Sectoral Analysis for Navigation
As more efforts have been made to tackle air pollution from vehicles and power plants over the years, other sources, particularly vessels, were contributing a larger share of emissions. Nonetheless, the emissions of SO2, RSP, FSP from the navigation sector decreased considerably between 2013 and 2015 by 16% to 28%. In 2015, the emissions of SO2, NOx, RSP and FSP accounted for 59%, 37%, 34% and 39% of the total emissions, respectively.
The emission reductions of SO2, RSP and FSP from 2010 to 2015 were primarily achieved through the implementation of Air Pollution Control (Marine Light Diesel) Regulation in 2014 followed by the Air Pollution Control (Ocean Going Vessels) (Fuel at Berth) Regulation in 2015. The latter mandated ocean-going vessels to switch to low sulphur fuel not exceeding 0.5% (an 81% reduction from the previous average level of 2.6%) while at berth in 2015. The VOC emissions were low, hence a small fluctuation can make a big difference in percentage.
Among vessels, ocean going vessels (OGVs) were major emitters. The following are worth noting-
- the arrival numbers of OGVs decreased by 35% between 1997 and 2015 though the container throughput increased by 40%; and
- as compared with 2010, the arrival numbers of OGVs decreased by 11% and container throughput by 15% in 2015.