Hong Kong Air Pollutant Emission Inventory
The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) compiles the Hong Kong Air Pollutant Emission Inventory every year to analyze the air pollution condition and the major emission sources which helps formulate the air quality management strategy in Hong Kong. The emission inventory for Hong Kong was first uploaded to EPD’s website in March 2000.
The emission inventory comprises estimates of the emissions from six source categories for six major air pollutants, namely: sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), respirable suspended particulates (RSP or PM10), fine suspended particulates (FSP or PM2.5), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO). The emission sources include power electricity generation, road transport, navigation, civil aviation, other fuel combustion sources and non-combustion sources.
Other fuel combustion sources are defined as sources involving combustion of fuels, other than power electricity generation, road transport, navigation and civil aviation. Major contributing sources in this sector include non-road mobile machineries operating in construction sites and container terminals.
Non-combustion sources are defined as those remaining sources that do not involve combustion of fuels and only VOC, RSP and FSP emissions are significant. Under this category, the major sources for VOC include paints and associated solvents, consumer products and printing, whereas those for RSP and FSP include paved road dust, construction dust, quarry production and cooking fume.
Emission Inventory for 2013
The diagram below shows the emission inventory for 2013 under different emission source categories including public electricity generation, road transport, navigation, civil aviation, other fuel combustion sources and non-combustion sources.
Topics of Interest
Emission Trends (1997-2013)
Sectoral Analysis (1997-2013)
Changes in Emission Relative to Population, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth
Emission Reduction Plan up to 2020
Update of Emission Inventory
Emission Inventory Reports
|Sectoral Analysis (1997-2013)|
|Sectoral Analysis for Specific Source Categories|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Public Electricity Generation"|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Road Transport"|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Navigation"|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Civil Aviation"|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Other Fuel Combustion"|
|Sectoral Analysis for "Non-combustion Sources"|
1. Changes in Emission Relative to Population
|2. Changes in Emission Relative to Energy Consumption|
3. Changes in Emission Relative to Economic Growth
|Emission Reduction Plan up to 2020|
|The Hong Kong SAR and Guangdong Provincial Governments have long been collaborating to improve the air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Regionnote1. Over the past years, the two Governments significantly reduced the emissions of four major pollutants, namely SO2, NOx, RSP and VOC. At the meeting of Hong Kong-Guangdong Joint Working Group on Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection held in November 2012, both sides endorsed a new set of emission reduction targets/ranges up to 2020, using 2010 as base year. Both sides have been implementing additional pollution control measures on this basis for bringing continuous improvement to the regional air quality.|
In order to achieve the emission targets/ranges set for 2015 and 2020, Hong Kong has implemented the following key measures:
Other key measures in the pipeline include:
Such measures will help us to achieve the emission reduction targets for 2015 and 2020, and to meet broadly the existing Air Quality Objectives by 2020.
Changes in 2013 emissions in Hong Kong compared with 2010 emission levels range from -12 % to +4%. Details are listed in the table below:
Note: Emission figures are presented in the nearest ten.
Compared with the base year of 2010, SO2, RSP and VOC emissions in 2013 had decreased by 4% to 12%. However, NOx emissions had increased by 4% which was due to the higher coal consumption for electricity generation and the increase in construction and aviation activities.
Making reference to international developments and technological advancement, we have been updating the methodologies to compile emission inventory including the collection of most updated data with an aim to provide a better support to the management of air quality. Whenever the compilation methodology is updated, new activity data are collated, or errors in the estimates are identified, we will follow international practice to update the emission inventory and to revise the emission inventory for past years as far as practicable based on the updated methods and data to enable consistent and reliable emission trend analysis to be made. Updates of the emission inventories are listed in the Summary of Updates to the Emission Inventory. Major updates in recent years are highlighted below :
- EPD commissioned a comprehensive study on the marine emission inventory in 2008, which was completed in 2012. The study collected extensive local vessel activity data and reviewed the latest emission compilation methodologies of advanced places such as the Port of Los Angeles of the USA. The study concluded that these latest emission compilation methodologies can provide more realistic estimates of marine emissions. Based on the study findings, we updated the previous emission inventory for marine vessels. The updated emissions from vessels were higher than the previous ones.
- EPD have been conducting emission measurements for on-road vehicles by means of remote sensing equipment and advanced portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The measurements have provided a more robust basis for us to estimate vehicle emissions. They have also found that vehicles with inadequate maintenance, e.g. LPG vehicles with worn-out catalytic converters, could emit considerably above their normal levels. We made use of the findings to update our vehicle emission estimation model and compile the vehicle emission inventory.
- Since the implementation of the Air Pollution Control (Volatile Organic Compounds) Regulation in April 2007, we have used the sales report data submitted by importers under the Regulation to compile VOC emissions of regulated products including six types of consumer products (air fresheners, hairsprays, multi-purpose lubricants, floor wax strippers, insecticides and insect repellents), printing inks, paints, adhesives and sealants. In April 2012, we further regulated the VOC contents of vehicle refinishing and marine paints (vessels and pleasure craft paints) and started to compile the VOC emissions from these paints based on their sales report data. Emissions from cleansing solvents during the application of paints have also been estimated. To compile VOC emissions for the regulated products, we also made reference to EPD’s studies on printing industry, solvent usage for coatings and VOC-containing products, and survey data for marine paints to assess emissions from VOC-containing products.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA - AP42)
European Environment Agency (EEA - EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook)
Census and Statistics Department (C&SD - Hong Kong Statistics)
Electrical and Mechanical Services Department (EMSD - Hong Kong Energy End-use Data)
1 PRD Region refers to the whole territory of HKSAR and the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone (PRDEZ). PRDEZ includes Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Foshan, Jiangmen, Huizhou (Huicheng, Huiyang, Huidong, Boluo), and Zhaoqing (Duanzhou, Dinghu, Gaoyao, Sihui).