6                     WASTE MANAGEMENT



6.1               This section identifies the types of solid wastes that are likely to be generated during the construction and operation phases of the Project and evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may result from these wastes.  The main solid waste would be construction and demolition (C&D) material generated from excavation works for the construction of TM54SPS.  Mitigation measures and good site practices, including waste handling, storage and disposal, are recommended with reference to the applicable waste legislation and guidelines.



Environmental Legislation and Guidelines


6.2               The criteria and guidelines for assessing waste management implications are outlined in Annex 7 and Annex 15 of the Technical Memorandum on Environmental Impact Assessment Process (EIAO-TM), respectively.


6.3               The following legislation relates to the handling, treatment and disposal of wastes in the Hong Kong SAR and has been used in assessing potential impacts:

          Waste Disposal Ordinance (Cap. 354)

          Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation (Cap. 354)

          Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 28)

          Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance (Cap. 132) - Public Cleansing and Prevention of Nuisances Regulation


Waste Management


6.4               The Waste Disposal Ordinance (WDO) prohibits the unauthorised disposal of wastes.  Construction waste is defined as any substance, matter or thing that is generated from construction work and abandoned, whether or not it has been processed or stockpiled before being abandoned, but does not include any sludge, screenings or matter removed in or generated from any desludging, desilting or dredging works.  Under the WDO, wastes can be disposed of only at designated waste disposal facilities.


6.5               Under the WDO, the Chemical Waste (General) Regulation 1992 provides regulations for chemical waste control, and administers the possession, storage, collection, transport and disposal of chemical wastes.  The Environmental Protection Department (EPD) has also issued a ‘guideline’ document, the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes (1992), which details how the Contractor should comply with the regulations on chemical wastes.


6.6               The Public Cleansing and Prevention of Nuisances Regulation provides control on illegal tipping of wastes on unauthorised (unlicensed) sites.


Construction and Demolition (C&D) Materials


6.7               The current policy related to the dumping of C&D material is documented in the Works Branch Technical Circular No. 2/93, ‘Public Dumps’.  Construction and demolition materials that are wholly inert, namely public fill, should not be disposed of to landfill, but taken to public filling areas, which usually form part of reclamation schemes.  The Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance requires that dumping licences be obtained by individuals or companies who deliver public fill to public filling areas.  The Civil Engineering & Development Department (CEDD) issues the licences under delegated powers from the Director of Lands. 


6.8               Under the Waste Disposal (Charges for Disposal of Construction Waste) Regulation, enacted in January 2006, construction waste delivered to a landfill for disposal must not contain more than 50% by weight of inert material.  Construction waste delivered to a sorting facility for disposal must contain more than 50% by weight of inert material, and construction waste delivered to a public fill reception facility for disposal must consist entirely of inert material.


6.9               Measures have been introduced under Environment, Transport and Works Bureau (ETWB) TCW No. 33/2002, “Management of Construction and Demolition Material Including Rock” to enhance the management of construction and demolition material, and to minimize its generation at source.  The enhancement measures include: (i) drawing up a Construction and Demolition Material Management Plan (C&DMMP) at the feasibility study or preliminary design stage to minimize C&D material generation and encourage proper management of such material; and (ii) providing the contractor with information from the C&DMMP in order to facilitate him in the preparation of the Waste Management Plan (WMP) and to minimize C&D material generation during construction.  Projects generating C&D material less than 50,000m3 or importing fill material less than 50,000m3 are exempt from the C&DMMP.  ETWB TCW No. 19/2005 “Environmental Management on Construction Sites” includes procedures on waste management requiring contractors to reduce the C&D material to be disposed of during the course of construction.  A Waste Management Plan should be submitted by the contractor prior to the commencement of construction works. 



Assessment Methodology


6.10            The methodology for assessing potential waste management impacts during the construction and operation phases of the Project included the following tasks:

          Estimation of the types and quantities of the wastes to be generated.

          Assessment of potential impacts from the management of solid waste with respect to potential hazards, air and odour emissions, noise and wastewater discharges.

          Identification of disposal options for each type of waste.

          Assessment of impacts on the capacity of waste collection, transfer and disposal facilities.



Identification and Evaluation of Potential Impacts


Construction Phase


6.11            The construction activities to be carried out for the Project would generate a variety of wastes that can be divided into distinct categories based on their composition and ultimate method of disposal.  The identified waste types include:

          Construction and demolition (C&D) materials

          General refuse

          Chemical waste

6.12            Each type of waste arising is described below, together with an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with generation, handling, storage and transport of the waste.

