** As stated in Para. 10.2.4 in the Project Profile, in view of the proximity of the adjacent TVB Broadcast and Production Centre, a buffer zone of 100m would be allowed between the edge of the stockpile and the boundary of the production centre.

 

 


4.4            Baseline Air Quality

4.4.1        Existing emission sources affecting the air quality within the study area are expected to be primarily open road traffic emissions from major road carriageways.  Other emission sources are located at the southern side of Wan Po Road which include SENT landfill, industrial undertakings at TKO Industrial Estate (TKOIE), and reclamation works at TKO Area 137 which would be completed by end of 2003.

4.4.2        Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation (HKSTPC) has advised that the maximum allowable daily diesel consumption within the TKOIE is 56.6m3/day.  Currently, Hong Kong Aero Engine Services Co. Ltd. (HAECO) located at the southern side of the estate is the only diesel fuel user within the estate.  HAECO is allowed a maximum of 4m3 of fossil fuel (0.5% sulphur content) per day.  Existing and future industrial uses are encouraged by HKSTPC to use cleaner fuel (e.g. town gas) instead of diesel fuel in their daily operation as far as practicable.

4.4.3        Quantitative assessment of air quality impact requires consideration of the background air pollutant contribution.  Environmental Protection Department (EPD) operates a network of Air Quality Monitoring Stations around the territory for urban areas, industrial areas and rural/ new development areas but none of these existing stations is located within the study area.  Air quality data monitored at EPD’s monitoring station in Junk Bay were available up to year 1992 only when the area was not yet fully developed into a new town. 

4.4.4        With the rapid development of the TKO District in recent years, it is considered that the air quality in the study area would be similar to other urbanised areas in the territory.  Table 4-3 presents the long-term (5-year) averages of the most recent monitored air quality data obtained by EPD at a number of urban areas, including Sham Shui Po, Central/ Western, and Kwun Tong.  Air quality measured in Kwun Tong district would more represents a mixed residential/ industrial area.  The air quality data obtained in Junk Bay in 1992 are also presented in the table for comparison.  Based on the background air quality estimation approach presented in EPD’s “Guidelines on Assessment the “TOTAL” Air Quality Impacts”, it is considered that the average of these long-term air quality monitoring data obtained at urban areas can give a sufficiently conservative estimation of the background air quality in the study area.

4.4.5        As a prudent approach to the study, in addition to the “monitoring-based” background air quality data, secondary contributions of air pollutant emissions from the key pollution sources - including background vehicular emissions and aerial industrial emissions from the TKOIE covering a vast area along the full length (approximately 4950m) of Wan Po Road have been incorporated in the air quality model so that the potential cumulative air quality impact could be conservatively quantified for comparison with the AQOs.

 


Table 43          Long-term Average (1996 to 2000) Air Quality Data obtained at EPD’s Air Quality Monitoring Stations at Sham Shui Po, Central/ Western and Kwun Tong

Air Pollutant

Long-term (years 1996 to 2000) Average Air Pollutant Concentrations (mg/m3)

Average Air Pollutant

Con. (mg/m3) – assumed

Average pollutant Con. obtained in

 

Kwun Tong

Sham Shui Po

Central/ Western

background conc. in the study area

Junk Bay in 1992 (for comparison)

SO2

17

18

17

17

11

NO2

71

65

53

63

24

CO

N/A

N/A

N/A

1110*

N/A

TSP

88

89

80

86

77

RSP

54

55

52

54

44

* As CO was not monitored at Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po and Central/ Western, the long-term average concentration monitored at Mong Kok was adopted to represent the background CO concentration in the study area.

 

4.5            Establishment Phase

4.5.1        Establishment phase of the fill bank is planned to commence in early October 2002. It will involve primarily site clearance, setting up of the C&DMSF, barging facility, site offices and installation of planned environmental control measures, including:

    Erection of site hoarding of at least 2.4m high (from ground level) along the northern side of the site boundary except at the site entrance/exit location;

    Installation of vehicle wheel washing facilities including a high pressure water jet provided at designated vehicle exit points;

*    Paving the designated main haul roads with concrete, bituminous materials, hardcores or metal plates

4.5.2        For the fill bank operation, the C&DMSF to be established will also be enclosed in a shelter and equipped with proper dust filtration system (e.g. bag filters).  The C&DMSF shall be designed to facilitate the loading of fill material from public fill delivery trucks and with minimised drop height.  Buffer storage areas at the C&DMSF shall be enclosed at least on three sides. 

