11.1 This section presents a cultural heritage impact assessment of the project, identifying cultural heritage resources such as archaeological sites, built heritage structures and assessing potential direct and indirect impacts from proposed works on these resources, and recommending mitigation measures where required.
This project will largely be
located within the existing
Under the project, a new entry
plaza will be constructed partly on the existing HKSM site, for plans please refer to Figure 1.1. A section of the
11.5 The proposed works for the Lowland, see Figure 1.1, which will be renamed the Waterfront under the project, will be redeveloped with the reconstruction and addition of new attractions and facilities, including new aquarium, shark tanks, lagoons, and new rides.
The Headland, proposed works shown
in Figure 1.1, which
will be renamed the
The project will also include a new
Summit Express (funicular train) in tunnel to provide an alternative connection
between the Waterfront and the
11.8 The Study Brief highlights that special attention should be paid to the archaeological potential of the area currently underneath the HKSM and visual impacts or impacts arising from vibration to historical buildings in particular at Wong Chuk Hang San Wai.
11.9 Legislation, Standards, Guidelines and Criteria relevant to the consideration of Cultural Heritage impacts under this study include the following:
· Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance
· Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance
· Technical Memorandum on Environmental Impact Assessment Process.
Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap.53)
11.10 The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance provides the statutory framework to provide for the preservation of objects of historical, archaeological and palaeontological interest.
11.11 The Ordinance contains the statutory procedures for the Declaration of Monuments. The proposed monument can be any place, building, site or structure, which is considered to be of public interest by reason of its historical, archaeological or palaeontological significance.
11.12 Under section 6 and subject to subsection (4) of the Ordinance, the following acts are prohibited in relation to certain monuments, except under permit;
· To excavate, carry on building works, plant or fell trees or deposit earth or refuse on or in a proposed monument or monument
· To demolish, remove, obstruct, deface or interfere with a proposed monument or monument
The discovery of an Antiquity, as defined in the Ordinance
must be reported to the Antiquities Authority, or a designated person. The
Ordinance also provides that, the ownership of every relic discovered in
11.14 No archaeological excavation may be carried out by any person, other than the Authority and the designated person, without a licence issued by the Authority. A licence will only be issued if the Authority is satisfied that the applicant has sufficient scientific training or experience to enable him to carry out the excavation and search satisfactorily, is able to conduct, or arrange for, a proper scientific study of any antiquities discovered as a result of the excavation and search and has sufficient staff and financial support.
Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (Cap.499)
11.15 The Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) was implemented on 1 April 1998. Its purpose is to avoid, minimise and control the adverse impact on the environment of designated projects, through the application of the EIA process and the Environmental Permit (EP) system.
HKPSG (Chapter 10) covers planning considerations relevant
to conservation. Chapter 10 details the principles of conservation, the
conservation of natural landscape and habitats, historic buildings and
archaeological sites. It also addresses the issue of enforcement. The appendices
list the legislation and administrative controls for conservation, other
conservation related measures in
Technical Memorandum on Environmental Impact Assessment Process
11.17 The general criteria and guidelines for evaluating and assessing impacts are listed in Annexes 10 and 19 of the Technical Memorandum on Environmental Impact Assessment Process (EIAO-TM). The guidelines state that preservation in totality and measures for the integration of sites of cultural heritage into the proposed project will be a beneficial impact. It also states that destruction of a site of cultural heritage must only be undertaken as a last resort.
11.18 Desk-top searches were conducted to analyse, collect and collate extant information. The following were reviewed:
· Background information of sites of cultural heritage within and in close proximity to the Study Area (AMO files, Public Records Office, map libraries, university and public libraries, published and unpublished government and non-government documents, cartographic and pictorial documents, existing geo-technical studies)
· Legislation (i.e. Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance etc.)
· Areas proposed for construction and operation activities and potential impacts generated by the proposed project
· Identification of sensitive receivers (i.e. archaeological sites and areas of archaeological potential).
Impact Assessment and Evaluation
11.19 Cultural heritage impact assessment was undertaken to identify potential impacts on the sites of cultural heritage. This included:
· Identification of potential impacts, both direct and indirect, on sites of cultural heritage.
