This section presents an
assessment for cultural heritage impact associated with the Project,
identifying marine archaeological resources and assessing potential marine
archaeological impacts from the proposed marine activities on these resources,
and proposing mitigation measures where required.
following legislation and guidelines are relevant to this study:
and Monuments Ordinance (Cap. 53)
Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) (Cap. 499, S.16)
Memorandum on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (EIAO-TM)
Notes on Assessment of Impact on Sites of Cultural Heritage in Environmental
Impact Assessment Studies (GN-CH)
Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG)
Archaeological Investigation Guidelines.
Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance
Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap. 53) was enacted in 1976 and provides
statutory protection against the threat of development for Declared Monuments
including historical buildings/structures and archaeological sites on land and
underwater, which have been recommended by the Antiquities Advisory Board
(AAB), approved by the Chief Executive and gazetted to enable their
preservation for posterity.
Deemed Monuments have been identified by the Antiquities and Monuments Office
(AMO) and agreement reached with the owners of the Monuments to ensure their
preservation. Deemed monuments have
the potential to be upgraded to statutory Declared Monuments.
archaeological sites, all relics dated prior to A.D.
1800 belong to the Hong Kong Government under the Antiquities and Monuments
Ordinance. A number of known archaeological sites are recorded by the AMO and
the Office should be consulted of any development in these sites. Once
identified as having the potential for conservation, archaeological sites are
entered into the record.
EIAO, EIAO-TM & GN-CH
EIAO provides additional legislative protection to sites of cultural heritage
that are threatened by development and the Environmental Protection Department
is its authority. Annexes 10 and 19
of the EIAO-TM outline the guidelines and criteria for the CHIA. The GN-CH
serves as a reference to assist the understanding of the requirements set out
in Section 2 of Annex 10 and Annex 19 of the EIAO-TM under the EIAO in
assessing impact on sites of cultural heritage in EIA studies.
Hong Kong Planning Standards
10 of the HKPSG provides general guidelines and measures for the conservation
of historical buildings, archaeological sites and other antiquities.
AMO Guidelines for Marine Archaeological
11.2.7 The AMO have issued Guidelines for
Marine Archaeological Investigation (MAI) which details the standard practice,
procedures and methodology which must be undertaken in determining the marine
archaeological potential, presence of archaeological artefacts and defining
suitable mitigation measures.
In accordance with the
requirements set out in Section 3.4.13 of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-153/2006,
the relevant requirements in the EIAO-TM and guideline issued by the
Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO), a Marine Archaeological Investigation
(MAI) was conducted for this Project.
Details of the MAI are present in Appendix 11.1. The key findings and recommendations are
presented in the sections below.
11.3.2 A survey of historical buildings and structures within the Project
Area have been carried by the Antiquities and Monuments Office of the Leisure
and Cultural Services Department (LCSD) in February 2001 and approved in
pervious WDIICFS EIA report. A new
historical building and structure found in between 2001 and 2007 is not
expected. For the North Point Area,
the works areas where mainly located at the new reclamation area and no
historical buildings nearby.
Therefore, the findings in the pervious approved EIA report are still
valid and assessment for the building heritage is not required.
11.4.1 As identified in the approved EIA
report, an archaeological site namely Kellett Island Archaeological Site is
located at Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club (RHKYC). Since the Trunk Road of the
current design will pass beneath the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club in tunnel (more
than 20m below ground), potential impact of the Kellett Island Archaeological
Site is not expected. A desktop review of relevant available marine
archaeological information and relevant geophysical data within the Project
area was conducted by a qualified marine
archaeologist. The results of the
review are presented below.
Review of Report NO: SDA8827
11.4.2 In May 2001 the AMO commissioned SDA Marine Ltd to undertake a MAI
for Wanchai Reclamation Phase II. In accordance with AMO Guidelines the MAI
comprised: Baseline Review, Geophysical Survey and Underwater Inspection.
11.4.3 The study area exactly replicated the current study area with the
exception of a small section at North Point adjacent to the Causeway Bay
typhoon shelter. It can therefore
be assumed that the results of the previous study are directly applicable to
the current project.