4.5.3        Transportation of limited construction equipment, fabrication of machinery for the C&DMSF and barging facility, and installation of the environmental control measures listed above are not expected to give rise to any significant air quality impact.  Site clearance and construction of the stormwater system will only involve limited earthmoving and excavation activities.  Construction of temporary stormwater drainage was estimated by CED to generate a total quantity of about 12,000m3 excavated material. It is anticipated that potential dust impact can be effectively suppressed through implementation of the dust control measures required under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation.    Working areas where excavation or earthmoving operation are carried out shall be sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical.  Any stockpiling of excavated material shall be covered by impervious sheeting or sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical.

4.5.4        As presented below, the quantitative dust impact assessment carried out for the operation/ decommissioning phase demonstrated that with the implementation of the dust control measures required under the Regulation, the mitigated dust impact can be mitigated to acceptable levels. As the scale of dusty activities involved in the establishment stage is much less than the operational/decommissioning phase, when the standard construction dust control/ mitigation measures are in place, unacceptable air quality impact is not expected during the establishment phase of the fill bank.

 

4.6            Operational Phase

Introduction

4.6.1        During the operational phase of the fill bank which will take place from mid October 2002 to end of 2004, the key air pollutants of interest include dust emissions from the onsite activities, as well as vehicular emissions from the vehicles using the fill bank travelling along Wan Po Road.

4.6.2        As a proactive approach to minimise potential vehicular emission impact arising from the vehicles using the proposed fill bank, CED has planned to establish a barging facility at the existing berthing face in the northern end of TKO Area 137 to allow public fill to be transported to the site from a planned public filling barging point at the runway of the ex-Kai Tak Airport.  By assigning the truckloads generated from Government/ Public Corporation’s contracts in the Kowloon and part of the New Territories Districts to the planned barging point at Kai Tak through the existing trip-ticket system, this will allow the truckloads using the fill bank be shared by the Kai Tak barging point.  As discussed in Section 3, with this measure, volume of public fill delivery trucks travelling on Wan Po Road to the fill bank will be reduced from an average of 2,000 vehicles/day to an average of 1,000 vehicles/day.

4.6.3        In order to cater for possible daily fluctuation in truckloads, the air quality impact assessment has accounted for a maximum daily truckload of 1,500 vehicles/day, or 240 vehicles/hour during the fill bank peak hour as the worst-case scenario.  Based on the past records on truckloads in the operation of the public filling facilities in the territory, it is considered that applying a 50% margin to the average volume of truckloads travelling in and out the fill bank on Wan Po Road would represent a conservative approach to the assessment.

 

Control Measures for Mitigating Fugitive Dust Emissions

4.6.4        Any works that involve the stockpiling of dusty materials are regulated under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation as regulatory work.  In accordance with the requirements of the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation, sufficient dust control/ mitigation measures shall be implemented to ensure full protection of the nearby ASRs.  The dust control measures that are considered to be particularly relevant to the operation (and decommissioning) of the fill bank are summarised below.

4.6.5        It is expected that dust emission from truck movement on haul roads would be the major source of potential dust impact during the operational phase of the fill bank, as other emission sources such as material handling at the stockpiling area, barging point and C&DMSF are located at much further distance away from the ASRs. 

 

Site Haul Road

4.6.6        Public fill delivery trucks entering/ leaving TKO Area 137 shall be required to follow the planned main haul route that is covered with concrete, bituminous materials, hardcores or metal plates.  The main haul route provided for regular transport of public fill from the barging point to the C&DMSF shall also be constructed with similar material to minimise dust emissions.  The buffer distance between the designated haul roads and the nearest ASRs shall be maximised.  Figure 4A in Appendix 4-1 shows the indicative alignment of the main truck haul roads during the operational phase of the fill bank.  Water lorries and/or road sweepers shall be provided and used in dust suppression.  Truck speed shall be controlled to within 10km/hr.  Truck drivers using the fill bank should be checked to have a valid dumping licence.


Loading/ unloading of Public Fill

4.6.7        All dusty fill material shall be sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical prior to loading, unloading or transfer (transfer of fill material between trucks, barges, C&DMSF and the stockpiles) so as to maintain the fill material wet, except for situations where the moisture content of the dusty material is a matter of concern.  Frequent water (at least three times per day) of the worksites with active dusty operations is recommended.  The frequency shall be increased when the weather is dry.

