A number of site options
were long-listed at the Site Selection Study for HKBCF in Mid 2007. As the Site Selection Study and then the
Investigation Consultancy proceed, relevant factors or assessment results were revealed
which rendered most of the site options not feasible. Eventually, only one site option (Option
NECLK) locating the HKBCF in the water adjacent to the north-eastern side of
With NECLK determined as
the site location for HKBCF, three alignment options were considered for
HKLR. Amongst the three alignment
options, two of them were evaluated as not feasible. The only feasible option is an alignment
in the form of a viaduct routed through the Airport Channel, referred to as
Alignment Option (A).
It should also be noted
that the originally proposed elevated viaduct form for the portion of HKLR
under Alignment Option (A) at the waters off the south-eastern side of the
The HZMB is targeted to be
commissioned by 2015. To meet this
of the HKLR will start in 2011, for completion in 2015, with a construction
period of 4 years; [At this stage, there
is still some flexibility on the exact timing within 2011 for starting the
construction of HKLR. However, it
is patently desirable to start construction earlier, say in Early 2011, so as
to alleviate the acuteness of criticality of construction works. ]
(b) Construction of the HKBCF will start in the 3rd quarter of 2010, for first phase completion by End 2015, and second (final) phase completion by End 2016. [The construction of HKBCF will involve reclamation, including lengthy surcharge-periods, followed by land-works including buildings and infrastructures etc. It is anticipated that the overall construction period for HKBCF will be at least 6 years. Even if construction (reclamation work) can start as early as 2010 3rd quarter, overall completion of HKBCF cannot be achieved by 2015. The reclamation and the landworks for HKBCF will therefore need to be completed in phases, such that at least a part ie. the first-phase of HKBCF (the extent of which and the facilities within which are adequate to handle the initial stage of the commissioned HZMB) will be completed by End 2015.]
A quantitative air quality
assessment has been conducted to assess the cumulative impacts from all
neighbouring pollution sources. The
PATH model has been adopted to simulate the regional air quality effects, which
has included various pollution sources in the PRDEZ. For the emission inventory in Hong Kong,
various sources have also been included in the PATH model, including the power
For the roads in
assessment has been conducted.
Results indicate that the noise impacts after the implementation of good
site practices, quiet plant and some mitigation measures (eg temporary noise
barriers etc) would comply with the stipulated noise criteria. Residual construction noise impacts are
The road traffic noise
caused by the project has been simulated using the latest traffic
forecast. Results indicate that the
cumulative traffic noise impacts on all the noise sensitive receivers would
comply with the relevant criterion.
Hence, mitigation measures are not required and there are no residual
operational traffic noise impacts.
Fixed noise sources during
the operation phase include sewerage treatment plant, electric power
substations etc. All these
facilities are located at more than 1km from all existing noise sensitive
receivers and hence cumulative noise impacts are not anticipated.
A marine GI with sediment
sampling and laboratory testing has been undertaken and analysed in accordance
with the requirements in ETWB 34/2002.
The quantity of sediment that needs to be disposed of (in open sea or in
dedicated disposal sites) has also been estimated.
The quantity and timing for
the generation of waste during the construction phase have been estimated. Measures including reusing excavated
materials for reclamation, recycling excavated bituminous material etc, are
devised in the construction methodology to minimise the surplus materials to be
disposed off-site. The annual
disposal quantities for construction & demolition materials and their
disposal methods have also been assessed.
Measures have also been recommended for the Contractor to implement
during the construction period to minimise waste generation and any off-site
The types and quantities of
waste that would be generated during the operation phase have been
assessed. Recommendations have been
made to ensure proper treatment and proper disposal of these wastes.
A quantitative water
quality model has been set up to assess the potential impacts that dredging may
cause on the neighbouring water quality sensitive receivers. Results indicate
that, with the implementation of good implementation sequence and mitigation
measures, the suspended
solids would comply with requirements specified in the Water Quality Objectives. There would not be
residual water quality impacts during the construction phase.
