3                                            Cultural heritage

3.1                                      Introduction

This section presents the cultural heritage impact assessment (CHIA) for the Project.  The CHIA has been completed in accordance with the requirements set out by the EIA Study Brief and the EIAO-TM.   The main objectives are:

·            To carry out a Baseline Study, the purpose of which is to investigate the history and establish the cultural significance of the CPS, including its historic buildings, structures and spaces;

·            To formulate a Heritage Conservation Policy which provides guidance on how to conserve, control change, manage and interpret the CPS;

·            To identify the impacts of the proposed development and identify mitigation measures to control these impacts; and

·            To provide a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) for long term caring of the heritage site(s) and sustainability of the adaptive reuse.

3.1.1                                Other Built Heritage Resources within 50m but Outside the Site

In the area around the Site, there are numerous examples of historic built fabric.  These include some remnants of 19th century granite walls or steps located along the streets immediately around the Site including Hollywood Road, Arbuthnot Road, Chancery Lane, Wyndham Street, Old Bailey Street, Staunton Street, Elgin Street and Caine Road.  They are presented in Tables 3.2 to 3.9 below. 

3.2                                      Relevant Legislation and Guidelines

The following legislation and guidelines are applicable to the assessment of impacts on sites of cultural heritage in Hong Kong, and have therefore informed the statements made within this section:

·            Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) (Cap. 499. S16), Technical Memorandum on the EIA Process, Annex 10 and 19 (EIAO TM) and Guidance Notes on Assessment of Impact on Sites of Cultural Heritage in EIA Studies;

·            Antiquities and Monuments (AM) Ordinance (Cap. 53);

·            Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) for Adaptive Reuse Projects (as at May 2009);

·            Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG); and

·            Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance.

3.2.1                                EIAO & EIAO TM

According to the EIAO, Schedule 1 Interpretation, “Sites of Cultural Heritage” are defined as:

“an antiquity or monument, whether being a place, building, site or structure or a relic, as defined in the AM Ordinance and any place, building, site or structure or a relic identified by the Antiquities and Monuments Office to be of archaeological, historical or paleontological significance”.

The technical scope for evaluating and assessing the cultural heritage impacts is defined in Annexes 10, 18, and 19 of the EIAO TM. The approach recommended by the guidelines can be summarised as follows:

·            The general presumption in favour of the protection and conservation of all sites of cultural heritage because they provide an essential, finite and irreplaceable link between the past and the future and are points of reference and identity for cultural and tradition; and

·            Adverse impacts on sites of cultural heritage shall be kept to an absolute minimum.

 

3.2.2                                Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance

The AM Ordinance (Cap. 53) provides statutory protection against the threat of development on Declared Monuments, historic buildings and archaeological sites to enable their preservation for posterity. The AM Ordinance also establishes the statutory procedures to be followed in making such a declaration and specifies the need of a Section 6 permit for works to be carried out in a declared monument. Section 11 of the AM Ordinance requires any person who discovers an antiquity, or supposed antiquity, to report the discovery to the Antiquities Authority. By implication, construction projects need to ensure that the Antiquities Advisory Board (AAB) is formally notified of archaeological resources which are discovered during the assessment or construction of a project.

 

3.2.3                                Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines

Chapter 10: Conservation, of the HKPSG provides general guidelines and advice for the conservation of historical buildings, archaeological sites and other antiquities. Of particular interest is Section 2: Principles of Conservation, and Section 4: Conservation of Monuments, Historical Buildings, Archaeological Sites and other Antiquities. In accordance with section 4.3 of the guidelines there have been 3 Declared Monuments identified in the Site.

 

3.2.4                                Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) for Adaptive Reuse Projects (as at May 2009)

The Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) for Adaptive Reuse Projects (as at May 2009) are stated in Appendix B of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-205/2009, which sets out the requirement of baseline study, conservation policy, impact assessment study and long-term impact control. This section has been written with the context and layout of these guidelines as a framework.

3.2.5                                Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 28)

Under this Ordinance, it is required that a permit be obtained for any excavation within government land prior to commencement of the excavation work. While there has not been any excavation carried out on site prior to the completion of this report, there will be a necessity for both archaeological and construction excavation relating to the proposed works.

3.3                                      Assessment Methodology

In accordance with Clause 3.4.1.1 of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB – 205/2009, the Cultural Heritage study area is within 50 metres from the project boundary.