4.6.8        Loading of public fill delivered by barges to the site shall be sprayed with water at the material landing point to minimize dust emission.  The public fill is expected to be dampen when the material is first loaded from trucks to the barges at the public filling barging point.  Therefore, any mist spraying applied should only dampen the dusty material and overwatering should be avoided. 

4.6.9        The machinery of the C&DMSF shall be fully enclosed and provided with proper dust filtration system to alleviate dust emission.  The C&DMSF shall also be designed to facilitate the loading of fill material from public fill delivery trucks with minimized drop height.  At the C&DMSF, temporary storage of dusty material shall be sprayed with water and the storage area shall be at least enclosed on three sides.  Storage time of pre-sorted and sorted materials and waste should be minimised.  Over-sized material subject to crushing shall also be sprayed with water before being crushed to minimize dust emission.       

 

Site Entrance/ Exit

4.6.10     Vehicle washing facilities including high pressure water jet installed at the existing exit shall be maintained and operated by designated staff to ensure that these dust control measures are being used.  Before leaving the fill bank site, every vehicle shall be washed to remove any dusty materials from its body and wheels.

4.6.11     It is a requirement under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation that trucks carrying dusty materials should be properly covered when they leave construction sites. Through the dumping licence requirements, CED will also require the truck drivers using the fill bank to have their dusty load covered with suitable impervious sheeting.  Otherwise, the truck drivers would be refused from using the fill bank.  Through this administrative approach, potential dust impact from the truckloads will be controlled.  After the trucks enter to the fill bank site, the dusty load shall be sprayed with water once the impervious sheeting covering the load is removed. 

 

Stockpiling of Public Fill

4.6.12     A buffer zone of at least 100m shall be maintained between the edge of the public fill stockpiling area and the nearest ASRs at the TKO Industrial Estate.  Within the buffer zone, no dusty material shall be stockpiled and no loading/ unloading and similar activities should be allowed.  Stockpiling activities at the fill bank shall be administrated by the contractor with care in proper manner to minimise dust emissions from loading/ unloading activities and wind erosion. 


4.6.13     Public fill at the stockpiling area should be handled with care in proper manner that would not result in segregation, deterioration, erosion or instability of the material, especially for the stockpiling surface facing to the north of the site. 

4.6.14     The portions of site and stockpiling height allocated and allowed by the project engineers for stockpiling of public fill shall be followed in the daily operation of the fill bank.  Temporary slope surfaces shall be covered with tarpaulin sheet or other impermeable sheeting, sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical, or protected by other methods approved by CED.  The amount of mist spraying should be just enough to dampen the material surface without over-watering, which could result in unnecessary surface water runoff.  Final slope surfaces, especially those facing to the north of the site, shall be treated by compaction, followed by hydroseeding, vegetation planting or sealing with shotconcrete, latex, vinyl, bitumen, or other suitable surface stabiliser approved by CED to prevent the washing away of stockpiled material.

 

Transfer of Fill Material with Belt Conveyor System

4.6.15     Belt conveyor systems used for transfer of fill material at the C&DMSF shall be enclosed on top and 2 sides as illustrated in Figure 3-8.  Every transfer point between any two conveyors shall be totally enclosed. 

4.6.16     An effective belt scraper or equivalent device shall be installed at the head pulley of every belt conveyor to dislodge fine particles that may adhere to the belt surface, and to reduce carrying back of fine particles on the return belt.  The belt scraper or equivalent device shall be equipped with bottom plates or other similar means to prevent falling of material from the return belt.  Every stockpiling belt conveyor shall be provided with a mechanism to adjust its level such that the vertical distance between the belt conveyor and the material landing point is maintained at no more than 1m.  Dusty material loaded from a belt conveyor outlet to stockpiles, storage bins, trucks, barges and other open areas shall be sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical.

 

General Site Management

4.6.17     Appropriate working methods should be devised and arranged to minimise dust emissions and to ensure any installed air pollution control system and measures are operated and/or implemented in accordance with their design merits.  In the event of malfunctioning of any control system or equipment, the relevant dusty activities shall stop until the relevant control system or equipment are restored to proper functioning.