The HKLR Contractor will
also be required to implement good site practices as stipulated in ProPECC Note
5/93 “Drainage Plan subject to Comment by the Environmental Protection
Department”, ProPECC Note 1/94 “Construction Site Drainage'” and “Recommended
Pollution Control Clauses for Construction Contracts” in order to control the
construction site discharges.
During the operation phase,
hydrodynamic study also confirms that there would be insignificant impacts on
Tai Ho Bay and other aquatic ecological sensitive receivers.
The Project has avoided
direct impacts on recognised sites of conservation importance (e.g. SSSIs,
The majority of the HKLR
and the entire HKBCF would be on newly reclaimed area or piers in sea
areas. Less than 1 ha of grassland
/ shrubland in Scenic Hill will be affected by the tunnel portal of HKLR. As the grassland / shrubland are of low
ecological value and the affected area size is very small, the impacts on the
habitat area considered insignificant and no mitigation is required. Apart from Scenic Hill, no other
identified terrestrial ecological
sensitive area in the vicinity of the Projects.
The waters to the west of
the Airport feature two areas of dolphin-conservation importance, viz the Sha
Chau/Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park, and the waters near Tai O Peninsula to Fan
Lau. The HKLR alignment passes
between the two high dolphin-density areas. Impacts to Chinese White Dolphins (CWD)
along this alignment can be expected to be less significant than if the
alignment is to pass directly through either of the high dolphin-density
The construction and
operation of the HKLR would cause marine habitat loss and potential water
quality impacts, but the reclaimed area is not highly used by dolphins and is
of very low coverage of common gorgonians. A well-planned program of mitigation
activities should be able to avoid most of the potential impacts to the
CWD. Dolphins monitoring during
construction will be thoroughly implemented. As a precautionary measure, a
pre-construction dive survey would be conducted to identify any coral colonies
suitable for translocation.
construction and operation of the HKBCF would cause marine habitat loss and
potential water quality impacts. The permanent loss of CWD habitat is a
moderate impact requiring mitigation. To enhance the CWD habitat, the Administration has made a firm commitment to seek to
It is proposed that new
Artificial Reefs (ARs) will be installed, not only to replace the existing ARs
inside Marine Exclusion Area, but also to serve as an enhancement
measures. The volume of ARs to be
installed will therefore be greater than that of the existing ARs.
construction and operation of HKLR and HKBCF would cause temporary and
permanent fishing ground losses, but the loss area is not significant compared with
the available fishing ground in
Further, the areas to be
reclaimed are not of high fisheries production rate, whilst the water quality
impacts during construction could be mitigated. Except the Artificial Reefs (ARs) inside
Marine Exclusion Zone, impacts on other fisheries sensitive receivers, such as
the nearby fish and shrimp spawning ground, have been assessed and considered
on the water quality impact assessment, with the implementation of mitigation
measures, there would not be significant residual water quality impacts from
HKLR, HKBCF and other concurrent projects during the construction phase. During the operation phase, taking into
account of concurrent projects, there would be minor changes in water quality,
all of which comply with Water Quality Objectives. Other
than the ARs inside Marine Exclusion Zone, impacts on the fish and shrimp
spawning ground in North Lantau waters and
Reprovision of ARs will be
implemented as a mitigation measure for the existing ARs inside Marine
Exclusion Zone. Additional volume
of ARs will also be deployed as an additional enhancement measure for fisheries
resources. A well-planned program
of water quality protection activities should enable avoidance of most of these
potential impacts to fisheries and mariculture. Besides water quality monitoring, no
specific fisheries monitoring programme would be required.
addition, to enhance the Chinese White Dolphins (CWD) habitat, the
Administration has made a firm commitment to seek to designate the
All the bridge structure
would totally avoid the Sha Lo Wan (West) Archaeological Site during both the
construction and operation phases.
Hence, there will be no direct impacts. Mitigation measures are not
required and there are no residual impacts.