In accordance with Clause 3.4.1.3 of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-206/2009, the CHIA comprises two parts: the Building Heritage Impact Assessment (BHIA) and the Archaeological Impact Assessment (AIA). The methodology for the BHIA and AIA follows the Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) for Adaptive Reuse Projects as stated in Appendix B of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB – 205/2009.

This report is based on the guidelines provided in the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-205/2009, specifically Appendix B: Guidelines for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment for Adaptive Reuse Projects. The guidelines provided in the Technical Memorandum have also been used as a reference, most notably Annex 10 (Criteria for evaluating visual and landscape impact, and impact on sites of cultural heritage); Annex 18 (Guidelines for Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment); and Annex 19 (Guidelines for Assessment of Impact on Sites of Cultural Heritage and other Impacts).

This CHIA also references several international charters and other guidance, some of which are listed in the Guidelines for the CHIA provided in 2009. These are:

 

·            Venice Charter: International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (1964)

·            Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe – the Granada Convention (1985)

·            The Nara Document on Authenticity (1994)

·            Principles for the Recording of Monuments, Groups of Buildings and Sites (1996)

·            Burra Charter (1979, revision of 1999)

·            Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China (2003)

·            Hoi An Protocol for best Conservation Practice in Asia (2005)

·            The Beijing Document (2007)

·            Conservation Principles, Policies and Guidance for the Sustainable Management of the Historic Environment (2008)

·            ICOMOS Charter on the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites (2008)

In addition, further guidance has been used to assess the significance of areas, features, buildings and spaces or elements within them. This includes ‘Informed Conservation’ by Kate Clark (2001), ‘Conservation Plans’ by James Semple Kerr (2006), and guidelines provided by other British-based organisations including English Heritage, Heritage Lottery Fund and National Trust.

In accordance with the guidelines for the CHIA, a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) was completed by Purcell Miller Tritton LLP in June 2008 for the whole of the CPS as enclosed in Annex A6.  The research carried out to complete the CMP forms the basis for the Baseline Study of this CHIA as well as drawing up policies which formed a framework for the conservation and restoration of the existing buildings.  Following the completion of the renovation works for the Site, the CMP should be updated in order to remain a viable working document for the owners and users of the Site.  Section 3.7.1 presents the changed elements of the CMP considering the span of time between completion of the CMP June 2008 and of this EIA Report, as well as the further research which has been carried out in that time.

The Site Plan with the locations and names of each individual building is shown in Figure 2.7.   Each building within the Site has been provided with an identification number which will be used throughout this section. 

3.3.1                                Desktop Study

According to Section 1.3, Appendix B of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB 205/2009, Graded historic buildings/street, declared monuments, and Government historic sites should be reviewed. Therefore, the initial step for conducting a baseline study was to consult the AMO List of Historic Buildings in Building Assessment (as of 10 November 2010, http://www.amo.gov.hk/form/AAB-SM-chi.pdf), the Government historic sites identified by AMO (as of 31 August 2010, http://www.amo.gov.hk/form/build_hia_government_historic_sites.pdf?20100603), and the AMO list of Declared Monuments in Hong Kong (as of 12 November 2010, http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/ce/Museum/Monument/form/DM_Mon_List_e.pdf). This initial consultation revealed that the Site contains no Government historic sites, but does contain one Grade 1 historic street (Pottinger Street) and one proposed Grade 3 historic building (No.20 Hollywood Road) and three Declared Monuments (Former Central Magistracy, Arbuthnot Road; Central Police Station Compound, Hollywood Road; and Victoria Prison Compound, Old Bailey Street).

A Baseline Condition study has been carried out for all of the heritage resources within the Site, including historic buildings, Prison Yard, Parade Ground and walls & revetments. The General Office (building 18) has not been included in the baseline assessments as it does not meet any of the requirements for inclusion in the baseline study defined by the CHIA guidance. It was not constructed before 1950, and is not considered to be ‘of high architectural and historical significance and interest’.

For each of these buildings and features both a field study and a desktop study were completed. The findings were used to inform historic development drawings and to set a basis for understanding the significance of the Site as well as any changes that have occurred over time. Inevitably, some buildings or features will have more information in the baseline study than others. This is based on the size, date and architectural complexity as well as the availability of archival and other research material.

Initial research for the desktop studies was carried out during the preparation of a CMP for the Site completed in June 2008. Following the completion of additional data collection and the desk top study, the information was compiled and used to write a general history for the Site. Any specific information was then used to create individual desk-top assessments for each building or feature.