4.6.18     Frequent mist spraying should be applied on dusty areas.  The frequency of spraying required will depend upon local meteorological conditions such as rainfall, temperature, wind speed and humidity.  The amount of mist spraying should be just enough to dampen the material without over-watering, which could result in unnecessary surface water runoff.

 

Dust Emission Impact Assessment

Major Dust Emission Sources from the Fill Bank Operation

4.6.19     Major source of dust emissions associated with the operation of fill bank was identified to be truck movement on haul roads within the site.  Other dust emission sources onsite in the operation of the fill bank will include material handling, wind erosion and crushing activities at the C&DMSF.  Among these sources, truck movement on haul roads is identified to be the major source of dust impact.  The mitigated dust emission rates of these key dusty activities were established based on the typical emission factors reported in the Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) 5th Edition published by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).

*    Truck Movement of Haul Roads – Truck movement on designated haul roads and within the stockpiling area was identified to be the major source of dust emissions, though the effect has been minimised through provision of an alternative marine-based transportation route of public fill (see Section 4.6.2).  Emission rates have been calculated by making reference to Section 13.2.2 of USEPA AP-42 taking into account the parameters including worst-case number of truckloads, mean vehicle weight, surface material silt content, surface material moisture content and vehicle speed.

    Fill Material Handling – Public fill will be delivered to TKO Area 137 by barges and trucks.  Dust emissions will be generated from loading/ unloading activities, including the unloading of over-sized material from trucks to the inlet of the C&DMSF, unloading of fill material from barges, loading of fill material to trucks for stockpiling.  Emission rates associated with the material handling have been calculated by making reference to Section 13.2.4 of USEPA AP-42 taking into account factors including the number of loading/ unloading operation, maximum numbers of truckload, mean wind speed, material moisture content.

    Wind Erosion from Fill Material Stockpile – Dust emissions from the public fill stockpiling area has been estimated based on the maximum stockpiling area available at the fill bank by making reference to Section 11.9 of the USEPA AP-42.

    Oversized Material Crushing and Sorting/ Screening at the C&DMSF – Dust emissions from crushing of over-sized material and sorting/ screening at the C&DMSF have been estimated by making reference to Section 11.19.2 of the USEPA AP-42 with consideration of C&D material handling rate. 

4.6.20     Spreadsheets presenting the calculation of dust emission rates for each of these activities are given in Appendix 4-1.  References for the input parameters are also shown in the spreadsheets.

 

Other Major Dust Emission Sources

4.6.21     As described in Section 3, stockpiling of public fill will commence from the southern side of the site when the northern part of the site is occupied by the existing contract “Tseung Kwan O Port Development at Area 137 Stage 2 – Construction of Seawalls and Reclamation”.  Potential cumulative dust impact could arise from material handling associated with the on-going reclamation activities. The contractor carrying out the current reclamation works is required to provide sufficient air quality control measures.   

4.6.22     SENT landfill is situated to the north-east of Area 137.  Potential cumulative dust impact could be generated from concurrent operation of the SENT landfill.  Major dust contribution from SENT is expected to arise from trucks movement on the designated haul routes.  Truckload data associated with the operation of the SENT landfill have been obtained from EPD for estimation of dust emission rates.  These key dust emission sources associated with the operation of the SENT landfill have been incorporated into the same air quality model for evaluation of cumulative dust impact.  Calculation of the dust emission rates associated with the SENT landfill operation is presented in Appendix 4-1.

4.6.23     TKO Area 137 has been planned for longer-term industrial uses commencing from mid/ late 2007.  To make the site available for roads and other servicing construction, as shown in the programme presented in Section 3, decommissioning of the fill bank would commence from January 2004.  Early removal of the public fill will also allow a steady and reliable supply of processed public fill of required quality and specification for reclamation projects that have commenced in 2004. During the operation-decommissioning overlapping period, to avoid double handling, incoming trucks containing public fill that meets the specified technical requirements and quality will be directed to the barging point for transportation by barges to reclamation sties without sorting/ stockpiling at the fill bank.  Depending on the demand on public fill and quality of the material delivered by the incoming trucks, sorted material may also be removed from the fill bank for delivery to reclamation by barges.  During the operation-decommissioning overlapping period, all public fill removed from the fill bank will only be delivered by barges and no trucks will be used to avoid generation of additional traffic.  This requirement will be implemented by CED through entering relevant clauses into the Technical Specification of the Contract Document for the contractor to follow.  The Contractor will also be under supervision of CED.