· Assessment of impacts according to the requirements of Annexes 10 and 19 of the EIAO-TM.
· Evaluation of impacts using methodology continued in the EIAO-TM.
· The scope for the investigation, if required, will be set out in consultation with the Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) prior to implementation. The scope and requirement of the investigation is to be fully designed and implemented by the project proponent. Any archaeological field investigation should be conducted by qualified archaeologist engaged by the project proponent. The archaeologist should apply for Licence under the provision of the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap.53), which will normally take at least two months time to process.
Geological and Topographical Review of the Study Area
The facilities at Tai Shue Wan have been constructed on
reclaimed land and a small valley area of Pleistocene debris flow deposits;
steep slopes surround the valley. The facilities at the Headland were
constructed on the two flattest areas near the
The Lowland area between the
11.23 Borehole data indicates two metre of fill cover in the Merry-go-Round area (Enpack 1990), which consists of mainly sand with bricks, cobbles and roots. The site of the simulator ride contains sand or silt deposits to depths of 2 metres (PYPUN 1995), while around the main entrance some evidence of agricultural soils exist (GAMMON 1975). Site investigation for the effluent discharge near Deep Bay Water shows a thick packet of colluvium consisting of grey stiff sandy, gravelly and clayey silt with lots of cobbles (Enpack 1994) near the beach at Deep Bay Water. The borehole location areas are shown in Appendix 11.1.
HKSM, City Bus Depot and Existing
The area between the hills to the south and towards the HKSM,
as well as the existing bus depot and
Aerial photograph of 1924 (Figure 11.3) shows how major
river channels travelled towards
Archaeological Background of the Area
11.26 The Wong Chuk Hang Rock Carving (Figure 11.4) is the only identified ancient monument in the vicinity of the Study Area. It was discovered in 1984 and was declared a monument under the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance the same year. The rock carving is located approximately 4 metres above the stream and spans an estimated width of 5 metres. It is carved on quartz syenite rock. The quartz syenite appears as a dyke in vitric tuff surroundings. The carving consists of three main groups of carved patterns (Figures 11.5 to 11.7). It has been suggested that the meandering and spiral designs represent stylised animal eyes (AMO website).
11.27 While these days the carving appears to be located far from the sea, the sea expanse in ancient times would have reached further inland positioning the rock carving near the ancient seashore.
No archaeological sites are known in the Wong Chuk Hang
area. However, Schofield recorded limited archaeological evidence in Ap Lei
Chau in the
11.29 Archaeological investigation near Wong Chuk Hang San Wai in 2000 (Archaeological Assessments Ltd. 2001) (Figure 11.8) indicated a thick sterile alluvial deposit with artificial fill layers on top could be found at the public sitting area; at a depth of 1 metre below the surface marine or fluvial sand deposits were recorded.
Historical Background of the Area
City Bus Depot and Existing
11.31 At Wong Chuk Hang the farmers originally planted rice and later switched to vegetable farming. These types of agriculture have minimal adverse affect on archaeological deposit unless the deposits are close to the surface.
11.32 The covering of the surface at HKSM would not have resulted in a significant impact on the underlying deposits and would in fact have contributed to the preservation in situ of any potential archaeological deposits
11.33 While the existing impacts on the HKSM area may have been minimal, the low-lying alluvial floodplain area dissected by rivers has low prehistoric archaeological potential. The potential for isolated finds connected to the Wong Chuk Hang historical occupation and farming practices within the area exists.
11.34 Overall it should be stated that the HKSM area has low potential for archaeological deposits, in situ or otherwise, although very few archaeological investigations have been undertaken in the area.
11.35 The bus depot lies in a similar area to the HKSM and has a low archaeological potential as evaluated above. The car park located at the existing Ocean Park Lowland lies on a platform higher than the ground of HKSM. The car park area was extensively disturbed during site formation (refer to photograph in Figure 11.15) and has therefore likely no remaining archaeological value.
