10                                        LANDSCAPE AND VISUAL IMPACTS

10.1                                  Introduction

This section identifies the landscape and visual impacts associated with the Extension in accordance with the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance.  Construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phase impacts have been assessed.

The assessment includes:

·         A list of the relevant environmental legislation and guidelines;

·         a definition of the scope and contents of the Assignment, including a description of the assessment methodology;

·         a review of the relevant planning and development control framework;

·         a review of comments on landscape and visual issues received during previous consultation with the public and/or advisory bodies and how these have been addressed in the design;

·         a baseline study providing a comprehensive and accurate description of the baseline landscape and visual character;

·         recommendation of appropriate mitigation measures and associated implementation programmes; and

·         identification of potential landscape and visual impacts and prediction of their magnitude and potential significance, before and after the mitigation measures.

All potential impacts and proposed mitigation measures are clearly mapped in colour and illustrated with clear annotation and cross-referencing between text, tables and illustrations.  Colour photographs showing baseline conditions, and photomontages and illustrative materials supporting conclusions are provided and the locations of all viewpoints are clearly mapped.  Photomontages at representative locations provide comparison between existing views; proposals on day 1 after completion without mitigation; on day 1 after mitigation, and at year 10 after mitigation.

10.2                                  Environmental Legislation and Guidelines

The following legislation, standards and guidelines are applicable to the assessment of landscape and visual impacts associated with the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare of the Extension:

·         Forests and Countryside Ordinance (Cap. 96) and its subsidiary legislation the Forestry Regulations;

·         Town Planning Ordinance (Cap 131);

·         Animals And Plants (Protection of Endangered Species) Ordinance (Cap 187);

·         Country Parks Ordinance (Cap 208);

·         Marine Parks Ordinance (Cap 476) and associated subsidiary legislation;

·         Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (Cap.499, S.16) and the Technical Memorandum on EIA Process (EIAO TM), particularly Annexes 10, 11, 18, 20 and 21;

·         EIAO Guidance Note 8/2002;

·         Tseung Kwan O Outline Zoning Plan No.S/TKO/15 (2 November 2004);

·         Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines;

·         Work Branch Technical Circular (WBTC) No. 25/93 - Control of Visual Impact of Slopes;

·         SILTech Publication (1991) – Tree Planting and Maintenance in Hong Kong (Standing Interdepartmental Landscape Technical Group) [11-23];

·         WBTC No. 17/2000 – Improvement to the Appearance of slopes in connection with WBTC 25/93;

·         WBTC No. 7/2002 – Tree Planting in Public Works;

·         ETWB TC (Works) No. 34/2003 – Community Involvement in Greening Works;

·         ETWB TC (Works) No. 2/2004 : Maintenance of Vegetation and Hard Landscape Features;

·         ETWB TC (Works) No. 29/2004 : Registration of Old and Valuable Trees, and Guidelines for their Preservation;

·         ETWB TC (Works) No. 11/2004 – Cyber Manual for Greening;

·         ETWB TC (Works) No. 3/2006 - Tree Preservation;

·         Land Administration Office Instruction (LAOI) Section D-12 – Tree Preservation;

·         Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) publication (1999) – Use of Vegetation as Surface Protection on Slopes;

·         GEO 1/2000 – Technical Guidelines on Landscape Treatment and Bio-engineering of Man-made Slopes and Retaining Walls;

·         Urban Council Publication (1998) - Champion Trees in Urban Hong Kong (Chinese Language Edition);

·         Urban Services Department ‘Plant Selection Matrix’ (1992);

·         Housing Department ‘Basic Plant List’ (1988);

·         AFCD ‘Check List of Hong Kong Plants 2001’ (2002); and

·         AFCD 'Rare and Precious Plants of Hong Kong' (2004).

In addition, reference has been made to the South East New Territories (SENT) Landfill Contract EP/SP/10/91 Final Restoration Landscape Masterplan Report (December 1996).

10.3                                  Scope and Content of the Study

10.3.1                            The SENT Landfill Extension Project

The nature and extent of the Extension is described in detail in Section 3 of this Report.

10.3.2                            Limits of the Study Area

The limit of the landscape impact study is 500m beyond the limit of the works. The limit of the visual impact study is the maximum extent of the Visual Envelope of the works during the construction phase and operation / restoration and aftercare phases, which are illustrated in Figures 10.3a and 10.3b.

10.3.3                            Assessment Methodology

Landscape and visual impacts have been assessed for the construction, operation, restoration and aftercare phases.  However, as the operation and restoration phases occur concurrently in a phased manner, impacts for the operation / restoration phases are assessed together.

Landscape Impacts

The assessment of landscape impacts has involved the following procedures.

·         Identification of the baseline landscape resources (physical and cultural) and landscape character found within the Study Area.  This is achieved by site visit and desk-top study of topographical maps, information databases and photographs.

·         Assessment of the degree of sensitivity to change of landscape resources / character.  This is influenced by a number of factors including whether the resource/character is common or rare, whether it is considered to be of local, regional, national or global importance, whether there are any statutory or regulatory limitations / requirements relating to the resource, the quality of the resource/character, the maturity of the resource, and the ability of the resource / character to accommodate change. The sensitivity of each landscape feature and character area is classified as follows:

High:

Important landscape or landscape resource of particularly distinctive character or high importance, sensitive to relatively small changes

Medium:

Landscape or landscape resource of moderately valued landscape characteristics reasonably tolerant to change

Low:

Landscape or landscape resource, the nature of which is largely tolerant to change

·         Identification of potential sources of landscape impacts. These are the various elements of the construction, operation works and aftercare works that will generate landscape impacts.

·         Identification of the magnitude of landscape impacts.  The magnitude of the impact depends on a number of factors including the physical extent of the impact, the landscape and visual context of the impact, the compatibility of the project with the surrounding landscape; and the time-scale of the impact ie whether it is temporary (short, medium or long term), permanent but potentially reversible, or permanent and irreversible.  Landscape impacts have been quantified wherever possible. The magnitude of landscape impacts is classified as follows:

 

Large:

The landscape or landscape resource will experience a major change

Intermediate:

The landscape or landscape resource will experience a moderate change

Small:

The landscape or landscape resource will experience slight or barely perceptible changes

Negligible:

The landscape or landscape resource will experience no discernible change.

·         Identification of potential landscape mitigation measures.  These may take the form of adopting alternative designs or revisions to the basic engineering and architectural design to prevent and/or minimise adverse impacts; remedial measures such as colour and textural treatment of building features; and compensatory measures such as the implementation of landscape design measures (eg tree planting, creation of new open space etc) to compensate for unavoidable adverse impacts and to attempt to generate potentially beneficial long term impacts. A programme for the mitigation measures is provided.  The agencies responsible for the funding, implementation, management and maintenance of the mitigation measures are identified and their approval-in-principle has been sought.

·         Prediction of the significance of landscape impacts before and after the implementation of the mitigation measures. By synthesising the magnitude of the various impacts and the sensitivity of the various landscape resources it is possible to categorise impacts in a logical, well-reasoned and consistent fashion.  Table 10.3a shows the rationale for dividing the degree of significance into four thresholds, namely insubstantial, slight, moderate, and substantial, depending on the combination of a negligible-small-intermediate-large magnitude of impact and a low-medium-high degree of sensitivity of landscape resource/character.  The significant thresholds are defined as follows:

Substantial:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause significant deterioration or improvement in existing landscape quality

Moderate:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause a noticeable deterioration or improvement in existing landscape quality

Slight:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause a barely perceptible deterioration or improvement in existing landscape quality

Insubstantial:

No discernible change in the existing landscape quality

·         Prediction of Acceptability of Impacts.  An overall assessment of the acceptability, or otherwise, of the impacts according to the five criteria set out in Annex 10 of the EIAO-TM.

Table 10.3a    Relationship Between Receptor Sensitivity and Impact Magnitude in Defining Impact Significance

 

 

 

Large

 

Slight / Moderate*

 

 

Moderate / Substantial*

 

Substantial

Magnitude of Impact

 

 

Intermediate

 

Slight / Moderate*

 

Moderate

 

 

Moderate /  Substantial*

 

 

Small

 

Insubstantial / Slight*

 

Slight / Moderate*

 

Slight / Moderate*

 

 

Negligible

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

 

 

Positive

Positive

Positive

Positive

 

 

 

Low

Medium

High

 

 

Receptor Sensitivity

(of Landscape Resource, Landscape Character Area or VSR)

* In these instances, if the lower level of impact is predicted, this will be justified in the description of landscape impacts.

Visual Impacts

 

The assessment of visual impacts has involved the following procedures.

·         Identification of the Visual Envelope during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases of the Extension.  This is achieved by site visit and desk-top study of topographic maps and photographs, and preparation of cross-sections to determine visibility of the Extension from various locations.

·         Identification of the Visually Sensitive Receivers (VSRs) within the Visual Envelope at construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases.  These are the people who reside within, work within, play within, or travel through, the Visual Envelope.

·         Assessment of the degree of sensitivity to change of the VSRs.  Factors considered include:

-    the type of VSRs, which is classified according to whether the person is at home, at work, at play, or travelling.  Those who view the impact from their homes are considered to be highly sensitive as the character of views from their home will have a substantial effect on their perception of the quality and acceptability of their home environment and their general quality of life.  Those who view the impact from their workplace are considered to be of low sensitivity as the character of views will have a less important effect on their perception of their quality of life.  Those who view the impact whilst taking part in an outdoor leisure activity may display varying sensitivity depending on the type of leisure activity, but will generally be high.  Those who view the impact whilst travelling on a public thoroughfare will also display varying sensitivity depending on the speed of travel, but will generally be medium.

-    Other factors which are considered (as required by EIAO GN 8/2002) include the value and quality of existing views, the availability and amenity of alternative views, the duration or frequency of view, and the degree of visibility.

The sensitivity of VSRs is classified as follows:

High:

The VSR is highly sensitive to any change in their viewing experience

Medium:

The VSR is moderately sensitive to any change in their viewing experience

Low:

The VSR is only slightly sensitive to any change in their viewing experience

·         Identification of the relative numbers of VSRs.  This is expressed in terms of whether there are very few, few, many or very many VSRs in any one category of VSR.

·         Identification of potential sources of visual impacts.  These are the various elements of the construction, operation/restoration, and aftercare works that will generate visual impacts.

·         Assessment of the potential magnitude of visual impacts.  Factors considered include:

-      compatibility with the surrounding landscape;

-      duration of the impact;

-      reversibility of the impact;

-      scale of the impact and distance of the source of impact from the viewer; and

-      degree of visibility of the impact, and the degree to which the impact dominates the field of vision of the viewer.