 

Assessment Scenarios 1 and 2

4.6.24     Two worst-case assessment scenarios were identified for the dust emission impact assessment, as follows:

    Scenario 1 (from mid October 2002 to Dec. 2003) - assessed the dust impact from fill bank portion established at the southern side of the site in the presence of concurrent activities under the reclamation works at the north carried out under CED’s Contract “CV/97/01 Tseung Kwan O Port Deveopment at Area 137 Stage 2 – Construction of Seawalls and Reclamation”, and operation of the SENT landfill;

    Scenario 2 (from approx. January 2004 to December 2004) - assessed the dust impact from the fill bank operation when the fill bank operation proceed to the northern side of the site, with consideration of potential cumulative dust impact from concurrent decommissioning of the fill bank and operation of SENT landfill.  Transportation of stockpiled material off the fill bank will be by means of barges.

 

Operating Hours

4.6.25     To provide a convenient outlet for public fill to meet the need of the construction industry, operating hours of the fill bank is planned from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. daily, which is similar to the existing public filling area at TKO Area 137.  Therefore, in the air quality model for both Scenarios 1 and 2, dusty construction activities were assumed to take place continuously throughout the operating hours to simulate the worst-case scenarios.  Based on the truckload records of the existing public filling area, incoming truck numbers and activities level at the fill bank are expected to be low before 9:00 a.m. and after 6:00p.m.  

4.6.26     In additional to the two concurrent work activities Scenarios 1 and 2, for the prediction of the maximum one-hour and daily average particulate concentrations for comparison with 1-hour TSP criteria and 24-hour TSP AQOs, dust emission rates have been calculated for 2 further scenarios based on different dust emission levels:

(a)             Dust emissions from movements of public fill delivery trucks (the worst-case estimate of 1,500 vehicles/day) from Wan Po Road, as well as dust emission from movements of trucks within the site in transportation of public fill received by barges to the C&DMSF and the stockpiling area.  The modelled maximum 1-hour TSP and 24-hour average TSP concentrations for the daily averaged situation were compared with the 1-hour and 24-hour TSP criteria, respectively; and

(b)             Dust emissions from movements of public fill delivery trucks (the worst-case estimate of 240 vehicles/hour during the fill bank peak) from Wan Po Road, as well as dust emission from movements of trucks within the site in transportation of public fill received by barges to the C&DMSF and the stockpiling area.  The modelled maximum 1-hour TSP concentrations for the fill bank peak hour were compared with the 1-hour TSP criteria.

4.6.27     The scenarios considered give a combination of assessment situations.  These are summarised in Table 4-4 below.  Maximum 1-hour and 24-hour average TSP concentrations were calculated from the air quality model for scenarios 1(a) and 2(a); and maximum 1-hour average TSP concentrations were calculated from the model for scenario 1(b) and 2(b).

Table 44          Summary on Scenarios considered in the Dust Emission Impact Assessment

 

Scenario (a) – average dust emission rate calculated based on 1,500 vehicles/day

Scenario (b) – maximum 1-hour dust emission rate calculated based on 240 vehicles/hour at the fill bank peak

Scenario 1 – with concurrent reclamation activities in the northern part of the site

Scenario 1(a)

Scenario 1(b)

Scenario 2 – with concurrent activities for decommissioning of the fill bank

Scenario 2(a)

Scenario 2(b)

 

Dust Emission Modelling

4.6.28     Potential dust impact associated with the operation of the fill bank at the ASRs has been assessed using the air quality model Fugitive Dust Model (FDM). The model was particularly developed to model fugitive dust emissions and is well accepted by HKEPD and USEPA for this purpose.  The model was developed based on the widely used Gaussian plume formulae for estimation of pollutant concentrations but has been adapted to incorporate a gradient-transfer deposition algorithm which accounts for the settling out of dust particles, and to include the wind dependent factor on dust emission rates.  The model was designed to predict fugitive dust dispersion from point, line, area and volume sources.

4.6.29     The following relevant meteorological data of the year 2000 were obtained from Hong Kong Observatory and used in the air quality modelling study. Parameters used include:

    Hourly wind direction and speed, air temperature together with atmospheric Pasquill stability class obtained at Tseung Kwan O Automatic Weather Station;

    Daily morning and maximum mixing heights based on the radiosonde ascent at King’s Park; and

    Hourly total sky cover, cloud amount and cloud based height of the 1st - 4th layers observed at the Hong Kong International Airport in Chep Lap Kok.