11.4.4 The Baseline Review indicated a high marine archaeological potential
as the study area has always been at the centre of development and industry
within Victoria Harbour. However, the marine archaeological
potential is diminished by the existing reclamation and associated disturbance
on the seabed.
11.4.5 The geophysical survey deployed: echo sounder, seismic profiler and
side scan sonar. The survey was
commissioned to meet the needs of the MAI and therefore the methodology was
designed to enhance acquisition of archaeological data.
11.4.6 The survey provided 200% coverage of the seabed and subsurface
sediments. Nine anomalies were
identified in the survey data. A diver inspection was carried out to obtain
accurate information about their archaeological potential. Each anomaly was successfully located
and examined by a diver. There were
two modern shipwrecks, four pieces of metal construction material, two large
concrete blocks and a small metal container.
It was concluded that there
were no archaeological resources within the study area and no need for any
mitigation measures or constraints on the proposed development.
The Baseline Review did not
find any specific references to the presence of shipwrecks in the study
area. However, as North Point is
within one of the busiest sections of Victoria
Harbour it will have been at the
centre of maritime activity in Hong Kong since
the city was established. The
combined effects of piracy and typhoons would have increased the likelihood of
shipwrecks. This is diminished by
the extensive development and engineering works in the study area which will
have served to disturb or destroy archaeological remains.
The baseline review indicates
high archaeological potential for the North Point study area that was not covered
in the MAI in 2001
(Report No. SDA8827). In accordance
with AMO Guidelines a geophysical survey for the North Point study area was
undertaken. The survey aim was to locate any possible
marine archaeological resources on the seabed at North Point study area (Figure 2 of Appendix 11.1).
Detailed examination of the
geophysical survey data enabled accurate assessment of the seabed within the
study area. The area is
characterised by extensive disturbance as evidence by trawl marks and a very
significant amount of modern dumped material. This is compatible with its
location within one of the busiest sections of Victoria Harbour
and adjacent to existing reclamation and engineering works. These activities
would have a negative impact on the seabed thereby reducing its archaeological
potential. The mound of debris on the foreshore shown in Figure 4 of Appendix 11.1 is very likely to be the same type
of material that was identified in the survey data.
There is one large non-natural
feature on the seabed (SC012) which has significant dimensions (6.3 x 1.2x 0.3m) and it has clearly defined linear
shape. The fact that it remains so
intact leads to the conclusion that it is a small modern motorised work boat.
In the context of the A.M. Ordinance (Cap. 53), the site is not an antiquity or
relic. It would be impossible for a historic wreck to have such a cohesive
structure after extensive exposure in such a dynamic underwater
It is therefore concluded that
there are no archaeological resources within the study area.
Since there is no
archaeological material present within the study area, there is no need for any
further archaeological investigation or mitigation measures.
No residual cultural heritage
impact is expected.
is no monitoring and audit requirement for the marine archaeology.
Marine Archaeological Investigation has been carried out for the seabed that will be affected
by the reclamation required by the Project. The aim of the
investigation was to locate and assess underwater archaeological resources
which may be damaged by the dredging and reclamation. In accordance with AMO
Guidelines, the MAI consisted of a Baseline Review and Geophysical Survey.
results of the MAI in 2001 (Report No. SDA8827) are applicable to the current
study since they cover the same seabed area, with the exception of North
Point. There have not been any
significant changes to the seabed since 2001 which would have affected its
archaeological potential. According to the MAI in 2001, it was concluded there
were no archaeological resources within the study area of Wan Chai.
baseline review indicates high archaeological potential for the North Point
study area. To ensure compliance
with AMO Guidelines for MAI, it is therefore necessary to carry out a
geophysical survey for this area.
The geophysical survey provided
very detailed information about features on the seabed. Within the study area, the seabed is
characterised by the presence of dumped materials, trawl marks, scars and other
evidence of previous disturbance. The geophysical survey located one
significant sonar contact but its intact linear shape indicated it was a
shipwreck of modern origin. There
were no other sonar contacts which merited further investigation.
It is therefore concluded that
there are no marine archaeological resources within the study area. It follows
that there are no related constraints on the proposed development. There is no need for any further
archaeological investigation or mitigation measures.