11.36 The Headland lies at elevation of 100 to 150 metres PD and has already been extensively developed. Comparison of the topography on the 1957 map and current maps indicate extensive modification to the original hill. The proposed extension areas will occupy the steep slopes surrounding the current facilities at the Headland. The Headland has no archaeological potential.
11.37 The proposed impacts at Tai Shue Wan will occur on the steep slopes above the valley and on reclaimed land. The areas of impact at Tai Shue Wan have no archaeological potential.
The lowland area connecting the Wong Chuk Hang area and
HKSM, City Bus Depot and Existing
11.39 The previous impacts to the HKSM area can be considered minimal. The earliest aerial photograph taken in 1924 (Figure 11.3) shows the area to have been in extensive use for agriculture and later the fields appear covered with asphalt and/or concrete.
11.40 The revised Collinson map drawn in 1895 (Figure 11.9) shows a major river going through the HKSM area. The 1924 aerial photograph confirms this and shows major river channels dissecting the area. These rivers may have had an impact on the potential deposits as rivers may shift course during floods. The aerial photograph shows that the entire rear valley area consists of a flood plain collecting run off water from the surrounding mountains.
11.41 The 1945 1:20 000 scale map (Figure 11.10) shows fields, a footpath and streams within the study area while the 1957 1: 25 000 scale map (Figure 11.11) shows a cluster of buildings and mainly cultivated fields. A map published in 1971 (Figure 11.12) indicates that the HKSM area lies lower than the road located to the east (while the map does not specify elevation the legend indicates steep slopes from the road to the west, as well as a river running under the road).
Aerial and old maps dated to the late
At the HKSM, the construction impacts
according to the engineers will consist of only minor local excavation; footing
may need to be built in twelve locations for which in each footing location 2
A section of the existing
The Back of House zone mainly
comprising warehouses and workshops will be constructed at the car park near
The revised Collinson map of 1895 (Figure 11.9) shows brick works
under the current Country Club area and a path leading to a pier in the Deep
Water Bay under the Ocean Park area. The
other maps and aerial photographs do not show any other impacts prior to
11.48 Borehole data indicates that the existing development is located on colluvial foot slopes with very little topsoil.
The construction of the existing
Ocean Park-Tai Shue Wan
11.51 The facilities at Tai Shue Wan are constructed on debris flow deposits and reclamation.
11.52 Any development encroaching on sites of archaeological interest should be avoided as far as possible. Any unavoidable impacts on these sites of archaeological interest should be addressed with appropriate mitigation measures, such as:
· Preservation in situ
· Full-scale excavation prior to construction works
· Survey to identify the potential for archaeological deposits in areas of interest after removal of hard surface but prior to construction phase
· Archaeological monitoring programme, whereby a qualified archaeologist monitors the excavation works in areas of interest during the construction phase.
11.53 The mitigation measures should be agreed with the Antiquities and Monuments Office and be designed and implemented by the project proponent.
11.54 The proposed mitigation measures are detailed in Table 11.1 below.
HKSM and City Bus Depot
- Low archaeological potential due to meandering of extensive river within the HKSM area
- Few archaeological investigations undertaken
- Minimal existing impacts
﹣ Archaeological survey should be undertaken at some of the footing locations at the entry plaza
- Similar to HKSM, low archaeological potential
- Few archaeological investigations undertaken
- Extensive site formation and development involved for existing use
- The existing impacts have resulted in such disturbance rendering the potential for archaeology in situ minimal.
﹣No further action
- Medium archaeological potential
- No previous archaeological investigation
- Thick fill and debris flow deposits according to bore hole data
- Extensive development and landscaping
﹣No further action
- No archaeological potential
- Extensive development
﹣No further action
Tai Shue Wan
- No archaeological potential of the hill slopes at Tai Shue Wan
﹣No further action
As highlighted in the brief the
· Indirect vibration impact to historic buildings
· Potential visual impact to historic buildings.
11.56 It is also stated in the brief that environmental protection measures should be incorporated into the design to avoid or if that is impossible to minimise disturbance to historical buildings. The BHIA identified all resources that may be adversely impacted by the project to ensure that any unavoidable impacts are mitigated to an acceptable level.