The magnitude of visual impact is classified as follows:

Large:

The VSRs will experience a major change in the character of their existing views;

Intermediate:

The VSRs will experience a moderate change in the character of their existing views;

Small:

The VSRs will experience a small change in the character of their existing views;

Negligible:

The VSRs will experience no discernible change in the character of their existing views.

·         Identification of potential visual mitigation measures. These may take the form of adopting alternative designs or revisions to the basic engineering and architectural design to prevent and/or minimise adverse impacts; remedial measures such as colour and textural treatment of building features; and compensatory measures such as the implementation of landscape design measures (eg tree planting, creation of new open space etc) to compensate for unavoidable adverse impacts and to attempt to generate potentially beneficial long term impacts. A programme for the mitigation measures is provided.  The agencies responsible for the funding, implementation, management and maintenance of the mitigation measures are identified and their approval-in-principle has been sought.

·         Prediction of the significance of visual impacts before and after the implementation of the mitigation measures. By synthesising the magnitude of the various visual impacts and the sensitivity of the VSRs, and the numbers of VSRs that are affected, it is possible to categorise the degree of significance of the impacts in a logical, well-reasoned and consistent fashion.  Table 10.3a shows the rationale for dividing the degree of significance into four thresholds, namely, Insubstantial, Slight, Moderate, Substantial and Positive, depending on the combination of a negligible-small-intermediate-large magnitude of impact and a low-medium-high degree of sensitivity of VSRs.  Consideration is also given to the relative numbers of affected VSRs in predicting the final impact significance - exceptionally low or high numbers of VSRs may change the result that might otherwise be concluded from Table 10.3a. The significance of the visual impacts is categorised as follows:

Substantial:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause significant deterioration or improvement in existing visual character;

Moderate:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause a noticeable deterioration or improvement in existing visual character;

Slight:

Adverse / beneficial impact where the proposal will cause a barely perceptible deterioration or improvement in existing visual character;

Insubstantial:

No discernible change in the existing visual character.

·         Prediction of Acceptability of Impacts.  An overall assessment of the acceptability, or otherwise, of the impacts according to the five criteria set out in Annex 10 of the EIAOTM.

In addition, it is assumed that funding, implementation, management and maintenance of the mitigation proposals can be satisfactorily resolved according to the principles in WBTC 14/2002.  All mitigation proposals in this Report are practical and achievable within the known parameters of funding, implementation, management and maintenance. The suggested agents for the funding and implementation (and subsequent management and maintenance, if applicable) are indicated in Tables 10.7a to 10.7c.  Approval-in-principle to the implementation, management and maintenance of the proposed mitigation measures has been sought from the appropriate authorities.

10.4                                  Planning and Development Control Framework

A review has been undertaken of the current planning goals and objectives, statutory land-use and landscape planning designations for the Study Area. 

10.4.1                            Outline Zoning Plan Designations

The statutory designations for the Study Area are shown on the Tseung Kwan O Outline Zoning Plan (S/TKO/15) 2 November 2004 (see extract in Figure 10.4a). 

The Extension will lie on two OZP planning areas:

·         Area 101 - currently the existing SENT Landfill, zoned ‘O’ – Open Space

·         Area 137 - currently a vacant reclamation, zoned ‘OU’ – Other Uses

The planning intention for Area 101 is stated on Page 18 of the OZP as being:

“This zone is intended primarily for the provision of outdoor open-air space for active and/or passive recreational uses serving the needs of local residents as well as the general public.”

and at Para 7.9.3 of the OZP as being:

“The landfill sites in Areas 77, 101 and 105 will be developed into major open spaces upon completion of the landfill.  However, any development proposals within the 250m Consultation Zone of these landfills will need to include a Landfill Gas Hazard Assessment to the satisfaction of the Environmental Protection Department.”

The planning intention for Area 137 is stated on Page 22 of the OZP as being:

“This zone is intended primarily for special industries which require marine access, access to deep water berths or water frontage.  Industries to be accommodated within this zone are usually capital intensive, land-intensive and cannot be accommodated in conventional industrial buildings.”

and at Para 7.10(d) as being:

deep-waterfront industry in Area 137 for industries which require marine access”

In the short-term, the Extension will not accord with the planning intention for Area 101 (ie the existing SENT Landfill), in that its use as public open space will be delayed until completion of the restoration works of the Extension.  However, in the longer term, the area can still be used as public open space after restoration of the Extension.

The use of Area 137 as part of the Extension does not accord with its proposed OZP land use as Deep Waterfront Industry.  However, in landscape terms, the possible use of the restored Extension as a public open space would probably be preferable to its use as Deep Waterfront Industry. 

10.4.2                            Country Park Designation

The proposed Extension will also fall within the Clear Water Bay Country Park.  The purposes of Country Parks are stated in Section 4 of the Country Parks Ordinance (Cap.208) as being inter alia:

·         To encourage recreation and tourism;

·         To protect vegetation and wildlife;

·         To preserve and maintain buildings and sites of historic or cultural significance; and

·         To provide facilities and services for the public enjoyment.

The planning intention for Country Parks is set out in the Para 3.3.2 of Section  10 (Conservation) of the Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines as being:

for the purposes of nature conservation, countryside recreation and nature education…criteria for determining whether or not a particular location is suitable for designation as a Country Park…include landscape quality, recreation potential…”

In so far as the planning objectives of Country Parks relate to landscape, the small part of the Extension (approximately 5 ha out of the total 50 ha of the Extension) encroached into the CWBCP will to a certain degree conflict (at least in the short term) with the Country Park objectives relating to ‘landscape quality’ identified above, and also of allowing the public to enjoy “the countrypark” and also of protection of landscape resources such as flora.  However, in the long term when the Extension is restored and landscaped, the landscape quality would be improved and the conflict with landscape planning objectives will diminish.

10.5                                  Baseline Study

10.5.1                            Physical, Human and Cultural Landscape Resources

The baseline physical landscape resources that will be affected during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases, together with their sensitivity to change, are described below.  The locations of the landscape resources are mapped in Figure 10.5a.  Photo-views illustrating the landscape resources are shown in Figures 10.5b to 10.5e inclusive.  For ease of reference and co-ordination between text, tables and figures each landscape resource is given an identity number.

Geology

The Study Area lies on volcanic rocks (mainly acid lavas and tuffs) of the Repulse Bay formation dating from the Mesozoic period.  This geology results in the steep and highly angular and jagged topography of much of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.

Topography

Topography within the Study Area is highly varied.  Most of the Extension Site lies on land reclaimed from Junk Bay or at the interface of this reclaimed land with the natural topography of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.  The Study Area includes the steep coastal uplands of Tin Ha Shan (273mPD) and the valley of Tin Ha Au to the east of the site, which forms part of the upland ridge that runs along the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.  To the north of the Extension Site lies the highly disturbed topography of the existing SENT Landfill which lies on reclaimed land.  Where the existing SENT Landfill adjoins the Clear Water Bay Peninsula, there are extensive areas of rock cut and soil cut slope.  To the west, lies flat reclaimed land on which lies the Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate as well as the currently vacant Area 137.  Further west, the Study Area includes a small part of the steep natural eastern hillsides of Fat Tong Chau (100mPD), formerly an island, but now joined to Clear Water Bay Peninsula by the reclamation works.  Topographic features are identified in more detail below.

Drainage

The uplands of Clear Water Bay Peninsula act as a natural water shed and a number of streams tumble off Tin Ha Shan into Tin Ha Au and thence into the sea on the east or south coast of the Peninsula.  Other streams on the west side of the Peninsula have been canalised where they reach the existing SENT Landfill or reclamation and discharge into Junk Bay.  Drainage features are described in more detail below.

Vegetation

Vegetation within the Study area includes shrubland, grassland and plantation.  On the Area 137 Reclamation, the process of succession has resulted in invasion of scrub and grassland.  Vegetation on restored areas of the existing SENT Landfill includes exotic plantation.  Other vegetation in the Study area includes roadside and amenity planting along Wan Po Road and TKOIE as well as around the infrastructure area and access road.  Vegetation within the Study Area is described in more detail below.

Public Open Spaces

A small part of the Extension Site and that part of the Study Area east of the Site lies within Clear Water Bay Country Park.  The Country Park covers the upland areas of the narrow mountainous Clear Water Bay Peninsula.  There is little access to the western part of the Country Park other than via the High Junk Peak Trail which follows the summit of the ridge of hills along the Peninsula. 

Soil

The soils of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula are generally Krasnosems, or Red Loams, associated with volcanic rocks.  They are characterised by a lack of profile development with thin humus deficient upper horizons on a very deep friable clay or clay loam.  Areas north, south and west of the Extension Site lie on reclamation, which consists of marine silts and/or general fill.

10.5.2                            Specific Landscape Resources

LR1 – Shrubs and topography on Fat Tong Chau Hillside

This landscape resource consists of 3.52 ha of steep natural hillside with shrubs on the former island of Fat Tong Chau (now joined to the Clear Water Bay Peninsula by reclamation).  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR2 – Trees and shrubs in TVB City of Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate

This landscape resource consists of approximately 10 semi-mature ornamental trees such as Erythrina variegata, with a typical height of 5m.  There are also some ornamental shrubs planted in this area.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR3 – Shrubs in Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Building, TKO Industrial Estate

This landscape resource consists of a small area of ornamental shrubs planted in front of one of the units on the Industrial Estate.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR4 – Trees along Chun Wang Street

This landscape resource consists of about 20 semi-mature roadside trees, comprising mainly Melaleuca quinquenervia and Crateva unilocularis.  They have a typical height of 6m.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR5 – Trees along Wan Po Road

This landscape resource consists of approximately 100 mature Ficus microcarpa trees with an average height of 6m and 200 semi-mature trees, with a typical height of 3m comprising mainly Lagerstroemia speciosa, Ficus altissima.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR6 – Drainage channel in TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of a man-made concrete-lined channel approximately 0.2m deep, 5m wide and 1,435m long with algae present in the water.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR7 – Trees in northern part of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of approximately 100 young trees comprising mainly the weedy species, Leucaena leucocephala with an average height of 3m.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR8 – Coastal water east of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of around 1.73 ha of coastal water lying east of Area 137, and forming part of Junk Bay.   The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

LR9 – Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of around 2.71 ha of scattered grass and shrubs on the vacant reclamation of Area 137. The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR10 – Stream on Fat Tong Chau Hillside

This landscape resource consists of an artificial channel (around 100m long) flowing from Fat Tong Chau to TKOIE.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR11 – Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan

This landscape resource consists of about 40 semi-mature trees lying on what appears to be re-graded lower hillsides.  Vegetation comprises mainly Ficus microcarpa, Macaranga tanarius and Sapium sebiferum.  They have a typical height of 4m.  There is also some shrub in the area.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

LR12 – Infrastructure Area

This landscape resource consists of approximately 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the landfill offices and laboratories.  Trees comprise Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens and Melaleuca quinquenervia.  They have a typical height of 6m.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

LR13 – Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill

This landscape resource consists of about 7.50 ha of semi-mature trees comprising Acacia confusa, Albizia lebbeck, Ficus fistulosa, Ficus microcarpa planted as Phases 1-3 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill.  They have a typical height of 7m.  Recreated topography appears slightly artificial, although this effect diminishes as vegetation matures.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill

This landscape resource consists of about 5.80 ha of semi-mature trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Macaranga tanarius planted as Phases 1-6 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill.  They have a typical height of 6m.  Recreated topography appears slightly artificial, although this effect diminishes as vegetation matures.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

LR15 – Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill

This landscape resource consists of about 15.11 ha of young trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill.  They have a typical height of 3m.  Recreated topography appears slightly artificial, although this effect diminishes as vegetation matures.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR16 – Grassland and topography in the existing SENT Landfill

This landscape resource consists of about 6.89 ha of hydroseeded grassland on recently filled areas in the existing SENT Landfill.  Recreated topography appears slightly artificial.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR17 – Man-made slope with shrubs and grass in the existing SENT Landfill

This landscape resource consists of about 10.28 ha of steep man-made slopes.  Slopes are benched and comprise areas of rock, shotcrete and soil with grass and a few scattered shrubs scattered.  Soils in this area are fabricated, and not of great sensitivity.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Low”.

LR18 – NOT USED

LR19 – Trees, shrubs and topography in Ha Shan Tuk

This landscape resource consists of a group of approximately 40 trees comprising mainly Acacia confusa, Casuarina equisetifolia with a typical height of 7m which lie on rolling hillsides at Ha Shan Tuk (probably with some natural topsoil cover).  There is also some scrub vegetation. The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR20 – Shrubs and topography in Tin Ha Shan

This landscape resource consists of an area of 30.45 ha of the natural slopes of the hill of Tin Ha Shan (probably with some natural topsoil cover), which has a covering of common native shrub species.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR21– Streams in Tin Ha Shan  

This landscape resource consists of a natural stream approximately 0.5m wide and 327m long flowing from Tin Ha Shan to Clear Water Bay.  This stream is seasonal and is without water in dry season.  Common riparian vegetation species are present along the natural bank.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR22 – Trees, shrubs and topography in Tin Ha Au

This landscape resource consists of the valley of Tin Ha Au which is densely covered by about 8.30 ha of mature trees comprising typically Litsea glutinosa, Sapium sebiferum, Rhus succedanea and Zanthoxylum avicennae (probably with some natural topsoil cover).  They have a typical height of 7m.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR23 – Shrubs and Topography in Lower ridge east of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of an area of about 17.1 ha of natural lower hillsides on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  Hillsides (probably with some natural topsoil cover) are covered with a scattering of grass and common native shrub species (eg Rhaphiolepis indica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and Melastoma candidum).  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR24 – Grass, shrubs and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of an area of about 19.54 ha of natural upper hillsides on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  Hillsides (probably with some natural topsoil cover) are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native spaces.   The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR25 – Sandy shore south of ridge east of TKO Area 137

This landscape resource consists of a sandy shore / beach approximately 130m long and 5m wide on the south west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  The shore is backed by rocks. The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR26 – Streams in Tin Ha Au

This landscape resource consists of a series of natural stream courses falling down the sides of the valley at Tin Ha Au.  They are characterised by common riparian vegetation species along their banks.  In total, they are approximately 4,200m long, and are typically around 1m wide and 0.2m deep.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR27 – Sandy shore off Tin Ha Au

This landscape resource consists of a sandy shore / beach approximately 140m long and 10m wide at the mouth of the Tin Ha Au Valley.  The shore is backed by rocks.  The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “High”.

LR28 – Coastal water off Tin Ha Au

This landscape resource consists approximately 18.00ha of coastal waters south/east of Tin Ha Au. The sensitivity of this landscape resource is “Medium”.

10.5.3                            Landscape and Visual Character Areas

Several landscape and visual character areas (LCAs) have been identified within the Study Area.  These areas, and their sensitivity to change, are described below.  The locations of the character areas are indicated on Figure 10.5f.  For ease of reference and co-ordination between text, tables and figures each landscape character area is given an identity number.

LCA1 - Fat Tong O Reclamation

This landscape comprises an area of completed and ongoing reclamation located at the south western tip of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula, between Junk Bay and Joss House Bay (see Figure 10.5f).  The landscape comprises a large, flat and low-lying area of reclamation on the south west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, adjoining the Tathong Channel.  To the north, it abuts the former island of Fat Tong Chau and to the south it adjoins Tit Cham Chau.  The reclaimed shoreline is constructed from a straight alignment of armour stone seawall.  The area is currently reclaimed but undeveloped and there is a constant flow of trucks to the area.  There is little or no vegetation in the landscape, except for occasional patches of scrub.  The result is an almost uniform landscape of huge scale elements which has a character that is expansive and visually incoherent and which has a “Low” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5g).

LCA2 - Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate

This low-lying landscape lies south of Tseung Kwan O town on the west coast of Clear Water Bay Peninsula, between the MTR depot and Fat Tong Chau (see Figure 10.5f).  The landscape comprises an industrial estate and is built on land reclaimed from Junk Bay.  The bay forms the western coastal edge to the landscape at an armour stone seawall.  The landscape is divided into a grid by interior roads and serviced from the north by the Wan Po Road.  Despite the presence of established infrastructure, the eastern half of the landscape has been developed for industrial use.  Buildings comprise contemporary modern medium-rise office and factory outlets.  The industrial estate is open and uncluttered and has wide pavements and a spacious layout.  Vegetation consists of street tree planting.  The result is a simple landscape of large scale elements which has a character that is enclosed and moderately visually coherent and which has a “Medium” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5g).

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill

This landscape lies on reclaimed land on the west coast of Clear Water Bay Peninsula, between the Clear Water Bay Peninsula central uplands and Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate (see Figure 10.5f).  This rolling landscape comprises the existing SENT Landfill which is enclosed on three sides by the uplands of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.  Northern parts of the landfill are still active and are characterised by newly tipped waste, areas of waste which are being covered, as well as a constant stream of trucks entering the existing SENT Landfill.  Southern parts of the existing SENT Landfill have been partly restored by soil capping and have been hydroseeded and planted with woodland whips and shrub species.  The topography slopes evenly from approximately 100mPD down to its western boundary with the Wan Po Road.  The smooth grassy slopes are criss-crossed by large surface drainage channels and there is an infrastructure area on the southern boundary.  Other features in the landscape include rock cut slopes and a storage pond.  The result is a complex landscape of large scale elements which has a character that is open and visually incoherent and which has a “Low” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5g).

LCA4 - Fat Tong Chau Headland

This landscape consists of the hilly former island of Fat Tong Chau, which lies off the west coast of Clear Water Bay Peninsula (see Figure 10.5f) in the South-east New Territories.  Fat Tong Chau was formerly an island but is now connected to Clear Water Bay Peninsula by reclamation.  It rises steeply to a summit at 100mPD.  Slopes are natural and rolling and fall to a rocky foreshore on the western coast, which still adjoins Junk Bay.  To the north, south and east, the former island is connected to the new reclamation and slope works are evident.  Vegetation on the slopes of what is now a headland consists of natural scrub and trees.  There are few human features in this landscape except for an historic Fat Tau Chau Old Chinese Custom's Station on the northern shore and an informal footpath.  Streams tumble down the lower slopes of the headland to the sea.  The result is a simple rural landscape of large scale elements which has a character that is open and tranquil and which has a “High” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5h).

LCA5 - Clear Water Bay Peninsular Coastal Uplands

This upland landscape forms the spine of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula (see Figure 10.5f).  The rolling uplands of Clear Water Bay Peninsula comprise a long ridgeline above steep slopes running from Sheung Yeung Shan in the north to Ha Shan Tuk and Tin Ha Shan in the south.  The uplands are dominated by High Junk Peak, an extremely steep and jagged peak rising to a height of 344mPD.  The uplands fall to Clear Water Bay to the east and include the small rocky headlands at Ngam Ha Tong in the north and Tai Wong Kung in the South.  In general, the coast comprises low cliffs and rocky foreshore, but also beaches such as Clear Water Bay Second Beach.  East facing slopes tend to be more smooth and even than those to the west.  The landscape is largely undeveloped.  However, the Clear Water Bay Road runs along the east side of the ridge and there is a footpath along the ridge itself.  A small road provides access to traditional fishing village houses and a temple at the southern headland at Tai Wong Kung.  Elsewhere, a small sheltered bay lies on the north east coast of the headland at Po Toi O forming a traditional fishing harbour for the village of the same name.  The village contains traditional houses, seafood restaurants, a temple and a small pier.  There are numerous cut slopes along the Clear Water Bay Road.  To the south of the LCA, on the north shore of Joss House Bay, is the Tin Hau Temple at Tai Miu which one of the largest and best known Tin Hau temples in Hong Kong.  Vegetation within the uplands comprises grassland and emergent scrub to west facing slopes and scrub woodland to east facing areas.  The result is a simple rural landscape of large scale elements which has a character that is open and tranquil and which has a “High” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5h).

LCA6 - Tathong Channel

This landscape comprises the areas of inshore water between Hong Kong Island and Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  The waters extend from Junk Bay and Victoria Harbour in the north to the tip of Cape D’Aguilar (Hong Kong Island) in the south (see Figure 10.5f).  The landscape is fairly well contained by the steep hills of eastern Hong Kong Island and those of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula.  To the south, the waters open out to the open sea.  The landscape comprises primarily the waters themselves, as well as Ng Fan Chau, a small, steep rocky island which lies within Island Bay to the immediate south of the Shek O Headland.  The island rises evenly from a low rocky coast to a rounded peak of 47mPD and its vegetation comprises mainly scrub.  Kau Pei Chau is a small double island at the southern tip of the D’Aguilar Peninsula within Cape D’Aguilar Marine Reserve.  The island rises gently from the water to a twin peak 45mPD and is covered by scrub vegetation.  Generally, this is an almost uniform landscape of huge scale elements, which has a character that is open and tranquil and which has a “High” sensitivity to change (see Figure 10.5h).