4.6.30     The fill bank will only be in operation from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. daily.  In the air quality model, it was therefore assumed that dusty construction activities would be restricted to that time period.  For prediction of the 1-hour and daily average TSP concentrations for comparison with the AQOs, the hourly meteorological conditions for the full operating hours 0800 to 2100 were considered.

 


Air Sensitive Receivers

4.6.31     To capture the worst-case situations, representative air sensitive receivers located in close proximity to the worksite at different directions were selected.  Figure 4-2c shows the locations of the selected RAPs A10 to A14.  The ASRs represented by these RAPs are described in Table 4-2. As these ASRs are located nearest to the fill bank, it is expected that should the TSP concentrations at these worst affected RAPs be controlled to within acceptable levels, dust impact on other ASRs located at further distance away from the project site will also be within acceptable levels.  TSP concentrations were predicted at the RAPs at 1.5m, 6.5m, 10.5m, 18.5m and 22.5m above ground.

4.6.32     Maximum 1-hour and daily average TSP concentrations were predicted at the RAPs based on the maximum daily truckloads of 1,500 vehicles/day for comparison with the 1-hour TSP concentration of 500mg/m3 recommended by EPD and the 24-hours TSP AQO.  For the fill bank peak hour, the maximum 1-hour TSP concentrations at the RAPs were also predicted based on the maximum hourly truckloads of 240 vehicles/hour at 11:00a.m. to 12:00.

 

Assessment Results

4.6.33     The mitigated 1-hour TSP concentrations and the 24-hour average TSP concentrations, including the background TSP concentration, predicted from the dust emission rates calculated based on the daily truckload of 1,500 vehicles/day (i.e. Scenario 1(a) and 2(a)) are presented in Table 4-5 and Table 4-6.  Table 4-7 presents the mitigated maximum 1-hour TSP concentrations modelled based on the maximum truckload of 240 veh/hr at the fill bank peak hour (i.e. Scenario 1(b) and 2(b)) including the background TSP concentration.  As expected, the maximum 1-hour TSP concentrations during the fill bank peak hour would be higher than that predicted based on the averaged daily situation. Typical FDM result files are presented in Appendix 4-2 for reference. 

4.6.34     Figure 4-3 presents the worst-case maximum 1-hour TSP levels at 1.5m above ground in the vicinity of the site predicted by the air quality model for the peak hour situation under Scenario 2, which is slightly higher than the concentrations predicted for Scenario 1.  Figure 4-4 presents the 24-hour TSP concentrations predicted accordingly.  The background TSP concentration has been incorporated into the contours.

4.6.35     The modelling results revealed that with the implementation of the recommended dust mitigation measures that are required under the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation, the mitigated dust levels at the ASRs would fully comply with the 1-hour and 24-hour TSP criteria. The higher 1-hour TSP concentrations predicted during the fill bank peak hour indicated that the extent of dust control should be particularly increased during the fill bank peak hour when dust emission from truck movement is expected to be higher.


Table 45          Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentration predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(a) and 2(a))

 

Predicted Maximum 1-hour TSP conc. (mg/m3) at various heights above ground

RAP

1.5m

6.5m

10.5m

18.5m

22.5m

 

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

A10

305

305

246

246

210

210

188

191

181

185

A11

328

328

254

254

211

211

190

194

184

188

A12

303

303

267

273

255

260

232

237

223

227

A13

226

250

219

243

214

236

201

220

195

212

A14

157

168

152

162

147

156

139

146

135

141

S1 – Scenario 1; S2 – Scenario 2.

 

Table 46          24-hour Average TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(a) and 2(a))

 

Predicted Maximum 24-hour TSP conc. (mg/m3) at various heights above ground

RAP

1.5m

6.5m

10.5m

18.5m

22.5m

 

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

A10

147

148

130

131

124

125

119

121

117

119

A11

150

151

132

133

125

127

120

123

118

121

A12

152

154

140

145

137

141

132

136

129

133

A13

130

141

127

138

125

135

121

130

120

128

A14

102

104

101

103

100

103

100

102

99

101

S1 – Scenario 1; S2 – Scenario 2.