11.57 The first stage of investigation was to undertake a desk-based study to determine the presence of historical occupation of the Study Area and to thus assess the potential for built heritage resources to be present.
11.58 This study included searches from the following sources: the Antiquities and Monuments Office published and unpublished papers and studies; publications on relevant historical, anthropological and other cultural studies; unpublished archival, papers, records; collections and libraries of tertiary institutions; historical documents which can be found in Public Records Office, Lands Registry, District Lands Office, District Office, Museum of History; cartographic and pictorial documentation.
11.59 If the Study Area is determined to have the potential for containing heritage resources, then a field survey must be conducted in all areas where built heritage potential is established and existing information is not conclusive for purposes of the assessment.
11.60 A field survey was undertaken using the following methodology:
11.61 As well as the resources highlighted by the AMO in the brief, the survey incorporated all works areas and other areas up to 100 metres from the project boundary.
11.62 The following is the definition of features that fall within the scope of Built Heritage Survey:
Definition of Features that Fall within the Scope of Built Heritage Survey
· All pre 1950 structures, which include any built feature (apart from graves and historical land use features, which are dealt with separately), such as; domestic structures, ancestral halls, temples, shrines, monasteries and nunneries, village gates, wells, schools, historic walls, bridges and stone tablets;
· Any post 1950 structure deemed to possess features containing architectural or cultural merit
· All pre-war clan graves
· Cultural landscape features, such as fung shui woods and ponds
· Historical land use features, such as historical tracks and pathways, stone walls and terraces, ponds and other agricultural features.
11.63 The detailed methodology for each of the categories of resources is presented below:
11.64 The survey consisted of a field evaluation incorporating the collection of photographic, oral and written information on the architecture and history of all structures that may be impacted by the proposed works.
This information was hand recorded
in the field. The information collected in the field survey was then entered
onto type written forms for inclusion in the report. The design of the forms is
based on AMO and ICOMOS (International Charter for the Conservation and
Restoration of Monuments and Sites) standards for the recording of historical
resources with modifications to suit architectural styles and situations
11.66 The forms were designed to provide details of all identified resources, including written descriptions of each recorded feature, including; age, details of architectural features, condition, past and present uses, an architectural appraisal, notes on any modifications, direction faced and associations with historical/ cultural events or individuals.
11.67 The location of each feature has also been highlighted on a 1:1000 scale map. A description of the surrounding environment was also included as part of the survey.
11.68 Pre-war clan graves were included in the survey. Graves falling within any works area and which may receive direct impacts were recorded on field recording forms, which include a written description, a photographic record, a copy of the inscription and the dimensions. The locations of any identified graves and/ or grave groupings have been highlighted on a 1:1000 scale map.
Cultural and Historical Landscape Features
11.69 Written description of any recorded feature will be made, including information gathered from interviews with local informants. The location of each recorded feature will be highlighted on a 1:1000 scale map and a photographic record of each identified feature made.
11.70 The following shows results of both the Desk-top Study and the Field Survey:
Results of the Desk-top Study
The exact historical settlement patterns on the Southern
Coast of Hong Kong Island are not well documented. However, there are
historical references to incense production and a settlement called “
The Collinson map of 1845 shows a village called “Heong
Kong” situated to the Northeast of Nam Long Shan, see Figure 11.20. The revised
version of this map dating to 1895, refers to the village as “Little Hong
Kong”, see Figure 11.21. An early description of the
village, dating from the
11.73 During the period between 1840 and 1860 the village became overcrowded and some of the inhabitants formed a new settlement which they called “San Wai”, although the village was never walled. The settlement denoted simply as “village” is shown to be situated in the centre of agricultural fields on the Collinson map of 1895. An 1893 government survey document of the village states that the new village was entirely populated by former inhabitants of the old village (JHKBRAS 1967).