10.5.4                            Visual Envelope

The Visual Envelope will vary during the life of the Extension.  The Visual Envelope during the construction phase will reflect the extent of progressive clearance of vegetation and topsoil at the existing SENT Landfill (see Figure 10.3a).  As the Extension fills during the operational / restoration phase and rises in height, the extent of the Visual Envelope will increase.  The Visual Envelope for the aftercare phase (ie the maximum extent of the Visual Envelope) is illustrated in Figure 10.3b.  Both figures show the extent of the Primary Visual Envelope which is that area within 10km of the Extension from which it can be seen.  Although in a small number of cases, there will be a direct line of sight to the Extension from areas beyond this distance, it is considered that the effects of distance will mean that any visual impacts are “Insubstantial”.

To the north, the Primary Visual Envelope will extend as far as Fei Ngo Shan (602mPD) and Razor Hill (432mPD) as well as high ground around Tai Sheung Tok, Mau Wu Shan (233mPD), Black Hill (281mPD) and Devils Peak (221mPD).  Taller buildings within Po Lam and northern parts of Tseung Kwan O (Metro City) will also fall within the Primary Visual Envelope.  Eastern parts of northern Tseung Kwan O (East Point City) will not fall within the Primary Visual Envelope as it will be screened by intervening landforms and restored landfills.  The Primary Visual Envelope will include the area designated for the extension of Tseung Kwan O as well as higher ground on the western slopes of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.

To the east, the Primary Visual Envelope is almost wholly contained by the ridge of hills along the Clear Water Bay Peninsula.  However, in one location where the hills dip between High Junk Peak (344mPD) and Tin Ha Shan (273mPD), the Primary Visual Envelope will extend east of the Peninsula including only a small area around Tai Wan Tau.  It will also include waters east of Clear Water Bay Peninsula as far as Basalt Island.

To the west, the Primary Visual Envelope is defined by the high ground of Mount Parker (531mPD) and Pottinger Peak (312mPD) on Hong Kong Island and includes taller buildings urban areas of Taikoo, Quarry Bay, Sai Wan Ho, Heng Fa Chuen, and Siu Sai Wan.  It also extends to higher ground at Violet Hill (404mPD) and Mount Butler (436mPD).  In Kowloon, there is a direct line of sight to the Extension at Hung Hom.

To the south, the Primary Visual Envelope extend to the northern slopes of Tung Lung Chau, to the Tathong Channel (as far as the Po Toi Islands) and to the Dragon’s Back, Shek O Peak (284mPD) and Shek O on Hong Kong Island.

Cross-sections showing the derivation of the Visual Envelope (especially with regard to Clear Water Bay Country Park) are presented in Figure 10.5i.

10.5.5                            Visually Sensitive Receivers (VSRs)

Within the Visual Envelope, a number of key Visually Sensitive Receivers (VSRs) have been identified.  These VSRs are mapped in Figure 10.5j.  They are listed, together with their sensitivity, in Table 10.7a.  For ease of reference, each VSR is given an identity number, which is used in the text tables and figures. 

10.6                                  Landscape Impact Assessment

10.6.1                            Potential Sources of Impacts

The Extension will involve various sources of landscape and visual impact.  The extent of the above works is indicated in Figure 10.5a.

The proposed development will create varying levels of impact on the physical landscape resources and landscape character of the surrounding areas at different stages of its lifetime.

During the Construction Phase, potential impacts will result from the following:

·         Access road construction;

·         Temporary slope works;

·         Removal of vegetation and re-grading of existing slopes;

·         Presence of machinery and plant;

·         Relocation and construction of the leachate treatment plant, laboratory and offices;

·         Liner installation works; and

·         Storage of existing topsoil for reinstatement works.

During the Operational / Restoration Phase, potential impacts will result from the following:

·         Filling material;

·         Presence of machinery and plant;

·         Lorry and other vehicle traffic to the Extension;

·         Temporary cover and final cover earthworks;

·         Night lighting;

·         Storage of existing topsoil for reinstatement works;

·         Presence of landfill gas and leachate treatment plants, laboratory and offices; and

·         Restored slope profiles with channels.

During the Aftercare Phase, potential impacts will result from the following:

·         Restored slope profiles with channels; and

·         Presence of the landfill gas and leachate treatment plants, laboratory and offices.

10.6.2                            Nature and Magnitude of Landscape Impacts Before Mitigation in Construction Phase

The magnitude of the impacts, before implementation of mitigation measures, on landscape resources and landscape character areas that will occur in the Construction Phase are described below and tabulated in Table 10.6d.  All impacts are adverse unless otherwise stated.

Landscape Resources

LR7 – Trees in Northern TKO Area 137:  The construction of an access road and filling operations will be close to the resource, but are unlikely to significantly affect it.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”. 

LR9 - Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137:  Earthworks and vegetation clearance will require the removal of around 0.16 ha of scrub currently self-seeded on the Area 137 reclamation.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

LR11 - Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan:  Slope works will require the removal of around 40 semi-mature trees (mainly of Ficus microcarpa, Macaranga tanarius and Sapium sebiferum) currently found on what appears to be re-graded topography.  The magnitude of these impacts will be “Intermediate”.

LR12 – Infrastructure area of the existing SENT Landfill: Earthworks and clearance works will require the removal of around 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the landfill offices and laboratories (typically Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens, Melaleuca quinquenervia.).  The magnitude of these impacts will be “Small”.

LR13 - Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill:  Earthworks and clearance works for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 6.03 ha of semi-mature trees comprising (Acacia confusa, Albizia lebbeck, Ficus fistulosa and Ficus microcarpa) planted as Phases 1-3 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Large”.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill:  Earthworks and clearance works for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.63 ha of semi-mature trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Macaranga tanarius planted as Phases 1-6 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Intermediate”.

LR15 - Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill:  Earthworks and clearance works for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.57 ha of young trees comprising of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

LR23 - Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Re-grading of slopes for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 6.24 ha of natural lower hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered with a scattering of grass and common native shrub species (e.g. Rhaphiolepis indica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Melastoma candidum).  The magnitude of this impact will be “Large”.

LR24 - Grass and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137: Re-grading of slopes for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 0.05 ha of natural upper hillsides (including topsoils)on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native spaces.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

Landscape Character

The Extension will have potential impacts on three Landscape Character Areas during the Construction phase. 

LCA1 – Fat Tong O Reclamation:  Preparatory works for the Extension on the reclamation will include a small amount of vegetation clearance and the establishment of the office, leachate treatment plant and laboratory.  This will last about 3 years.  The magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Small”, as only the north-east corner of the reclamation will be affected (2.75 ha).

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill:  Preparatory works for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill will include vegetation clearance, stabilisation of slopes and demolition of infrastructure area over 3 years.  Works will affect approximately one third of the existing SENT Landfill area (29.50 ha) and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Intermediate”.

LCA5 – Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands:   Preparatory works for the Extension on the Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands will include vegetation clearance, topsoil removal and the stabilisation of slopes, over 3 years.  Works will affect only a small area (6.29 ha) of the uplands and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Small”.

10.6.3                            Nature and Magnitude of Landscape Impacts Before Mitigation in Operation / Restoration Phase

The magnitude of the impacts, before implementation of mitigation measures, on landscape resources and landscape character areas that will occur in the Operation/Restoration Phase are described below and tabulated in Table 10.6d.  All impacts are adverse unless stated as being “Positive”.

Landscape Resources

LR7 – Trees in Northern TKO Area 137:  The construction of an access road and filling operations will be close to the resource, but are unlikely to significantly affect it.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

LR9 - Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations will require the removal of around 0.16 ha of scrub currently self-seeded on the Area 137 reclamation.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

LR11 - Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan:  Filling operations will require the removal of around 40 semi-mature trees (mainly of Ficus microcarpa, Macaranga tanarius and Sapium sebiferum) currently found on what appears to be re-graded topography.  The magnitude of these impacts will be “Intermediate”.

LR12 – Infrastructure area of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling works will require the removal of around 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the Infrastructure area (typically Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens, Melaleuca quinquenervia.).  The magnitude of these impacts will be “Small”.

LR13 - Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 6.03 ha of semi-mature trees comprising (Acacia confusa, Albizia lebbeck, Ficus fistulosa and Ficus microcarpa) planted as Phases 1-3 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Large”.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.63 ha of semi-mature trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Macaranga tanarius planted as Phases 1-6 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Intermediate”.

LR15 - Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.57 ha of young trees comprising of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

LR23 - Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 6.24 ha of natural lower hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered with a scattering of grass and common native shrub species (e.g. Rhaphiolepis indica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Melastoma candidum) .  The magnitude of this impact will be “Large”.

LR24 - Grass and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 0.05 ha of natural upper hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native spaces.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”.

Landscape Character

The Extension will have potential impacts on three LCAs during the Operational/Restoration Phase. 

LCA1 – Fat Tong O Reclamation:  Landfilling works (with associated lorry movements) of the Extension for 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  The magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Intermediate” (15.64 ha).

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill:  Landfilling works (with associated lorry movements) of the Extension for 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  Works will affect approximately one third of the existing SENT Landfill area (29.50 ha) and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Intermediate”.

LCA5 – Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands:   Landfilling works of the Extension for 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  Works will affect only a small area (6.29 ha) of the uplands and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Small”.

10.6.4                            Nature and Magnitude of Landscape Impacts Before Mitigation in Aftercare Phase

The magnitude of impacts, before implementation of mitigation measures, on the landscape resources and landscape character areas that will occur in the Aftercare Phase are the same as the permanent and irreversible impacts described above for the Operation / Restoration Phase.  They are tabulated in Table 10.6d.  All impacts are adverse unless stated as being “Positive”.

10.6.5                            Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures in Construction, Operation/Restoration and Aftercare Phases

Alternative Layout Options

Several different layouts / profiles for the Extension were examined during the development of the final layout / profile.  The merits of each of the options with regard to landscape and visual issues are provided in Section 2 of this Report.

Other Mitigation Measures

The proposed landscape and visual mitigation measures for potential impacts generated during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases are described in Tables 10.6a to 10.6c together with the associated funding, implementation, management and maintenance agencies.  The mitigation measures, both on-site and off-site are illustrated in Figures 10.6a and 10.6b.

Table 10.6a    Proposed Construction Phase Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures

ID No.

Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measure

Funding Agency

Implementation Agency

CM1

The construction area and area allowed for the contractor’s office, leachate treatment plant and laboratory areas will be minimised to a practical minimum, to avoid impacts on adjacent landscape. 

 

EPD

Contractor

CM2

Topsoil, where identified, will be stripped and stored for re-use in the construction of the soft landscape works, where practical.  The Contract Specification will include storage and reuse of topsoil as appropriate.