Several sources were used to gather information initially for the CMPs and later for the Desktop study. For a full list of items used for researching this section please refer to the Bibliography in Section 3.4.7.

A summary of the sources used includes:

·            Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO)

·            Various reports on the history and significance, historic photographs, maps and plans.

·            Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society and the Hong Kong Archaeological Society

·            The archive of articles was searched, but aside from general referencing material there was no specific information relating to the Site.

·            Hong Kong Public Records Office

·            Several visits were made to the Public Records Office, where numerous historic maps, plans, photographs and other documents were accessed.

·            National Archives, UK

·            The National Archives contained original design drawings for some of the buildings on the Site, as well as historic maps and plans of Hong Kong.

·            Hong Kong University Library

·            Books, dissertations, brochures, reports and journals all relating to the Site were referenced here.

·            Hong Kong University Library Digital Initiatives

·            This online resource supplied access to Oral Histories, newspaper articles, theses, photograph galleries and most importantly Hong Kong Government Reports Online (1842 – 1941), which includes Public Works Reports and Prison and Police Reports.

·            Photographic Archives

·            Several photograph archives were searched, including the University of Wisconsin Asia & Middle East Archive (Harrison Forman Collection); Gwulo: Old Hong Kong; and South China Morning Post.

·            Cartographic Archives

·            Numerous online cartographic archives held by universities and libraries were referenced.

·            Museums

·            Relevant museums in Hong Kong were visited to view any relevant documents and exhibitions. These include the Hong Kong Museum of History, Correctional Services Museum, and the Hong Kong Police Museum.

·            Oral Histories and Discussions

·            Interviews were held with members of the AMO, the Hong Kong University Architecture Department and other relevant groups. Other documents, such as the Anecdotes of Dr W K Chan were also referenced. A pilot study prepared by Dr Lawrence Ho of Lingan University contains interviews with three former employees of the Central Police Station Compound.  The 1841-2005 Victoria Prison Memorial Book was also used and this provided descriptions of the everyday tasks carried out by individuals and general anecdotes about the running of the prison

·            Government Departments

Government Departments including the Land Registry and District Lands Office were contacted. Also contacted with the GIS (Government Information Services) and GRS (Government Records Services)

3.3.2                                Field Study

Several site visits were made from 2007 to 2010 with the intention being to gain a more complete understanding of the Site. For each building or feature, a thorough investigation was undertaken for the internal and external spaces, taking note of architectural styles and features, materials, alterations to the built fabric, areas or items of significance, and relationships between adjacent areas or spaces. A set of survey photographs was taken for each heritage resource within the Site.

Generally, each Field study entry contains the following information, though some categories may not apply to all entries:

 

·            Designation

·            Date of construction

·            Location (including location plan)

·            Height & number of floors

·            Exterior & Interior descriptions (including photographic survey)

·            Areas of Significance

·            Summary of Archaeology

·            History (including timeline and historic maps, plans and photographs)

·            Significance

·            Historic Development and Significance Drawings

3.3.3                                Oral History

In accordance with Section 1.3.1 of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-205/2009, the baseline study should include an oral history in the form of ‘discussion with the former users and the local informants’ of the Site. To meet this requirement, a pilot study was carried out by Dr. Lawrence Ho of the Department of Political Science, Lingnan University. The draft report Oral History of the Central Police Station was completed 1 August 2010. This study represents an initial attempt at completing an oral history for the Site, and it is the intention that further studies of this kind will be carried out in future in order to provide a more complete understanding of the history of the Site.

The study was confined to interviews with three senior police officers (two retired, one serving). However, due to issues with confidentiality it was not possible at this time to establish contact with any previous users of the Magistracy, and the knowledge of prison workings was somewhat limited. The three individuals interviewed were:

 

·            An expatriate inspector who joined the Hong Kong Police in the 1950s. He was an officer in the Police-Military Liaison Office (Pol-mil) during the 1967 riots.

·            A serving Senior Superintendent who was on duty in the Central Police Station in the 1980s when he was deployed to the Hong Kong Island Traffic Division.

·            A retired Assistant Commissioner who worked in the Central Police Station in several stints, and has taken responsibility for the internal renovation of the Officers’ Mess.

·            The oral history report highlighted four areas which were discussed by all three informants: Feng-shui and ghost stories, pay day, worshipping Guangong and other rituals, and the Officer’s Mess.