Construction and Demolition Materials

6.13            Construction and demolition (C&D) materials contain a mixture of inert and non-inert materials.  The inert C&D material would be generated from excavation works for the foundation of TM54SPS, it would comprise mostly soil and rock.  It is estimated that approximately 18,200m3 of materials will be excavated.  Non-inert C&D material, i.e. C&D waste, would be generated from site formation which would involve clearance of vegetation and wooden waste may be generated during dismantling of formwork.  The proposed TM54SPS will consist of a superstructure and a substructure.  Most of the E&M equipment will be housed within the superstructure.  The best means to estimate the generate rate of C&D materials will be to base the estimate on the gross floor area (GFA), approximately 950m2.  In accordance with the Reduction of Construction Waste Final Report, the C&D materials generation rate of 0.1m3 per 1m2 of GFA is adopted for assessing the C&D materials from construction of TM54SPS.  It is estimated that approximately 95m3 of C&D materials will be generated from construction of TM54SPS over a period of 42 months.  With proper segregation, the volume of inert C&D material that could be reused as public fill is approximately 76m3 and the volume to be disposed of to landfills (C&D waste) is approximately 19m3.  The amount of C&D materials to be generated would be quantified in the site Waste Management Plan to be prepared by the Contractor.


6.14            The inert C&D material should be re-used on-site as far as possible to minimize the net amount of inert C&D material generated from the Project.  However, as there would be more cut than fill due to the excavation required for the foundation of TM54SPS, off-site disposal of inert C&D material (approximately 18,300m3) would be required. 


6.15            Since the construction activities would be located near the Tsing Lun Nullah, improper management of C&D materials may introduce debris and pollutants to the nullah, and mitigation measures including adoption of good site practices would be required for control of impacts.

General Refuse

6.16            The construction workforce would generate refuse comprising food scraps, waste paper, empty containers, etc.  Such refuse should be properly managed so intentional or accidental release to the surrounding environment does not occur.  Disposal of refuse at sites other than approved waste transfer or disposal facilities shall be prohibited.  Effective collection of site wastes would be required to prevent waste materials being blown around by wind, flushed or leached into the Tsing Lun Nullah, or creating an odour nuisance or pest and vermin problem.  Waste storage areas should be well maintained and cleaned regularly.  With the implementation of good waste management practices at the site, adverse environmental impacts are not expected to arise from the storage, handling and transportation of workforce wastes.

Chemical Waste

6.17            The maintenance and servicing of construction plant and equipment may generate some chemical wastes such as cleaning fluids, solvents, lubrication oil and fuel.  Maintenance of vehicles may also involve the use of a variety of chemicals, oil and lubricants.  It is difficult to quantify the amount of chemical waste that will arise from the construction activities since it will be dependent on the Contractor’s on-site maintenance requirements and the amount of plant utilised.  However, it is anticipated that the quantity of chemical waste, such as lubricating oil and solvent produced from plant maintenance, would be small and in the order of a few cubic metres per month.  The amount of chemical waste to be generated will be quantified in the site Waste Management Plan to be prepared by the Contractor.


6.18            Chemical wastes arising during the construction phase may pose environmental, health and safety hazards if not stored and disposed of in an appropriate manner as stipulated in the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulations. The potential hazards include:

          Toxic effects to workers

          Adverse impacts on water quality from spills

          Fire hazards


6.19            Materials classified as chemical wastes will require special handling and storage arrangements before removal for appropriate treatment at the approved Chemical Waste Treatment Facility.  Wherever possible opportunities should be taken to reuse and recycle materials.  Mitigation and control requirements for chemical wastes are detailed in Section 6.26.  Provided that the handling, storage and disposal of chemical wastes are in accordance with these requirements, adverse environmental impacts are not expected to result.


Operation Phase


6.20            Majority of the wastes generated during operation of TM54SPS would be inlet screenings.  Raked bar screen will be installed in the screening chamber to prevent large solid materials in sewage from entering the pumps.  Maintenance of the raked bar screen would be carried out periodically to ensure proper functioning of TM54SPS.  The small quantity of removed screenings will require disposal off-site to landfill.



Mitigation Measures

Construction Phase

Good Site Practices

6.21            Adverse impacts related to waste management are not expected to arise, provided that good site practices are strictly followed.  Recommendations for good site practices during the construction activities include:

          Nomination of an approved person, such as a site manager, to be responsible for good site practices, arrangements for collection and effective disposal to an appropriate facility, of all wastes generated at the site

          Training of site personnel in proper waste management and chemical handling procedures

          Provision of sufficient waste disposal points and regular collection of waste

          Appropriate measures to minimise windblown litter and dust during transportation of waste by either covering trucks or by transporting wastes in enclosed containers

          Regular cleaning and maintenance programme for drainage systems, sumps and oil interceptors.

          Separation of chemical wastes for special handling and appropriate treatment at the Chemical Waste Treatment Facility.

Waste Reduction Measures

6.22            Good management and control can prevent the generation of a significant amount of waste.  Waste reduction is best achieved at the planning and design stage, as well as by ensuring the implementation of good site practices.  Recommendations to achieve waste reduction include:

          Segregation and storage of different types of waste in different containers, skips or stockpiles to enhance reuse or recycling of materials and their proper disposal

          Encourage collection of aluminium cans by providing separate labelled bins to enable this waste to be segregated from other general refuse generated by the workforce

          Proper storage and site practices to minimise the potential for damage or contamination of construction materials

          Plan and stock construction materials carefully to minimise amount of waste generated and avoid unnecessary generation of waste.