 

Table 47          Maximum 1-hour TSP Concentrations predicted at the RAPs (Scenario 1(b) and 2(b))

 

Predicted Maximum 1-hour TSP conc. (mg/m3) at various heights above ground

RAP

1.5m

6.5m

10.5m

18.5m

22.5m

 

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

S1

S2

A10

432

432

335

335

277

277

206

209

195

199

A11

470

470

350

350

279

279

205

210

196

201

A12

437

437

332

332

278

284

244

249

231

236

A13

314

314

257

257

224

246

207

226

200

217

A14

178

188

170

179

164

172

152

159

147

153

S1 – Scenario 1; S2 – Scenario 2.

 

 


Vehicular Emission Impact Assessment

Introduction

4.6.36     This section assesses the potential air quality impact arising from the fill bank in respect of vehicular emissions generated from public fill delivery trucks on ASRs along Wan Po Road.  The key criteria pollutants of interest include nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSP).  Carbon Monoxide (CO) is less critical given the relatively lower emission factor and much higher acceptable value of AQO.

4.6.37     As discussed in Section 3, CED has planned to establish a barging facility at TKO Area 137 to allow public fill to be transported to the site from the temporary Kai Tak barging point.  With this measure, volume of public fill delivery trucks travelling on Wan Po Road to the fill bank will be reduced from an average of 2,000 vehicles/day to an average of 1,000 vehicles/day.  Besides, in order to cater for possible daily fluctuation in truckloads, the vehicular emission impact assessment has accounted for a maximum daily truckload of 1,500 vehicles/day, or 240 vehicles/hour during the fill bank peak hour as the worst-case scenario.

4.6.38     Potential cumulative air quality impact due to concurrent emissions from the background traffic and aerial industrial sources have been considered in the study.  

4.6.39     The assessment results will confirm whether the potential air quality impact from the fill bank operation will be within acceptable levels in the presence of other existing air pollutant emissions.  The Air Quality Objectives established in Hong Kong were used as the assessment criteria.    

 

Assessment Methodology

Air Quality Modelling

4.6.40     Potential vehicular emission from open road traffic has been assessed with the air quality model CALINE4.  The model is a line source model developed by the California Department of Transport.  It was developed based on the Gaussian diffusion formulae and a mixing zone concept in predicting dispersion of pollutants emitted from road carriageways. Based on Section 3.7 in EPD’s “Guidelines on Choice of Models and Model Parameters”, Discrete Parcel Method (DPM) of CALINE4 has been used to compute NO2 concentrations in the assessment. In the model, it was assumed that the NO2 reactions take place with parcels. The reaction rates were assumed to be governed by the initial concentrations of NO, NO, and O3.  An O3 level of 64mg/m3, i.e. ~0.03ppm (taken from Air Quality 1999, Kwun Tong monitoring station, maximum daily hourly value) has been used.

 

Emission Factors

4.6.41     The fill bank is planned to be in operation from mid October 2002 to end of 2004. As a conservative approach to the study, year 2002 fleet average emission factors for vehicular pollutants provided by DEP have been used with worst-case representative 2004 traffic forecast data in the modelling study.  Table 4-8 presents the 2002 vehicular emission factors of NOx and RSP for passenger cars, buses and heavy diesel vehicles.


Table 48          2002 Vehicular Emission Factors

Vehicle Type

Emission Factor (mg/km)

 

NOx

RSP

Passenger Car (Petrol) (PC)

1.06

0.03

Light Goods Vehicle (LGV)

1.58

0.31

Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV)

6.52

1.11

Buses, Public Light Bus and Non-franchised Bus (modelled as Franchised Bus Double Deck (FBDD))

10.95

1.23

The following assumptions were adopted throughout the study:

i.       NOx is a mixture of NO and NO2; and

ii.      The proportion of RSP in the vehicular emission is assumed to be 100% of the particulate matter which is, in general, less than 10 mm in the aerodynamic diameter.

 

Meteorological Conditions

4.6.42     Pasquill Stability Class D with a wind speed of 1m/s has been adopted in the CALINE4 modelling to simulate the worst-case meteorological conditions.  The ambient temperature was assumed to be 25.5 degree Celsius.  The average mixing height was taken as 500m according to monitoring data obtained from King’s Park.  Wind direction standard deviation of 18 degree was assumed.  The aerodynamic roughness coefficient was set at 175cm.

 

Traffic Forecast

4.6.43     Truckload records gained from the operation of the public filling area at TKO Area 137 showed that volume of public fill delivery trucks is expected to be low before 9:00 a.m. and after 6:00 p.m. in the daily operation of the fill bank.  The truck arrival distribution pattern presented in Table 3-1 illustrates that the fill bank operation peak hour is at 11:00 to 12:00 hour. 