3.3.4                                Ground Penetrating Radar Survey

As the desk-based assessment identified areas with archaeological potential but the information is considered inadequate for further detailed impact assessment, a non-destructive Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was conducted in August 2009 to obtain the field data.    The GPR survey was carried out at the Site on 13th – 15th, 17th, 26th, and 27th August 2009. The survey was performed by FT Laboratories Limited working as sub-contractors for Alliance Professional Surveys. The equipment used was the GSSI GPR with 400 MHz antenna for scanning, and the GSSI TerraSIRich SIR System-3000 for data processing. The process of carrying out the survey is given here, as detailed by FT Laboratories Ltd:

‘The GSSI GPR system produces a cross-sectional image of subsurface features. The system design allows for concrete scanning to locate re-bar, pipes, tension bars, conduits, and voids within and behind/beneath concrete slabs. GPR is a remote sensing technique that uses microwave electromagnetic energy. An antenna, or transducer, transmits brief pulses of energy into the ground or concrete structure…The GPR antenna radiates signals into the structure, where they are reflected from the subsurface objects or voids’.

The survey was carried out in specified areas throughout the Site, namely:

 

·            The Parade Ground, including the area beneath the west porch of the Barracks Block (building 03) but excluding Pottinger Street and the area immediately west of the Married Inspectors’ Quarters and Deputy Superintendent’s House (building 04) and the Garage (building 05).

·            The Prison Yard

·            F Hall (building 17) ground floor, though excluding the south alleyway (this was carried out at a time when there were proposals for demolition of F Hall)

·            A narrow strip of ground running north-south from the north side of A Hall (building 11) to the south side of the west extension of D Hall (building 14)

Figure 3.1  shows the exact location of these GPR survey for the Site.  A summary of the survey finding is presented in Section 3.4.6 and detailed in Annex A3.

3.4                                      Baseline History

3.4.1                                History of the CPS

The history of the Site has been well researched in various texts including theses, AMO documents and the CMPs produced for the whole of the CPS, and these should be the main point of reference for understanding the history of the Site and of the Hong Kong Correctional Services and Police Force. Provided here is a brief summary of the history of the Site documenting the major events to occur up to decommissioning in 2006. For more in-depth information relating to the history and development of the individual buildings, features and spaces within the Site see the desktop studies included as Annex A1.

3.4.2                                General History of the CPS (see Figures 3.2 to 3.12)

The Site was first occupied by a prison and Chief Magistrate’s residence, which were among the first buildings to be constructed in Hong Kong after colonisation in 1841. Early difficulties policing the new territory led to high arrest rates and within three years the prison was over capacity. The Colonial Police Force was established in 1844 to deal with law enforcement. The Superintendent of Police Charles May had a new prison created in 1845 from the Chief Magistrate’s residence; one half was converted into a Debtor’s Prison and the other as a Gaoler’s residence. Three cell blocks were also constructed: two for Chinese prisoners with communal cells and one for Europeans with individual cells.

By 1851 the first Magistracy – a two storey structure with central courtroom – had also been constructed on the eastern edge of the site and large retaining walls had been built around the compound for security. There were several guard houses and look-outs within the perimeter walls, including Bauhinia House (building 19).

Further alterations in the 1850s included the construction of a Tread Wheel as a form of punishment for the prisoners, two Guard Houses and a Gaoler’s House, and a new Debtor’s Gaol to replace the original Goal building, which was in a poor state with filthy conditions for the inmates.

Continued increase in the number of prisoners led to a complete redesign of the Victoria Gaol, based on popular radial plan prisons in the USA which had a central hall with radiating cell block. The new building (constructed 1858, now surviving only in part as D Hall, building 14) was located on the south side of the site, and had a T-shaped block containing cells and wings radiating diagonally and used as cook houses and a Goal Hospital. By 1864 the site was again suffering overcrowding, and all the prisoners were moved to a new goal on Stonecutter’s Island.

The north half of the site was quickly taken over as the Central Police Station and a new Barracks Block (building 3) was constructed in 1864 to provide accommodation for single and married Sergeants and Constables. The building was three storeys and situated east-west across the centre of the site, designed in the typical British Colonial style but with local adaptations like verandahs and Chinese tile roofs. The A block of Officers’ Quarters (building 4) was constructed in the north-east corner of the site at the same time. This could have marked the takeover of the whole site for police used, but in 1866 the prisoners were brought back from Stonecutter’s Island to Victoria Gaol. From this time onwards the site was divided with the Central Police Station on the north half of the site and the Gaol on the south half.