 

EPD

Contractor

CM3

All existing trees at the edges of the Extension will be carefully protected during construction.  Detailed Tree Protection Specification will be provided in the Contract Specification. Under this specification, the Contractor will be required to submit, for approval, a detailed working method statement for the protection of trees prior to undertaking any works adjacent to all retained trees, including trees in contractor’s works areas.

EPD

Contractor

CM4

Trees unavoidably affected by the works will be transplanted where necessary and practical.   A detailed Tree Transplanting Specification will be provided in the Contract Specification, if applicable. Sufficient time for necessary tree root and crown preparation periods will be allowed in the project programme.

 

EPD

Contractor

CM5

Within 3 months of taking possession of the Extension Site, the Contractor will plant advance screen planting of Casuarina sp or Acacia sp at Light Standard size at 1.5m centres along the High Junk Peak Trail so as to screen views of the Works from the trail.  Tree planting locations will be agreed with AFCD.  Works will be completed within 9 months of taking possession of the Extension Site.

 

EPD

Contractor

CM6

The Contractor’s office, leachate treatment plant and laboratory will be given an aesthetic treatment in earth tone colours to reduce their visual impact and albedo and blend them into the surrounding landscape.

 

EPD

Contractor

CM7

The Contractor’s office, leachate treatment plant and laboratory will be surrounded by a min 5m wide and 0.75m high earth bund on the west and south sides planted with a dense screen of tree and shrub vegetation.  Additional tree planting will be provided in unused spaces with thin infrastructure site, along access roads and in and around car parks.  This will be supplemented with shrub planting, where appropriate.

 

EPD

Contractor

CM8

Planting trials will be carried out in an on-site nursery prior to implementation of the first phase of restoration to establish the best planting matrix and management intensity of the recommended plant materials for the restoration.

EPD

Contractor

Table 10.6b    Proposed Operation/Restoration Phase Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures

ID No.

Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measure

Funding Agency

Implementation Agency

OM1

Landfill materials will be covered with general fill material or CDG on a daily basis to reduce visual impact.

 

EPD

Contractor

OM2

Filling and restoration will be phased during the course of operations in a minimum of 6 phases, the restoration of each phase to commence immediately on the completion of filling in that phase.

 

EPD

Contractor

OM3

Catch fences will be erected at the perimeter of the waste boundary, to ensure that all waste stays within the site and is not blown into surrounding areas.

 

EPD

Contractor

OM4

All night-time lighting will be reduced to a practical minimum both in terms of number of units and lux level and will be hooded and directional.

EPD

Contractor

 

Table 10.6c    Proposed Aftercare Phase Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures

ID No.

Landscape Mitigation Measure

Funding Agency

Implementation Agency

Management Agency*(a)

Maintenance Agency*(a)

AM1

The Extension will be restored to resemble a natural hillside/ upland landscape as far as possible.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

AM2

Final restoration earthworks grading will provide both vertical and horizontal variation to simulate as far as practicable, natural terrain.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

AM3

Compensatory Tree Planting for all felled trees will be provided to the satisfaction of relevant Government departments.  Required numbers and locations of compensatory trees will be determined and agreed separately with Government during the Tree Felling Application process under ETWB-WBTC 3/2006.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

AM4

The restored Extension will be substantially vegetated so as to mimic the patterns of natural vegetation on surrounding hills.  At least 18.8ha of the area of the Extension Site will be planted with woodland mix planting at no less than 1.2m spacings.  80% of all plants planted will be native species.   The remainder of the site will be planted as a grassland / shrub mosaic.

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

AM5

Drainage channels will be treated with stone pitching or coloured pigment in an earth tone and will not be untreated concrete.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

AM6

Soil mix in accordance with the Government’s General Specification for Engineering Works will be used in the restoration works.  In areas of tree planting soil; mix will not be less than 1.2m deep.  In areas of scrub planting and grassland, it will not be less than 600mm deep.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years) then AFCD

Contractor (for 30 years) then AFCD

AM7

All above ground structures, including gas wells and flares will be sensitively designed in a manner that responds to the existing and planned urban context, and minimises potential adverse landscape and visual impacts.

 

EPD

Contractor

Contractor

Contractor

AM8

Permanent access and maintenance tracks will not have an unfinished concrete surface.  Acceptable finish materials might include granite, or concrete blocks in an earth tone colour.

EPD

Contractor

Contractor (for 30 years)

Contractor (for 30 years)

Note:

(a)        Management and Maintenance Agencies are identified as per WBTC 14/2002.

Programme of Implementation of Landscape and Visual Mitigation Measures

Construction phase mitigation measures above will be carried out before or during the operational/restoration phase of the Extension.

The operation/restoration phase measures listed above will be in place during the operational life of the Extension. 

The aftercare phase measures listed above will be adopted during the detailed design, and be built as part of the restoration works and maintained thereafter, so that they are in place at the date of completion of filling of the Extension and during the aftercare period.  However, landscape restoration mitigation will be phased during the operational life of the Extension and will be completed in a minimum of 6 restoration phases.  It will be noted that the full effect of the soft landscape mitigation measures would not be appreciated for several years.

10.6.6                            Prediction of Significance of Landscape Impacts

The potential significance of the landscape impacts during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases, before and after mitigation, are provided below in Table 10.6d and mapped in Figures 10.6c to 10.6h.  This assessment follows the methodology outlined above and assumes that the appropriate mitigation measures identified in Tables 10.6a and 10.6c above will be implemented, and that the full effect of the soft landscape mitigation measures will be realised after ten years.  Photomontages of the proposed development before and after mitigation are illustrated in Figures 10.6i to 10.6p inclusive.

Construction Phase

In the construction phase, after the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, there will still be some adverse residual landscape impacts as described below. 

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Substantial” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources:

LR23 - Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137:   Re-grading of slopes for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 6.24 ha of natural lower hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered with a scattering of grass and common native shrub species (eg Rhaphiolepis indica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Melastoma candidum).  The temporary loss of natural upland topography and native vegetation will constitute a “Substantial” impact during the Construction phase.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Moderate” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources:

LR11 - Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan:  Preparation works will require the removal of around 40 semi-mature trees (mainly of Ficus microcarpa, Macaranga tanarius and Sapium sebiferum) currently found on what appears to be re-graded topography.  It is unlikely that these trees can be transplanted and resulting temporary impacts during the construction phase will be “Moderate”.

LR13 - Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill:  Vegetation clearance in preparation for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 7.50 ha of semi-mature trees comprising (Acacia confusa, Albizia lebbeck, Ficus fistulosa, Ficus microcarpa) planted as Phases 1-3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill.  Given the ”Large” scale of this impact and the fact that the trees are now semi-mature, temporary impacts during the construction phase before mitigation will be “Substantial”.  However, as a number of the affected trees will be transplantable, the residual impacts will be reduced to “Moderate” after mitigation.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill:  Vegetation clearance in preparation for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill will require the removal / loss of about 3.63 ha of semi-mature trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Macaranga tanarius planted as Phases 1-6 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill.  Given the scale of this impact and the fact that the trees are now semi-mature, temporary impacts during the Construction Phase will be “Moderate”.

LR24 - Grass and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Re-grading of slopes for the Extension will represent a “Small” change to this resource, involving the loss / removal of about 0.05 ha of natural upper hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native species.  Although the sensitivity of this resource is “High”, the extent of topography and vegetation affected will be small and resulting temporary impacts during the construction phase after mitigation will therefore be “Moderate”.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR9 - Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137:  Vegetation clearance in preparation for the Extension will require the removal of around 0.56ha of scrub currently self-seeded on the Area 137 reclamation.  Given the “Low” sensitivity of this resource and the “Small” magnitude of change, resulting impacts during the construction phase will be “Slight”.

LR12 – Infrastructure area of the existing SENT Landfill:  Vegetation clearance in preparation for the Extension will require the removal of around 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the landfill offices and laboratories (typically Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens, Melaleuca quinquenervia.).  Given this “Medium” change to this resource of “Medium” sensitivity, temporary impacts during the construction phase before mitigation will therefore be “Moderate”.  As the number of trees affected will be relatively small and many may be transplantable, resulting temporary impacts after mitigation will be “Slight”.

LR15 - Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill:  Vegetation clearance in preparation for the Extension, on the existing SENT Landfill, will represent a “Small” change requiring the removal / loss of about 3.57 ha of young trees comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  As the vegetation affected will be relatively immature and small in extent, resulting temporary impacts on this resource of “Low” sensitivity during the construction phase will be “Slight”.

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill:  Preparatory works for the Extension of the existing SENT Landfill will include vegetation clearance, stabilisation of slopes and demolition of the infrastructure area.  Works will affect approximately one third of the existing SENT Landfill area (29.50 ha) and represent an “Intermediate” change.  Given that landfilling works will only just be complete at the existing SENT Landfill (and landscape restoration will not be very mature on some areas of the site at the time of the Extension) additional landfill-related works will not represent a very significant change to this landscape of “Low” sensitivity and resulting temporary impacts during the construction phase will therefore be “Slight”.

LCA5 – Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands:  Preparatory works for the Extension on the Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands will include vegetation clearance, topsoil removal and the stabilisation of slopes.  Works will affect only a small area (6.29 ha) but cleared, engineered slopes will contrast adversely with the muted natural colours, forms and textures of the existing uplands.  Resulting temporary impacts on this landscape character of “High” sensitivity will therefore be “Moderate” during the construction phase, but will be reduced to “Slight” after mitigation planting and aesthetic treatment to structures are applied.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Insubstantial” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR7 – Trees in Northern TKO Area 137:  The construction of an access road and filling operations will be close to the resource, but are unlikely to significantly affect it.  The magnitude of this impact will be “Small”, resulting in “Slight” impacts before mitigation.  Application of protective mitigation measures will reduce residual impacts to “Insubstantial”.

LCA1 – Fat Tong O Reclamation:  Preparatory works for the Extension on the reclamation will include a small amount of vegetation clearance and the establishment of the office, leachate treatment plant and laboratory.  Given the “Low” sensitivity of this landscape, this “Small” magnitude of change would normally result in “Slight” impacts.  However, due to ongoing reclamation works in this area and the fact that only the north-east corner of the reclamation will be affected (2.75 ha) the temporary impacts on this landscape during the construction stage will be “Insubstantial”.

All other impacts will be of “Insubstantial” significance.

Operation / Restoration Phase

In the operation/restoration phase (which will take place more or less concurrently), after the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, there will still be some adverse residual landscape impacts as described below. 