Directly prior to and during the Second World War, Brick
Hill (the current location of
11.75 There are no Declared Monuments in or within the vicinity of the Study Area.
Graded Historical Buildings
11.76 No. 10 San Wai, Wong Chuk Hang is a Grade II Historical Building.
Ungraded Historical Buildings
The current site of
11.79 The hillsides along Nam Long Shan Road have the potential to contain historical graves.
Cultural and Historical Landscape Features
11.80 No cultural or historical landscape features were identified in the desk-based study.
Results of the Field Survey
Wong Chuk Hang San Wai
World War II structures along Nam Long Shan Road
Four World War II bunkers were identified in the Upland
One historical grave was located in the Lowland area of
Cultural and Historical Landscape Features
11.84 No cultural or historical landscape features were identified in the field survey.
11.85 All of the resources within the Study Area have been recorded, mapped and described, any potential adverse impacts associated with the works were identified and assessed. As well, appropriate mitigation measures have been presented, where required.
Identification of Impacts
11.86 The impacts will be associated with the construction works, including site formation at both the Lowland and Headland sections of the park.
11.87 The Lowland, which will be renamed the Waterfront under the project, will be redeveloped with the reconstruction and addition of new attractions and facilities, including new aquarium, shark tanks, lagoons, and new rides.
The Headland, which will be renamed the
Prediction of Impacts
11.89 Any heritage resource located within close proximity to the works area may be adversely impacted through vibration and/ or receive direct damage from construction works. The access to temples, shrines and ancestral halls must also be maintained throughout the construction phase.
11.90 The impacts associated with this phase of the project are of an aesthetic nature, in the sense that the surrounding environment of the historical villages and structures may be altered through expansion of the theme park.
Evaluation of Impacts
11.91 Table 11.2 details adverse impacts to historical buildings during construction phase.
Buildings in Wong Chuk Hang San Wai (AAHB-900 to 915)
100 metres (works associated with construction of new back of house facilities and entry plaza)
None, as the works will be carried out at a sufficient distance from the village such that standard vibration level limits will be acceptable for the historical structures in the village.
Buddhist Blessing Stone near Wong Chuk Hang San Wai (AAHB-916)
60 metres (works associated with construction of new back of house facilities and entry plaza)
None, as the resource contains no fragile structural elements and works are located at a sufficient distance to prevent any vibration impacts.
Military Buildings on
(AAHB-917 to 920)
There are no major works planned in the vicinity of the structures. Ongoing slope improvement works may be required in the vicinity of the buildings.
Blasting for summit site formation and tunnel portal are located at approximately 12 metres from the buildings.
There will be no direct impacts to the structures. The buildings were constructed directly into the hillside and contain no delicate structural features, the windows and doors are modern. The structures will not be impacted by ongoing slope works in their vicinity.
As the four buildings have been undergoing regular maintenance and contain no fragile architectural elements, the blasting programme will not cause any adverse impacts to the buildings.
11.92 Table 11.3 details adverse impacts to historical graves during construction phase.
Table 11.3 Adverse
Impacts to Historical
The grave is located within the works boundary for the new theme park development (near the boundary between the Birds of Paradise and Aqua City Sections. There are no specific works situated on the grave site.
The grave may be impacted by construction works in its immediate vicinity.
11.93 Table 11.4 details adverse impacts to historical buildings during operation phase.
Minimum distance to Proposed development
Buildings in Wong Chuk Hang San Wai
(AAHB-900 to 915)
Wooded area in front of village which borders
None, as all works are located on the opposite side of the existing
Buddhist Blessing Stone (Wong Chuk Hang San Wai) (AAHB-916)
Shrine is located in wooded area next to
None, as all works are located on the opposite side of the existing Wong Chuk Hang road (expressway) and will not infringe on the wooded area containing the stone.
Old Military Buildings on
(AAHB-917 to 920)
There are no works planned in the immediate vicinity of the buildings.
Wooded hillside and Nam Long Shan Road
No adverse environmental impact will arise.
11.94 Table 11.5 details adverse impacts to historical graves during operation phase.
Table 11.5 Adverse impacts to the Historical
Minimum distance to Proposed development
The grave is located within the works boundary for the new development (near the boundary between the Birds of Paradise and Aqua City Section.
The grave is within the development area (currently the grave is
situated in a small landscaped area on a hillside beside a footpath within
the grounds of
None, as the original setting of the grave has already been extensively modified for the construction of the existing theme park.