Presumably around the same time a Superintendent’s House (building 10) was built at the south-east of the Barracks Block. It was designed in a typically colonial style and featured a gabled roof of the same design as that on the Barracks Block. A blocked archway on the ground floor provided the main entrance to the prison.

The prison was by this point a remarkable architectural feature of Hong Kong and utilised the latest design theories in prison reform. In 1871, Japanese representatives visited the Victoria Gaol and used it as a basis for prison design under the Meiji reform.

Reforms of the Police Force during the late 1860s and 1870s expanded the numbers of both Chinese and Indian officers. By 1880, the Force employed a total of 610 officers: 125 Europeans, 315 Chinese and 171 Sikhs. The expanding Force necessitated further accommodation. In 1906 an additional floor was added to the Barracks Block which reuse of much of the original roof structure. Three blocks of new officers’ quarters (only two survive; buildings 6 and 7) were constructed by 1908 in the north-east corner of the site.

Overcrowding was also still a problem in the Gaol, though public opinion on a proposed extension was varied as the conditions in the prison, being far better than the prisoners’ own homes, were not a deterrent to crime. It was reported that the Gaol “is already looked upon as a paradise by many a rascal”[1]. Despite these objections two new cell blocks (now demolished) were constructed in 1894 on the corner of Old Bailey Street and Staunton Street, to the west of the present site. By 1887 the radial layout of the prison was being eradicated to provide a more efficient gaol. First was the demolition of the southwest wing to provide further yard space and a new workshop. At the same time the existing cells in the radial prison block were subdivided to provide individual cells.  

The period between 1910 and 1920 saw a considerable amount of growth over the whole Site. A new cell block (now demolished) was constructed in 1901 to replace the demolished southeast diagonal wing of the prison. A similar block (building 12, B Hall) was constructed in 1910 to the north of original cell block. Both provided space for 78 prisoners each. In 1915 a further cell block (building 15, E Hall) was constructed in the southwest corner of the site, and set on pillars over the lower yard. In 1917 the space adjacent to this cell block (building 16, Laundry) was also covered over to provide an additional exercise area for the prisoners.

A new Magistracy (building 9) was built 1912-1914 on the Site of the earlier one, with its main classical design façade overlooking Arbuthnot Road. The three storey building with a basement contained two large court rooms with associated offices and some officers’ quarters. Extensive alterations were carried out to the top floor of this building in 1938 to insert a third courtroom.

The Central Police Station was also expanded with the addition of a Headquarters Block (building 1) on land purchased in the northwest corner of the Site. Construction started in 1916 and was completed in 1919. On the south side facing the Parade Ground the building had a more domestic, two-storey scale, while the north, public elevation was four storeys and of a much more imposing design.

There was then little space left on the Site to expand the accommodation of either the Police Station or Gaol but smaller works were undertaken. In 1924 a new Armoury and Store (building 2) was built at the west end of the parade ground and in 1933 the veranda on the ground floor of this building was filled in to provide further storage. In 1927 a Garage (building 5) for police cars was constructed. Numerous other minor alterations were undertaken to all the buildings on Site, such as the partitioning of rooms in the Barracks Block for offices of the Criminal Investigations Department (1928 - 9) and the construction of a new printing shop on the site of the workshop (in part building 17, F Hall) in the southwest corner of the Site in 1929. In 1928 a new ‘Reception Block’ (building 11, A Hall) was constructed, in 1929 a building was constructed to the east of this for use as a male hospital and various offices (building 13, C Hall) and in the 1930s a new Ablutions block (building 8) was constructed west of the Reception Block.

During the 1930s two new prisons were constructed at Lai Chi Kok and Stanley to once again try to solve the overcrowding problem. This left the Victoria Gaol for remand prisoners, debtors, destitute and persons awaiting deportation.

Hong Kong was occupied by the Japanese from 1941 - 5. The aerial bombardment caused damage to buildings of the Police Station and Prison, including the Headquarters Block. The Japanese then used the Site as a military base during their three year occupation and by the time they surrendered little maintenance had taken place. After a programme of demolition, repair and reconstruction the Site reopened in 1946.

Organisational changes took place in the Police Station and Gaol following the War. Female officers were first allowed into the Force in 1949. The Gaol was never used as a convict prison again- instead it was a remand prison. Various building functions were reorganised, such as the use of the Armoury and Store for the Traffic Police, the Parade Ground as a car park and a new radio control room on the top floor of the Barracks Block (later moved to the basement of the Headquarters Block for security). In 1956 F Hall was converted into use as the new Reception building, with the iconic blue gate on Old Bailey being built.