There will be no adverse residual landscape impacts of “Substantial” significance.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Moderate” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR23 - Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137:   Filling operations for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 6.24 ha of natural lower hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered with a scattering of grass and common native shrub species (eg Rhaphiolepis indica, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Melastoma candidum).  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  The temporary loss of natural upland topography and native vegetation will constitute a “Moderate” impact during the operation/restoration phase.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR11 - Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan:  Filling operations will require the removal of around 40 semi-mature trees (mainly of Ficus microcarpa, Macaranga tanarius and Sapium sebiferum) currently found on what appears to be re-graded topography.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  It is unlikely that these trees can be transplanted and resulting temporary impacts during the operation/restoration phase will be “Slight”.

LR13 - Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 7.50 ha of semi-mature trees (comprising Acacia confusa, Albizia lebbeck, Ficus fistulosa, Ficus microcarpa) planted as Phases 1-3 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  Given the ”Large” magnitude of this impact on a resource of “Medium” sensitivity and the fact that the trees are now semi-mature, temporary impacts during the operation/restoration phase before mitigation will be “substantial”.   However, transplanting of trees and other mitigation measures will reduce residual impacts to “Slight”.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.63 ha of semi-mature trees (comprising Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Macaranga tanarius) planted as Phases 1-6 of the restoration of the existing SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  Given the relatively large scale of this impact and the fact that the trees are now semi-mature, temporary impacts during the operation/restoration phase will be “Slight”.

LR24 - Grass and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 0.05 ha of natural upper hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native species.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  Although this is a resource of “High” sensitivity, the change to topography and vegetation will be “Small” and resulting temporary impacts during the operation/restoration phase before mitigation will be “Moderate”, reducing to “Slight” after mitigation.

LCA1 – Fat Tong O Reclamation:  Works for the Extension on the reclamation will include landfilling (with associated lorry movements) over 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  As only the north-east corner of the reclamation will be affected (15.64 ha) and given the incoherent landscape character and “Low” sensitivity of the existing reclamation, the Works will represent a ”Small decline in character.  Resulting temporary impacts during the operation/restoration phase will therefore be “Slight”.

LCA5 – Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands:  Works for the Extension on the Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands will include landfilling works over 6 years, and final cover grading, together with permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  These works will be accompanied by a phased landscape restoration.  Works will affect only a small area (6.29 ha) but the bright colours and artificial textures of waste, construction machinery and engineered slopes will contrast adversely with the muted natural colours and textures of the existing uplands, representing a “Small” change to this landscape.  Resulting temporary impacts on landscape character will therefore be “Moderate” before mitigation.  However, phased restoration works and aesthetic treatment to structures will reduce residual impacts to “Slight” during the operation/restoration phase.

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Insubstantial” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resource:

LR7 – Trees in Northern TKO Area 137:  The new access road and filling operations will be close to this resource of “Low” sensitivity, but are unlikely to significantly affect it.  The magnitude of this impact will therefore be “Small”, resulting in “Slight” temporary impacts, reducing to “Insubstantial” after mitigation.

LR9 - Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations will require the removal of around 0.16 ha of scrub currently self-seeded on the Area 137 reclamation.  Given the “Low” sensitivity of this resource and the “Small” magnitude of change, resulting temporary impacts during operation / restoration will be “Slight”, reducing to “Insubstantial” after mitigation.

LR12 – Infrastructure area of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling works will require the removal of around 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the Infrastructure area (typically Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens, Melaleuca quinquenervia).  Given this “Small” change to this resource of “Medium” sensitivity, impacts during the operation / restoration phase before mitigation will therefore be “Moderate”.  As the number of trees affected will be relatively small and many may be transplantable, resulting temporary impacts after mitigation will be “Insubstantial”.

LR15 - Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.57 ha of young trees comprising of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  As the vegetation affected will be relatively immature and small in extent, resulting temporary impacts on this resource of “Low” sensitivity will be “Slight”.  After mitigation, residual impacts during the operation / restoration phase will be “Insubstantial”.

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill:  Landfilling works (with associated lorry movements) of the Extension for 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  Works will affect approximately one third of the existing SENT Landfill area (29.50 ha) and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Intermediate”.  Given that landfilling works will only just be complete at the existing SENT Landfill (and landscape restoration will not be very mature on some areas of the site at the time of the Extension) additional landfill-related works will not represent a very significant change to this landscape of “Low” sensitivity and resulting temporary impacts during the operation / restoration phase will therefore be “Slight”, reducing to “Insubstantial” after mitigation.

All other impacts will be of “Insubstantial” significance.

Aftercare Phase

In the aftercare phase, after the implementation of the proposed mitigation measures, there will still be some adverse residual landscape impacts as described below. 

At Day 1 of the aftercare phase, adverse residual landscape impacts of Moderate significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR23 - Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137: Landscape restoration on former lower hillsides east of the Extension Site, will have the effect of partially compensating for the loss of natural topography, scrub vegetation and topsoils on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula. At Day 1 of aftercare, these impacts will be “Moderate”, but with the maturing of mitigation planting these impacts will be reduced to “Slight” at Year 10 (as the restored landform will be incapable of exactly replicating the former hillside topography).

At Day 1 of aftercare, adverse residual landscape impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resources and character areas:

LR11 - Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan:  The removal of around 40 semi-mature trees to allow for slope works and filling operation will be mitigated in the final restoration by restored slopes profiles and mitigation planting.  The result is that although impacts will be “Slight” at Day 1 of aftercare when vegetation is still young, impacts will be “Insubstantial” at Year 10 when vegetation matures. 

LR13 - Plantation and topography in the south of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will represent a “Large” change to this resource, requiring the removal / loss of about 6.03 ha of semi-mature trees as well as recreated topography over a fairly extensive area, thus resulting in “Moderate” impacts before mitigation.  The landscape restoration (regrading and replanting) associated with the Extension will mean that at Day 1 of aftercare, landscape impacts will be reduced to “Slight”.  At Year 10, after this vegetation has a chance to mature, residual impacts will be “Insubstantial”.

LR14 – Plantation and topography in the south-east of the existing SENT Landfill: Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.63 ha of semi-mature trees as well as recreated topography over a fairly extensive area.  The landscape restoration (re-grading and replanting) associated with the Extension will mean that at Day 1 of aftercare, landscape impacts will be reduced to “Slight”.  At Year 10, after this vegetation has a chance to mature, residual impacts will be “Insubstantial”.

LR24 - Grass and topography on upper ridge east of TKO Area 137:  Re-grading of slopes and filling operations for the Extension will require the loss / removal of about 0.05 ha of natural upper hillsides (including topsoils) on the south-west tip of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, which are covered predominantly with grass and also with some scattered shrubs of common native spaces.  The resulting impacts will therefore be “Moderate” before mitigation.  However, the extent of topography and vegetation affected will be small and with landscape restoration, landscape impacts at Day 1 of aftercare will be reduced to “Slight”.  At Year 10, after compensation vegetation has a chance to mature, residual impacts will be “Insubstantial”.

LCA5 – Clear Water Bay Peninsula Coastal Uplands:  Landfilling operations and landscape restoration will affect only a small area (6.29 ha) of this LCA.  Landscape restoration will have the effect of rendering the Extension largely (but not totally) consistent with the surrounding natural upland landscape, interns of colour, form and texture.  Impacts on landscape character before mitigation will thus be “Moderate”.  Immature mitigation planting at Day 1 of aftercare will reduce impacts to “Slight”, but the engineered gradients of the restoration will still be visible and will contrast unfavourably with surrounding natural landforms.  However, as restoration vegetation matures at Year 10, this will have the effect of obscuring these differences, and given the very limited area of this LCA affected by the Extension, residual impacts on landscape character will be further reduced to “Insubstantial”.

There will be “Slight Positive” landscape impacts on the following:

LCA1 – Fat Tong O Reclamation:  Given the low sensitivity and ongoing reclamation works in this area, landfilling works together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares will result in “Slight” impacts before mitigation.  Final cover grading and landscape restoration works will have the effect of turning what is currently a flat, open, un-vegetated and monotonous reclamation into a more diverse and more natural landscape than at present, with topographic variation and vegetation cover.  At Day 1 of aftercare, this effect on landscape character may not be very significant (and resulting impacts on landscape character “Insubstantial”) but as vegetation matures at Year 10, there will be “Slight Positive” impacts on existing landscape character. 

Adverse residual landscape impacts of “Insubstantial” significance will be experienced by the following landscape resource:

LR7 – Trees in Northern TKO Area 137:  The new access road and filling operations will be close to this resource of “Low” sensitivity, but are unlikely to significantly affect it.  The magnitude of this impact will therefore be “Small”, resulting in “Slight” impacts before mitigation.  Landscape restoration and mitigation planting will reduce residual impacts to “Insubstantial” at Day 1 and at Year 10 of aftercare.

LR9 - Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137:  Filling operations will require the removal of around 0.16 ha of scrub currently self-seeded on the Area 137 reclamation.  Given the “Low” sensitivity of this resource and the “Small” magnitude of change, resulting impacts during the aftercare phase will be “Slight” before mitigation.  Final cover grading and landscape restoration will reduce residual impacts to “Insubstantial” at Day 1 and at Year 10 of aftercare.

LR12 – Infrastructure area of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling works will require the removal of around 20 mature ornamental trees situated around the Infrastructure area (typically Ficus microcarpa, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ficus virens, Melaleuca quinquenervia).  Given this “Small” change to this resource of “Medium” sensitivity, impacts during the aftercare phase before mitigation will therefore be “Moderate”.  As the number of trees affected will be relatively small and many may be transplantable, residual impacts after mitigation will be “Insubstantial” at Day 1 and at Year 10 of aftercare.

LR15 - Plantation and topography in the west of the existing SENT Landfill:  Filling operations for the Extension on the existing SENT Landfill, will require the removal / loss of about 3.57 ha of young trees comprising of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia planted mainly as Phase 3 of the restoration of the SENT Landfill, as well as recreated topography.  As the vegetation affected will be relatively immature and small in extent, resulting temporary impacts on this resource of “Low” sensitivity will be “Slight”.  Final cover grading and landscape restoration works will reduce residual impacts during the aftercare phase to “Insubstantial” at Day 1 and at Year 10.

LCA3 – The existing SENT Landfill:  Landfilling works (with associated lorry movements) of the Extension for 6 years, together with temporary and final cover grading, and permanent infrastructure such as drainage channels, gas wells and flares.  Works will affect approximately one third of the existing SENT Landfill area (29.50 ha) and the magnitude of these impacts on this LCA will be “Intermediate”.  The new topography will not represent a very significant change to this landscape of “Low” sensitivity and resulting impacts will therefore be “Slight”.  Final cover grading and landscape restoration works will reduce residual impacts during the aftercare phase to “Insubstantial” at Day 1 and at Year 10.