As a precautionary measure,
periodic monitoring of construction works should be conducted to ensure the
avoidance of any impacts on the Sha Lo Wan (West) Archaeological Site. Access to the said archaeological site
for works area and storage of construction equipment is not allowed.
The project would not
affect any built heritage in the vicinity.
Mitigation measures are therefore not required and there are no residual
impacts on built heritage.
A literature review has
concluded that there are no known marine archaeological sites within the
project area which is located along an artificial shoreline. Geophysical survey and subsequent diver
survey (conducted by a marine archaeologist) have also confirmed that the
proposed reclamation and road works is unlikely to have adverse impacts on
For HKLR, the alignment
would run close to the existing and planned fuel tank farms near Scenic
Hill. A quantitative risk
assessment has therefore been conducted as per the technical requirements in
The level of risk for the
construction and operational phases of HKLR has been quantified and
demonstrated to be within the acceptable region of the Hong Kong Risk
Guidelines. Good practice during
both the construction and operational phases have been recommended.
16.12.1 The major residual impacts are due to the proposed reclamation works
for formation of HKBCF and at-grade HKLR along the southeast coast of
The semi-natural rocky
shoreline along the southeast shoreline of
Other landscape impacts are
vegetation loss at Scenic Hill due to construction of the HKLR tunnel portal
and to roadside landscaped areas are considered slight to moderate and would be
largely mitigated by tree preservation measures and compensatory planting and enhancement
landscaping. Therefore, residual
impact is considered negligible after the re-instated vegetation has matured.
Total 32 VSRs are
categorized in term of their proximity of locations and similarity of influence
of local immediate visual screen.
The properties of VSRs include urban and rural residential areas,
industrial, leisure and traffic.
The visual impacts on VSRs for local residents are resulted as various
depending on the distance between the project and such VSRs, the population of
such VSRs and blockage of view potentially.
Transport facilities for
the proposed development are also a significant source of impact to VSRs. Relatively higher visual impacts induced
are concentrated on the VSRs for residents of existing and future residential areas.
Regarding the potential
residual visual impacts in associated with HKLR, there would be moderate level
of impacts to the rural residential VSRs in Tai O, Sham Wat Wan, San Shek Wan,
Sha Lo Wan and San Tau during construction and operation phases. The distance
between HKLR and these residential VSRs is shorter than that of other VSRs.
This is because HKLR is aligned to prevent disturbing the existing Touch-down
Zone of Southern Runway of
HKLR adopts a section of
tunnel in the vicinity of Tung Chung urban area, and the tunnel effectively
reduces the level of potential residual visual impact to the VSRs located in
the urban residential areas.
Regarding the potential
residual visual impacts by HKBCF, they are slight and negligible during
construction and operation phases due to the integration of HKBCF and the
Airport in view of their similarity in appearance. The amenity value of alternative views
from the VSRs is high after the erection of HKBCF and HKLR. Proper mitigation measures (e.g.
aesthetic engineering and architectural design on structural forms and building
facade, optimum greening treatment – rooftop and at-grade level and so on, for
enhancing the aesthetics of HKBCF and HKLR during the detailed design stage)
would further minimise any potential visual impacts.
16.12.9 In conclusion, the potential landscape and visual impacts can be
effectively reduced by implementing the proposed mitigation measures during
construction and operation phases.
The overall residual impacts are considered as “acceptable with mitigation
measures” after implementing the mitigation measures.
It is recommended to
implement an Environmental Monitoring and Audit (EM&A) programme throughout
the entire construction period to monitor the environmental impacts on the
neighbouring sensitive receivers regularly.
An EM&A Manual has been
prepared as a standalone document to specify the monitoring requirements,
timeframe and responsibilities for the implementation of the environmental
mitigation measures identified in the EIA process.
An Environmental Mitigation
Implementation Schedule is included in the EM&A Manual to summarises all
the measures, the implementation location, timeframe, agency etc.
With the adoption of the
recommended integrated and mitigation measures and the protection of the above
sensitive receivers, the project is not predicted to result in any adverse
residual environmental impacts. The
project would fully comply with all environmental regulations and standards