By the 1970s the prison was increasingly being used by the Immigration Office to detain illegal immigrants. In 1979 the Magistracy was converted for offices for the Immigration Department. The prison was also used as an institution for accommodating discharged inmates prior to repatriation or deportation. The Prisons Department was also reformed towards the end of the 20th century, changing its name to the Correctional Services Department and adopting the motto “We Care” to encourage team work and rehabilitation of offenders.

In the 1990s the Central Police Station and Victoria Gaol were becoming less important with the construction of newer facilities across Hong Kong. Because of the fear that the Site could fall into disuse or be severely adapted, the AMO designated the Central Police Station Compound, Magistracy and Victoria Gaol as Declared Monuments in 1995. By 2003 the decision had been made that the Site would be redeveloped for tourism use and in 2006 the prison was officially decommissioned.

 

Figure 3.2    View overlooking the site in 1895, showing the radial plan prison, the Married Inspectors’ Quarters and Deputy Superintendent’s House (Building 04), the original Magistracy, and the Superintendent’s House (10) behind that.

 

Figure 3.3     View looking into the Victoria Gaol radial plan prison c.1895, showing the laundry yard area and D Hall

 

 

Figure 3.4       Photograph of Central Hong Kong taken from the Peak c.1946-47 by Hedda Morrison. The site is shown highlighted in red, with the central tower and south wing of the radial plan prison still in place (Harvard University Library Visual Information Access, www.via.lib.harvard.edu).

 

 

Figure 3.5       1851

 

Figure 3.6       1856

 

Figure 3.7       1858

 

 

Figure 3.8       1887

 

 

Figure 3.9       1901

 

Figure 3.10     1913

 

 

 

Figure 3.11    1914

 

 

 

Figure 3.12   1936


3.4.3                                Oral History

The oral history report carried out by Dr Lawrence Ho of Lingan University highlighted four areas which were discussed by all three informants: Feng-shui and ghost stories, pay day, worshipping Guangong and other rituals, and the Officer’s Mess.

The discussion on feng shui and ghosts mentioned that elderly peers of one interviewee had described the Central Police Station as being able to “oversee what has happened in the coastline area in Central District. The place should be very good Fengshui and was described as ‘Fu Tei’ (the land of Tiger’ by geomancers”, while another described how after a night patrol with the traffic division he saw some World War II ghosts: “In an early morning, I drove back to the Station after duties and heard some strange noise when parking my vehicle. I leaned over the windows and amazingly saw some Japanese soldiers with long guns were foot drilling tidily at the parade ground!”.

The report also highlighted the well-known subculture of the worship of Guangong, which represented a figure of loyalty and honour in Chinese History. Statues of Guangong would have been located throughout the CPS and indeed some shrines survive today. One interview described this worship:

“I remember there was a statue in canteen and another was in common room. CID Department office also had one set; my traffic division had another…..and we would take care of campus direction when installing them. None of them would face eastward as it symbolized bad luck as Guangong has been exiled by the emperor to the East during his service. Meanwhile, it is totally wrong to consider the worship of Guangong is a religious ritual or superstitious act and most of my local and expatriate leaders would just treat it as a means to promote collegiality. Even the Christian colleagues would take part in the worshiping ceremonies from time to time.”

There was also mention of the practicalities of life in the police station, such as the range of duties held by officers including the maintaining of law and order, fire service, prison management, immigration and postal services. There were also services which were carried out by private vendors who would arrive on pay-day to take their share of police pay checks; these included vendors for meals, laundry and shoe-shining. The issue of co-habitation was also discussed, with one interviewee saying that some couples met while on duty and subsequently married, while there were also police officers who were able to get jobs for their partners in the Immigration Department.

Information regarding the Site and the buildings themselves was somewhat limited. One informant described the Officers’ Mess, which he was asked to re-design, and which he attempted to make into the style of a British pub:

“My sister-in-law was working as the chief designer in a company at Landmark at that time, they remove all the molding and wood paneling, I like them, so I use them. The Central Police Station was built almost 200 years ago, Hong Kong at that time was still the colony, we have many colleagues that come from the Britain, so I design the mess to be like British Victorian style, I have been to Britain few times, and the layout of the mess was just like those old pubs there”.