All other impacts will be of “Insubstantial” significance.

 

Table 10.6d    Significance of Landscape Impacts in Construction, Operation / Restoration and Aftercare Phases (Adverse Impacts unless otherwise stated)

 

ID No.

Landscape Resource /

Landscape Character

Sensitivity to Change        (Low, Medium, High)

Magnitude of Change  BEFORE Mitigation      (Negligible, Small, Intermediate, Large)

Impact Significance BEFORE Mitigation 

(Insubstantial, Slight, Moderate, Substantial)

Recommended Mitigation Measures

Residual Impact Significance Threshold AFTER Mitigation  

(Insubstantial, Slight, Moderate, Substantial)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Construction

Operation / Restoration

Aftercare

 

 

 

Construction

Operation / Restoration

Aftercare

Construction

Operation / Restoration

Aftercare

 

 

 

DAY 1

YEAR 10

Part 1 – Physical Landscape Resources (Topography, Vegetation, Soil, Open Space, Special Features, etc)

LR1

Shrubs and topography on Fat Tong Chau Hillside

High

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR2

Trees and shrubs in TVB City of Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate

Low

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR3

Shrubs in Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering building, TKOIE

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR4

Trees along Chun Wang Street

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR5

Trees along Wan Po Road

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR6

Drainage channel in TKO Area 137

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR7

Trees in northern part of TKO Area 137

Low

 

Small

Small

Small

Slight

Slight

Slight

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR8

Coastal water east of TKO Area 137

Medium

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR9

Scrub in southern part of TKO Area 137

Low

 

Small

Small

Small

Slight

Slight

Slight

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR10

Stream at Fat Tong Chau Hillside

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR11

Trees and shrubs along lower hillside of Tin Ha Shan

Medium

 

Intermediate

Intermediate

Intermediate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Moderate

Slight

Slight

Insubstantial

LR12

Site office area of SENT Landfill

Medium

 

Small

Small

Small

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR13

Plantation and topography in south SENT Landfill

Medium

 

Large

Large

Large

Substantial

Substantial

Substantial

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Moderate

Slight

Slight

Insubstantial

LR14

Plantation and topography in south-east SENT Landfill

Medium

 

Intermediate

Intermediate

Intermediate

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Moderate

Slight

Slight

Insubstantial

LR15

Plantation and topography in west SENT Landfill

Low

 

Small

Small

Small

Slight

Slight

Slight

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR16

Grassland and topography in SENT Landfill

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR17

Man-made slope with shrubs and grass in SENT Landfill

Low

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR18

NOT USED

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LR19

Trees, shrubs and topography in Ha Shan Tuk

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR20

Shrubs and topography in Tin Ha Shan

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR21

Streams in Tin Ha Shan 

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR22

Trees, shrubs and topography in Tin Ha Au

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR23

Shrubs and topography in lower ridge east of TKO Area 137

High

 

Large

Large

Large

Substantial

Substantial

Substantial

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Substantial

Moderate

Moderate

Slight

LR24

Grass, shrubs and topography in upper ridge east of TKO Area 137

High

 

Small

Small

Small

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

CM1-CM4; CM8; AM1-4; AM6.

Moderate

Slight

Slight

Insubstantial

LR25

Sandy shore south of ridge east of TKO Area 137

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR26

Streams in Tin Ha Au

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR27

Sandy shore off Tin Ha Au

High

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LR28

Coastal water off Tin Ha Au

Medium

 

None

None

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Part 2 – Landscape Character Areas

LCA1

Fat Tong O Reclamation

Low

 

Small

Intermediate

Intermediate

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM1; CM6; CM7; OM1-4; AM1; AM2; AM4; AM7

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Slight Positive

LCA2

Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate

Medium

 

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LCA3

SENT Landfill

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

Intermediate

Slight

Slight

Slight

CM1; CM6; CM7; OM1-4; AM1; AM2; AM4; AM7

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LCA4

Fat Tong Chau Headland

High

 

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

LCA5

Clear Water Bay Peninsular Coastal Uplands

High

Small

Small

Small

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

CM1; CM6; CM7; OM1-4; AM1; AM2; AM4; AM7

Slight

Slight

Slight

Insubstantial

LCA6

Tathong Channel

High

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

None

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

 


10.7                                  Visual Impact Assessment

10.7.1                            Potential Sources of Visual Impacts

The sources of visual impact will be those identified above.

10.7.2                            Visual Mitigation Measures

The proposed landscape and visual mitigation measures for impacts caused during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases are described in Tables 10.6a to 10.6c, together with the associated funding, implementation, management and maintenance agencies, and the proposed implementation programme.  The mitigation measures are illustrated in Figures 10.6a and 10.6b.  Various views experienced by VSRs are illustrated in Figures 10.7a to 10.7d and Figures 10.6i to 10.6p.

10.7.3                            Prediction of Significance of Visual Impacts

An assessment of the potential significance of the visual impacts during the construction, operation / restoration and aftercare phases, before and after mitigation, is listed in detail in Table 10.7a.  Residual impacts are described below.  This follows the methodology outlined above and assumes that the appropriate mitigation measures identified in Tables 10.6a to 10.6c would be implemented, and that the full effect of the soft landscape mitigation measures would be realised after ten years of Aftercare.  Photomontages of the proposed development before and after mitigation are illustrated in Figures 10.6i to 10.6p inclusive.

Construction Phase

Residual visual impacts in the Construction Phase are mapped in Figure 10.7e.

VSRs North of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Hikers on the High Junk Peak Trail (R2) will have close range views (less than 250m) of the Extension, in which earthworks, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape (see Figure 10.6l).  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE and Area 137, which forms the middle distance of these views, as well as the limited numbers of these VSRs in comparison with other VSR groups.  Impacts will also be mitigated to a certain extent by advance screen planting along the trail.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·         Residential VSRs in the future Pak Shing Kok development (H1); Future Residents in Phase 2 of TKO new town (H2) and Future Residents in the TKO Area 86 development (H3) will have long distance views (1.6-2.7km) of the Extension (see Figure 10.6p).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the south side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the southern side of these developments.  In these views, earthworks and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

All other VSRs north of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs East of Extension Site

There are few VSRs east of (or on the east side of) the Clearwater Bay Peninsula who will be able to see the Extension Site.  Those who can see the Site, Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters East of Clear Water Bay (R16); Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters South of Bluff Island (R17); and Users of Clear Water Bay Country Park (East) (R22).  Visual impacts experienced by these VSRs will be limited to the top few metres of the existing SENT Landfill profile, which will be cleared / stripped, and which will be visible at the ridgeline of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula, in the saddle between Tin ha Shan and High Junk Peak.  The saddle is at about 122mPD whereas the summit of the existing SENT Landfill is at about 125mPD.  Impacts will offset by the limited numbers of VSRs in these groups and by the distance from which impacts will be visible (no closer than 1.9km).  For this reason, visual impacts during the construction phase on these VSRs will be “Insubstantial”. 

VSRs South of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in the Tathong Channel (R15) will have close range views (around 800m) of the construction works on the Extension seen behind TKOIE and TKO Area 137 Works, in which earthworks, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE and TKO Area 137, which forms the foreground of these views, as well as the limited numbers of these VSRs in comparison with other VSR groups.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

All other VSRs south of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs West of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Residents in Siu Sai Wan (H5) will have long distance views (2.7km) of the Extension (see Figure 10.6n).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the north and east side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the north and east side of developments.  In these views, earthworks and other construction works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and Area 137 Industrial Facilities and also by the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

All other VSRs west of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

Operation / Restoration Phase

Residual visual impacts in the operation / restoration phase are mapped in Figure 10.7f.

VSRs North of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Moderate” significance will be experienced by:

·         Hikers on the High Junk Peak Trail (R2) will have close range views (less than 250m) of the Extension, in which earthworks, landfilling works, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape (Figure 10.6l).  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by advance screen planting mitigation measures, the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE and TKO Area 137, which forms the middle distance of these views, as well as the limited numbers of these VSRs in comparison with other VSR groups.  This will constitute a “Moderate” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·         Residential VSRs in the future Pak Shing Kok development (H1); Future Residents in Phase 2 of TKO new town (H2) and Future Residents in the TKO Area 86 development (H3) will have long distance views (1.6-2.7km) of the SENT Extension (see Figure 10.6p).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the south side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the southern side of these developments.  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Moderate” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

Adverse residual visual impact of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Residential VSRs in the Tseung Kwan O New Town (H4) will have very long distance views (3.6-5km) of the Extension.  Those affected will be only those residents living on the south side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the southern side of these developments.  Views are likely to be obscured or broken by other buildings (including new development in TKO Phase 2).  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a large extent by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and the long distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·         Recreational VSRs using the restored TKO Landfill site (R25) will have long range views (2.2km) of the Extension, in which earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE (which forms the middle distance of these views) and the distance of these views.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·         Those using Wan Po Road (T3) (especially those close to the Extension Site) will experience views of the Extension Site – generally glimpsed through roadside vegetation – often from close range (around 20m) in which earthworks, landfilling works, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula (see Figure 10.6m).  Resulting visual impacts will be “Slight” due to the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and industrial areas.

All other VSRs north of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial“ residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs East of Extension Site

There are few VSRs east of (or on the east side of) the Clearwater Bay Peninsula who will be able to see the Extension Site.  Those who can see the Extension Site include Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters East of Clear Water Bay (R16); Boast Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters South of Bluff Island (R17); and Users of Clear Water Bay Country Park (East) (R22).  Visual impacts experienced by these VSRs will be limited to the top 30m of the Extension profile which will be visible at the ridgeline of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula, in the saddle between Tin ha Shan and High Junk Peak.  The saddle is at about 122mPD whereas the summit of the Extension will be at about 152mPD.  Impacts will offset by the limited duration during which this un-restored profile will be visible (only visible during the final phase of operation), by the limited numbers of VSRs in these groups and by the distance from which impacts will be visible (no closer than 1.9km).  For this reason, visual impacts during the operation / restoration phase on these VSRs will be “Insubstantial”. 