11.95 No mitigation measures will be required.
11.96 No mitigation measures will be required.
11.97 The redevelopment plans show no landscaping or structural works on the site of the grave, see Figure 11.24. Any future alterations to the design should allow for the grave to be retained in-situ. If construction works are planned in the vicinity of the grave, a one-metre buffer zone demarcated by a temporary fence should be provided around the grave.
11.98 No mitigation measures will be required.
11.100 The existing impacts at the Lowland including the car park near the existing main entrance of the park have resulted in such disturbance rendering the potential for archaeology in situ minimal/nil. No further action is recommended.
A programme of Archaeological Investigation (AI), including
test pit excavations should be undertaken at HKSM and City
Bus Depot sites before the construction phase to verify the underlying stratigraphy and
presence of archaeological deposits. It is envisaged that the scope of the
Archaeological Investigation should be agreed with Antiquities and Monuments
Office (AMO) prior to the licence application of
the qualified archaeologist and the commencement of the construction
works. An AI report should be compiled
in accordance with Section
11.102 The construction phase works associated with the proposed development will have no impacts on the recorded historical buildings in the Study Area.
11.103 Grave G1 lies within the
11.104 A programme of archaeological investigation, including test pit excavations should be conducted prior to the construction works at the HKSM and City Bus Depot sites. The scope of the AI should be agreed with AMO prior to the licence application of the qualified archaeologist and the commencement of the construction works.
11.105 A qualified archaeologist
should undertake the Investigation. The
archaeologist should apply for a licence to excavate and search for antiquities
in accordance with the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap. 53). Upon any
discovery of significant cultural remains during the AI, the archaeologist will
report the findings immediately to AMO and provide field registers for
examination upon request. An AI report should be
compiled in accordance with Section
11.106 The paving and any artificial layers currently covering the HKSM and City Bus Depot sites should be removed in the areas where archaeological testing will be conducted before the AI can commence. The access to the HKSM and City Bus Depot sites during the AI should be restricted to designated personnel only.
11.107 The Project Proponent should allow a flexibility to undertake contingency arrangement. Should significant archaeological materials be discovered in the course of the construction, appropriate mitigation measures should be designed and implemented by the Project Proponent in consultation with the AMO.
11.108 The grave (G1) should be preserved in situ and if any works take place within the vicinity of the grave then a one metre buffer zone (marked by a one temporary fence) should be provided by the contractor for the duration of the construction works.
Aerial Photography library GEO:
1924 reference no. Y00046
1949 reference no. Y01232
1945 scale 1:20 000 sheet 19 and 23
1957 scale 1:25 000 sheet 19
1969 scale 1:10 000 sheet 13D
1970 scale 1:10 000 sheet 19B
1971 scale 1:10 000 sheet 13D
1975 scale 1:7 500 sheet 14
1978 scale 1:7 500 sheet 14
1924 reference no. H12/14
1924 reference no. HQ 6/30
1976 reference no. 15865
1978 reference no. 20822
Assessments Ltd. 2001. Agreement No. CE
65/96 Planning and Development Study on
Ko T.K. & Wordie,
J. 1996 Ruins of War: A Guide to Hong Kong’s
Battlefields and Wartime Sites Joint Publishing,
Li W.F. 1955.How the natural environment, economic, and
social conditions combine to affect the activities of the people in Wong Chuk
MacKenzie, K. S. 1842 Narrative of the Second Campaign in
Peacock B.A.V. and T. Nixon
1986. Report of the
JHKBRAS (Ed.) 1967 “Notes
and Queries” pp. 161 – 170 The Journal of the Hong Kong British Royal
Asiatic Hong Kong Society
Maunsell AECOM March 2005. Repositioning and long Term Operation Plan of Ocean Park Project Profile. On the web.
Enpack Geotechnical Engineering Co. Ltd. 1994. Site Investigation of Effluent Discharge (Phase 2) for Ocean Park Corporation, Hong Kong.
Engineering Co. Ltd. 1990. Site
Consultants Ltd. 1995. Ground
Investigation Report-LT101/95 Simulator Ride,
GAMMON 1975. Hong Kong Ocean Park-Lowland Site.