4.6.44     Taking into account the traffic generated by the nearby landuses, worst-case representative traffic forecast for the year 2004 was prepared by the Project Traffic Consultant.  Table 4-9 through Table 4-11 present the representative 2004 A.M., fill bank peak hour and P.M. peak hour traffic volumes, percentage of passenger cars, light good vehicles, and heavy good vehicles as well as buses/coaches, and the estimated number of vehicles using the fill bank during these time periods. The overlapping of the decommissioning phase and the operational phase will not affect the traffic forecast, as all public fill removed from the fill bank during the overlapping period will be transported by barges.  The road sections (labelled A through AA) considered in the vehicular emission assessments are illustrated in Figure 4-5. 


Table 49          Year 2004 A.M. Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Label

Traffic Volume (veh/hr)*

Public Fill Delivery Trucks (Veh/hr)

% of Passenger Car

% of LGV

% of HGV**

% of Buses, Coaches, and PLB

A

2345

40

60%

7%

14%

18%

B

3125

40

57%

6%

13%

23%

C

690

0

63%

7%

5%

25%

D

965

0

70%

8%

3%

18%

E

1630

45

64%

7%

19%

10%

F

1030

40

57%

8%

26%

9%

G

900

0

64%

5%

11%

19%

H

1215

5

61%

9%

11%

19%

I

705

5

51%

8%

9%

31%

J

2000

5

66%

6%

6%

22%

K

215

5

48%

4%

11%

37%

L

490

0

55%

16%

9%

20%

M

1080

5

71%

7%

6%

16%

N

655

45

25%

8%

42%

24%

O

750

40

62%

6%

27%

5%

P

1190

5

69%

11%

12%

8%

Q

780

5

63%

6%

11%

20%

R

1280

55

48%

5%

24%

22%

S

1365

55

62%

8%

22%

8%

T

1285

10

69%

11%

12%

8%

U

1060

5

64%

6%

10%

20%

V

135

85

7%

1%

89%

2%

W

155

85

14%

3%

81%

2%

X

625

5

72%

2%

6%

20%

Y

620

15

60%

11%

16%

13%

Z

280

0

43%

12%

26%

19%

AA

975

0

90%

6%

4%

1%

*Volume of public fill delivery trucks included in the traffic flows;

**Volume of public fill delivery trucks included in the % of HGV.


Table 410         Year 2004 Fill Bank Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Label

Traffic Volume (veh/hr)*

Public Fill Delivery Trucks (Veh/hr)

% of Passenger Car

% of LGV

% of HGV**

% of Buses, Coaches, and PLB

A

1540

110

41%

13%

38%

9%

B

1995

110

44%

13%

33%

10%

C

580

0

64%

17%

15%

4%

D

745

0

57%

19%

20%

4%

E

1000

130

35%

10%

52%

3%

F

710

110

23%

11%

64%

2%

G

740

0

50%

17%

13%

20%

H

785

20

45%

17%

22%

16%

I

645

10

50%

8%

11%

31%

J

1155

10

65%

6%

8%

22%

K

215

10

46%

3%

16%

35%

L

470

0

55%

16%

9%

20%

M

635

10

70%

7%

8%

15%

N

620

130

20%

13%

65%

2%

O

570

110

21%

13%

64%

3%

P

775

15

48%

14%

22%

16%

Q

560

15

44%

11%

31%

14%

R

1145

155

27%

16%

50%

7%

S

1130

155

25%

15%

57%

3%

T

860

25

48%

13%

20%

19%

U

745

5

45%

12%

33%

10%

V

275

240

2%

0%

97%

0%

W

290

240

5%

1%

94%

0%

X

525

25

35%

20%

32%

13%

Y

560

45

28%

18%

29%

25%

Z

140

0

38%

7%

54%

1%

AA

380

0

59%

4%

32%

5%

*Volume of public fill delivery trucks included in the traffic flows;

**Volume of public fill delivery trucks included in the % of HGV.


Table 411         Year 2004 P.M. Peak Hour Traffic Flows

Label

Traffic Volume (veh/hr)*

Public Fill Delivery Trucks (Veh/hr)

% of Passenger Car

% of LGV

% of HGV**

% of Buses, Coaches, and PLB

A

3000

55