One interview gave a description of the Central Police Station:

“When we come to the Police Station at the ground floor, there is a 3-floor block at the right hand side, it was the stable before, and it becomes the office of the Accidents Investigation Unit, it used to be the place for placing equipments and apparatus [building 02, Armoury]. The block next to it is the oldest, which was over 200 years, the Emergency Unit of Hong Kong Island use one side of the ground floor, the other side is the Report Room of Central Police Station. The canteen and the hair-cut room are upstairs, every police station has one “hair-cut director”, and we also have magistracy, that’s why I say everything of us just like army, and no air-conditioning! [Building 03, Barracks Block].

Behind the Magistracy, there is a block which is used by the Immigration Department for monitoring those illegal immigrants. Next to it is another quarter for women police, and next to it is already the court”.

In order to form a more complete understanding of how the Site was used, the 1841 – 2005 Victoria Prison Memorial Book (Hong Kong Correctional Services Department, 2005) has also been referenced. Though this does not provide interviews with previous users, it does provide a firsthand account of what roles and tasks were carried out by individual workers within the prison. Given below is a selection of information about the various tasks carried out at the prison:

 

·            Assistant Officer I CHEUNG Kwok-choi, who supervised inmates in the kitchen. He said that meals for inmates were based on dietician recommendations, and that there were four diets in rotation: Asian, European, South Asian and vegetarian. Preparation for morning meals would start at 5:00am and breakfast served in shifts, and by 11:30am lunch was being made.

·            Assistant Officer I YIU Kwong-tak was the officer in charge of the main gate, and started work at 6:30am. He recorded details of anyone and anything that passed through the gate, including staff and officers, visitors, inmates upon admission and discharge, and vehicles. He also checked for contraband. Mr. YIU stated that when he joined in the prison in 1973 it was “very simple and rudimentary. But after years of development, the prison had become systematic and modernized in management and operation with most of its old architecture being preserved”.

·            Assistant Officer II IP Mei-ling supervised female inmates working in the laundry, starting from 8:30am. This included laundering of prisoner’s clothing, bedding and staff uniforms. She said “When I was in charge of the Laundry, I gladly completed an in-service training course on laundry services and I was able to apply what I had learnt. I also got many opportunities to practice Putonghua while supervising inmates from the mainland and I derived considerable job satisfaction from it”.

·            Assistant Officer II SHECK Chung-wai from the Works and Maintenance Unit was in charge of workers carrying out various maintenance within the Site, which sometimes has to work with the government departments or professionals to preserve the historic building.  Officer I LEE Chi-yuen was responsible for upkeep of staff quarters, and said that “Participating in various renovation work of Victoria Prison, I am fascinated by the special features of its buildings”.

·            Assistant Officer TANG Man-chui supervised Vietnamese detainees, who because of their status had different regulations to follow (e.g. they were allowed to wear their own clothes). He worked at the Victoria Prison in the 1970s, at which time “Victoria Prison was a reception centre. There were more categories of inmates and they were more difficult to handle. Besides, most of the senior officers where either British or ex-patriate”.

·            LAW Hau-Long, the last Superintendent of Victoria Prison, was also interviewed for the memorial book. He had worked at the prison in the 1970s when it was and was re-assigned in 2004. He remembered that “there used to be a basketball court outside the office of the Centre Division and there was a fig tree in the compound. When we were performing night duties, we often picked the figs stealthily”. The tree is now gone.

Three declared monuments with a total of 21 heritage interest items, one Grade 1 historic street, one proposed Grade 3 historic building, three streets and some steps, walls & revetments features, and ten areas with archaeological potential are identified within the CHIA Study Area.  A master layout plan showing all the identified cultural heritage items are presented in Figure 3.13 and further detailed below. 

3.4.4                                Built Heritage Resources within the Site

There are a total of 19 Built Heritage Resources within the Site, as well as two open spaces and various other built features (as listed in Table 3.1 below) which are considered to be of heritage interest: the Parade Ground and Prison Yard. All of these buildings and features are considered to be Heritage Resources within the Site, and therefore are covered in the CHIA.  Further information about these heritage resources is included in the baseline studies in Annex A1.