          A recording system for the amount of wastes generated, recycled and disposed (including disposal sites) should be proposed.

          Training should be provided to workers about the concepts of site cleanliness and appropriate waste management procedures, including waste reduction, reuse and recycle.


6.23            In addition to the above measures, specific mitigation measures are recommended below for the identified waste arisings to minimise environmental impacts during handling, transportation and disposal of these wastes.


General Refuse

6.24            General refuse should be stored in enclosed bins or compaction units separate from C&D material.  A reputable waste collector should be employed by the contractor to remove general refuse from the site, separately from C&D material.  Preferably an enclosed and covered area should be provided to reduce the occurrence of 'wind blown' light material. 


Construction and Demolition Materials

6.25            In order to minimise impacts resulting from collection and transportation of inert C&D material for off-site disposal, the excavated material from the foundation construction of TM54SPS should be reused on-site as fill material as far as possible for general filling under the Phase 2 works for the Formation, Roads and Drains in Tuen Mun Area 54.  The surplus excavated material should be disposed of at the designated public fill reception facility, as agreed with the Secretary of the Public Fill Committee, for other beneficial uses.  C&D waste generated from site clearance and dismantling of formwork would require disposal to the designated landfill site.  In order to monitor the disposal of C&D materials at the public fill reception facility and landfill and to control fly-tipping, a trip-ticket system should be included.  One may make reference to ETWB TCW No. 31/2004 for details.


Chemical Wastes

6.26            If chemical wastes are produced at the construction site, the Contractor would be required to register with the EPD as a chemical waste producer and to follow the guidelines stated in the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes.   Good quality containers compatible with the chemical wastes should be used, and incompatible chemicals should be stored separately.  Appropriate labels should be securely attached on each chemical waste container indicating the corresponding chemical characteristics of the chemical waste, such as explosive, flammable, oxidizing, irritant, toxic, harmful, corrosive, etc.  The Contractor shall use a licensed collector to transport and dispose of the chemical wastes, to either the approved Chemical Waste Treatment Centre, or another licensed facility, in accordance with the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulation.


Operation Phase


6.27            The removed screenings should be properly stored in a covered container.  This operation should be conducted inside TM54SPS.  The screenings would require transportation in an enclosed vehicle for disposal to the designated landfill site.


6.28            Table 6.1 provides a summary of the various waste types likely to be generated during the construction and operation phases of the Project, together with the recommended handling and disposal methods.


Table 6.1          Summary of Waste Handling Procedures and Disposal Routes

Waste Material Type

Generated from works item

Total Quantity Generated



Construction Phase

Inert C&D Material

i.e. public fill

Excavation works and construction of TM54SPS (works for superstructure and substructure)


18,300 m3


To be reused on-site as fill material as far as possible


Surplus to be disposed to the designated public fill reception facility for other beneficial uses


Segregate C&D material to avoid contamination from other wastes


C&D waste

Site clearance and dismantling of formwork

19 m3

To be disposed to the designated landfill site



General Refuse

Waste paper, discarded containers, etc. generated from workforce



Refuse station for compaction and containerisation and then to landfill

Provide on-site refuse collection points

Chemical Waste

Cleansing fluids, solvent, lubrication oil and fuel from construction plant and equipment

Few cubic metres per month

(preliminary estimate)


Chemical Waste Treatment Centre

Recycle on-site or by licensed companies.

Stored on-site within suitably designed containers


Operation Phase


Removed from raked bar screen in the screening chamber



To be disposed to the designated landfill site

Stored in covered container



Evaluation of Residual Impact


6.29            With the implementation of the recommended mitigation measures for the handling, transportation and disposal of the identified waste arisings, no residual impact is expected to arise during the construction and operation of the Project.


Environmental Monitoring and Audit Requirements


6.30            Waste management would be the contractor’s responsibility to ensure that all wastes produced during the construction of the Project are handled, stored and disposed of in accordance with good waste management practices and EPD’s regulations and requirements.  The recommended mitigation measures shall form the basis of the site Waste Management Plan to be developed by the Contractor in the construction stage.




6.31            Waste types generated by the construction activities are likely to include C&D materials from excavation works, site formation and dismantling of formwork, general refuse from the workforce, and chemical waste from the maintenance of construction plant and equipment.  Provided that these wastes are handled, transported and disposed of using approved methods and that the recommended good site practices are strictly followed, adverse environmental impacts are not expected during the construction phase.


6.32            The only waste generated during operation of TM54SPS would be screenings removed from the mechanical screens in the inlet chamber.  The small quantity of screenings will require disposal off-site to landfill.