VSRs South of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Moderate” significance will be experienced by:

·         Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in the Tathong Channel (R15) will have close range views (around 800m) of the Extension seen behind TKOIE and Area 137 Works, in which the later stages of earthworks, landfilling works, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE and TKO Area 137, which forms the foreground of these views, as well as the limited numbers of these VSRs in comparison with other VSR groups.  This will constitute a “Moderate” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

Adverse residual visual impact of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Residents in Cape Collison Correctional Institute (H11); Residents in Shek O (H9), Visitors to Shek O (R7) and Hiker’s on the Dragon’s Back (R8) (see Figure 10.6o) will have very distant views (3-4.8km) of the Extension seen behind Area 137 Works, in which the later stages of earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  These views will only be visible to those on the northern side of Shek O.  The effect of the impacts will be offset by the distance of these views and presence of the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of Area 137, which forms the foreground of these views.  Resulting visual impacts will be “Slight”.

·         Workers in TKO Area 137 (O2) will experience close range views of the Extension often from close range (around 30m) in which earthworks, landfilling works, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula and Fat Tong Chau.  However, these impacts will be offset by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and the Area 137 industrial areas in these views, as well as the Low sensitivity of these receivers.  Resulting visual impacts will be “Slight”.

All other VSRs south of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs West of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Moderate” significance will be experienced by:

·         Residents in Siu Sai Wan (H5) will have long distance views (2.7km) of the Extension (see Figure 10.6n).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the north and east side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the north and east side of developments.  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and Area 137 Industrial Facilities and also by the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Moderate” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·        Visitors to Chai Wan Cemetery (East) (R14); Hikers on Pottinger Peak / Cape Collison (R13) and Visitors to TKO Cemetery and Devil’s Peak (R20) will have long distance views of the Extension (2.5-3.1 km).  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, TKOIE and Area 137 Industrial Facilities, by the distance from which they are viewed and by the limited number of these receivers.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·        Residents in Chai Wan (H6); Residents in Heng Fa Chuen (H7); and Residents in Sha Kei Wan (West) (H8) will have long distance views (3.7-4.7km) of the Extension.  Those affected will be only those residents living on the east side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the east side of developments.  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, TKOIE and TKO Area 137 Industrial Facilities and also by the long distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.

·        Travellers at the eastern end of the Island Eastern Corridor (T1) and Travellers on the Future Cross Bay Link (T2) will have distant views of the Extension (2.0-3.5 km).  In these views, earthworks and landfilling works will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape, which form the background.  Though the Island eastern Corridor is very distant, impacts will be increased by virtue of the large numbers of people in this VSR group.  Conversely, users of the future Cross Bay Link make up a smaller receiver group which is closer to the Extension.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, TKOIE and TKO Area 137 Industrial Facilities.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on both of these VSRs.

·        Workers in Existing (and Planned) Phases of TKOIE (O1) will experience close range views of the Extension often from close range (around 100m) in which earthworks, landfilling works, lorry movements and the presence of construction plant will contrast unfavourably with the natural forms and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula and Fat Tong Chau.  However, these impacts will be offset by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and the Area 137 industrial areas in these views, as well as the Low sensitivity of these receivers.  Resulting visual impacts will be “Slight”.

All other VSRs west of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

Aftercare Phase

Residual visual impacts in the Aftercare Phase are mapped in Figure 10.7g.

VSRs North of Extension Site

At Day 1 of the aftercare phase, adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Recreational VSRs using the restored SENT Landfill site (R1) and Hikers on the High Junk Peak Trail (R2) (see Figure 10.6l)  will have close range views (less than 250m) of the restored Extension, in which newly restored and vegetated slopes (as well as slopes restored some years before in early phases of the restoration) will be visible.  Newly restored slopes and vegetation will contrast slightly with the natural land forms, vegetation patterns and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of mitigation advance screen planting, the existing SENT Landfill, the industrial character of the landscape of the TKOIE and TKO Area 137 (which forms the middle distance of these views) as well as the limited numbers of these VSRs in comparison with other VSR groups.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.  At Year 10, as vegetation matures and increasingly hides landforms, visual impacts will be reduced to “Insubstantial”.

·         Residential VSRs in the future Pak Shing Kok development (H1); Future Residents in Phase 2 of TKO new town (H2) and Future Residents in the TKO Area 86 development (H3) will have long distance views (1.6-2.7km) of the restored Extension (see Figure 10.6p).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the south side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the southern side of these developments.  In these views, newly restored slopes and vegetation will contrast slightly with the natural land forms, vegetation patterns and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill, TKOIE and the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.  At Year 10, as vegetation matures and increasingly hides landforms, visual impacts will be reduced to “Insubstantial”.

All other VSRs north of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs East of Extension Site

There are few VSRs east of (or on the east side of) the Clearwater Bay Peninsula who will be able to see the Extension Site.  Those who can see the Site, Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters East of Clear Water Bay (R16); Boast Users and Workers in Vessels in Waters South of Bluff Island (R17); and users of Clear Water Bay Country Park (East) (R22).  Visual impacts experienced by these VSRs will be limited to the top 30m of the SENT Extension profile which will be visible able the ridgeline of the Clear Water Bay Peninsula, in the saddle between Tin ha Shan and High Junk Peak.  The saddle is at about 122mPD whereas the summit of the Extension will be at about 152mPD.  After restoration, the Extension will represent an insignificant change in the view to a very small number of VSRs, from some distance and for this reason, visual impacts at Day 1 and Year 10 of the aftercare phase will be “Insubstantial”. 

VSRs South of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of Slight significance will be experienced by:

·         Boat Users and Workers in Vessels in the Tathong Channel (R15) will have close range views (around 800m) of the restored Extension seen behind TKOIE and TKO Area 137 Works.  In these views, newly restored slopes and vegetation will contrast slightly with the natural land forms, vegetation patterns and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and industrial developments at TKOIE and TKO Area 137.  This will constitute a “Slight” level of visual impact on these VSRs.  At Year 10, as vegetation matures and increasingly hides landforms, visual impacts will be reduced to “Insubstantial”.

All other VSRs south of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 

VSRs West of Extension Site

Adverse residual visual impacts of “Slight” significance will be experienced by:

·         Residents in Siu Sai Wan (H5) will have long distance views (2.7km) of the SENT Extension (see Figure 10.6n).  Those affected will be only those residents living on the north and east side of towers and will be limited predominantly to those on the north and east side of developments.  In these views, newly restored slopes and vegetation will contrast slightly with the natural land forms, vegetation patterns and muted colours of the hills of the Clearwater Bay Peninsula, Fat Tong Chau and the surrounding seascape.  The effect of the impacts will be offset to a certain degree by the presence of the existing SENT Landfill and Area 137 Industrial Facilities and also by the distance from which they are viewed.  This will constitute a Slight level of visual impact on these VSRs.  At Year 10, as vegetation matures and increasingly hides landforms, visual impacts will be reduced to “Insubstantial”.

All other VSRs west of the Extension Site will experience “Insubstantial” residual visual impacts as noted in Table 10.7a. 


Table 10.7a    Significance of Visual Impacts in the Construction, Operation / Restoration and Aftercare Phases (Note: All impacts adverse unless otherwise noted)

 

Key Visually Sensitive Receiver (VSR)

Degree of Visibility of Source(s) of Visual Impact  (Full, Partial, Glimpse) & Distance Between VSR & Nearest Source(s) of Impact

Magnitude of Impact BEFORE Mitigation

(Negligible, Small, Intermediate, Large)

Receptor Sensitivity & Number                      

Impact Significance BEFORE Mitigation

(Insubstantial, Slight, Moderate, Substantial)

Recommended Mitigation Measures

Residual Impact Significance Threshold AFTER Mitigation

(Insubstantial, Slight, Moderate, Substantial)

VSR Type

Construction

Operation / Restoration

Aftercare

 

& ID.

 

Operation

Construction

Operation /  Restoration

 

 

Aftercare

 

 

 

Sensitivity

(Low, Medium, High)  

Number (Very Few, Few, Many, Very Many)

Construction

Operation / Restoration

 

 

Aftercare

 

 

 

 

(Substantial, Moderate,

Slight

Insubstantial)

(Substantial, Moderate,

Slight, Insubstantial

 

 

DAY 1

 

 

YEAR 10

 

 

R1

Users of Restored SENT Landfill

Full, 10

N/A

N/A

 

Large

High

Very Few

N/A

N/A

 

Substantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

N/A

N/A

Slight

Insubstantial

R2

Hikers on High Junk Peak Trail

Partial, 260

Intermediate

Large

Large

High

Very Few

Moderate

Substantial

Substantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Slight

Moderate

Slight

Insubstantial

R3

Hikers / Campers on Tung Lung Chau

Partial, 2100

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R4

Hikers on Razor Hill

Partial, 5700

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R5

Hikers on Wilson Trail (Tai Sheung Tok)

Partial, 6000

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R6

Hikers on Kowloon Peak (Fei Ngo Shan)

Partial, 8300

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R7

Visitors to Shek O

Full, 5100

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Many

Insubstantial

Moderate

Moderate

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R8

Hikers on Dragon’s Back

Full, 4600

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Few

Insubstantial

Moderate

Moderate

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R9

Hikers on Violet Hill

Partial, 8000

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R10

Users of Tai Tam Country Park (Quarry Bay Extension)

Full, 6500

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R11

Hikers on Mount Parker

Full, 4300

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R12

Hikers on Mount Collinson

Full, 4500

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R13

Hikers on Pottinger Peak / Cape Collinson

Full, 2500

Small

Intermediate

Intermediate

High

Very Few

Slight

Moderate

Moderate

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R14

Visitors to Chai Wan Cemetery (East)

Full, 3000

Small

Intermediate

Intermediate

High

Few

Slight

Moderate

Moderate

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R15

Boat Users (and Workers in Vessels) in Tathong Channel & Joss House Bay

Full, 800

Intermediate

Large

Large

High

Few

Moderate

Substantial

Substantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Slight

Moderate

Slight

Insubstantial

R16

Boat Users (and Workers in Vessels) in Waters east of Clear Water Bay

Partial, 1600

Negligible

Small

Small

High

 

Very Few

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R17

Boat Users (and Workers in Vessels) in Waters south of Bluff Island

Partial, 4500

Negligible

Negligible

 

Negligible

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R18

Boat Users (and Workers in Vessels) in waters south-east of Tung Lung Chau

Partial, 4500

Negligible

Negligible

Negligible

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R19

Boat Users (and Workers in Vessels) in Waters east of Cape D’Aguilar

Full, 4500

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Very Few

Insubstantial

Slight

Slight

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R20

Visitors to TKO Chinese Cemetery and Devil’s Peak

Full, 3100

Negligible

Small

Small

High

Many

Insubstantial

Moderate

Moderate

CM5-7; OM1-OM4; AM1-2; AM4-5; AM7-8

Insubstantial

Slight

Insubstantial

Insubstantial

R21

Hikers on Black Hill

Full, 4200

Negligible

Small

Small