 

Table 3.1         Built Heritage Resources within the Site

Ref No

Building or Feature Name

Date Built

1

Police Headquarters Block

1916 – 19

2

Armoury

1924 – 26

3

Barracks Block

1862 – 64

4

Married Inspectors’ Quarters and Deputy Superintendent’s House

1862 – 64

5

Garage

1927

6

Married Sergeants’ Quarters

1904 – 08

7

Single Inspectors’ Quarters

1904 – 08

8

Ablutions Block

c. 1930s

9

Central Magistracy

1912 – 14

10

Superintendent’s House

c. 1860s

11

A Hall

1928

12

B Hall

1910

13

C Hall

c. 1929

14

D Hall – west wing

1858

14

D Hall – east wing

1858

15

E Hall

1913 – 15

16

The Laundry

1917

17

F Hall

1931

19

Bauhinia House

c. 1858

 

Parade Ground

N/A

 

Prison Yard

N/A

 

Walls & Revetments

1858 – 1960s

 

3.4.5                                Other Built Heritage Resources within 50m but Outside the Site

In the area around the Site, there are numerous examples of historic built fabric. These include one Grade 1 historic street, one proposed Grade 3 historic building and some remnants of 19th century granite walls or steps located along the streets immediately around the Site including Hollywood Road, Arbuthnot Road, Chancery Lane, Wyndham Street, Old Bailey Street, Staunton Street, Elgin Street and Caine Road.  They are presented in Tables 3.2 to 3.9 below. 

Table 3.2         Details of Hollywood Road


Site Name:

Hollywood Road

Location:

North of the Site, bordering the Central Police Station north side

Type:

Road

Distance from Site:

1 metre

Designation:

none

Construction date:

Completed 1842

Historical Appraisal:

Though Queen’s Road Central was the first road to come under construction in colonial Hong Kong, Hollywood Road was the first to be finished in 1842. The origin of the name is thought to be a reference to the second governor of Hong Kong, Sir John Francis Dove, whose family home outside Bristol in England was called Hollywood. It begins to the west at the junction of Queen’s Road West, and ends at the northeast corner of the Site at the junction of Arbuthnot and Wymondham. It is today well known as being a prime spot for antiques shops. At the west end is the Man Mo Temple, a Declared Monument constructed in 1847. It is thought that prior to the Second World War prisoners were led from the Victoria Gaol down Hollywood Road to the temple, where they would stand in an open courtyard and be taunted by the public.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Architectural Appraisal:

The road has most certainly been altered since its establishment, changing from a dirt track to a busy vehicular route with road markings, pavements, curbs, drainage, traffic lights and pedestrian crossings. There is no street furniture or other features of note.

Construction Material:

Asphalt with concrete curbs and pavements.

 

Table 3.3         Details of Old Bailey Street

Site Name:

Old Bailey Street

Location:

West of the Site, bordering both the Central Police Station and Victoria Prison

Type:

Road

Distance from Site:

1 metres

Designation:

none

Construction date:

c.1840s

Historical Appraisal:

Originally called Old Bayley, this road was likely constructed in the early 1840s when the Site was used as a Magistrate’s house and gaol. It is shown on the earliest plans of the Site (1851) as a wide road with a surface drain running down the centre. Though the plan shows the street continuing northward beyond the Site, it today ends at Hollywood Road with only a narrow pedestrian way carrying on to Lyndhurst Terrace, and only continues a short distance south of the Site to Caine Road. The origin of the name is unclear, with possibilities including a reference to the well-known Old Bailey court building in London, or to the term ‘bailey’ which is a high wall around a castle (reminiscent to the retaining walls around the Site).

Architectural Appraisal:

The road has most certainly been altered since its establishment, changing from a dirt track to a busy vehicular route with road markings, pavements, curbs, drainage and traffic lights.

Construction Material:

Asphalt with concrete curbs and pavements.

 

 

Table 3.4         Details of Chancery Lane

Site Name:

Chancery Lane

Location:

South of the Site, bordering the Victoria Prison

Type:

Road

Distance from Site:

1 metre

Designation:

none

Construction date:

c.1840s

Historical Appraisal:

This is a narrow alley running the width of the Site between Old Bailey Street and Arbuthnot Road. At the west end there is vehicular access, though this does not follow through to the west end as there is a set of historic steps in place (discussed in more detail below).  Though the street and the steps appear in early plans of the Site and likely date to the 1840s, the name Chancery Lane does not appear until drawings of 1877, which illustrate how residents in the two-storey homes on the south side of the street could see inmates over the south wall of the prison.  This demonstrates the early residential use of the street which continues today, though with high rise buildings. The origin of the name is likely a reference to the Sites early use as Magistracy, as chancery is another word for a Court of Equity.

 

 

 

 

Architectural Appraisal:

The road has not been widened much from its establishment, but the surface has changed. There is little of architectural interest, though the high prison walls are of significance.

Construction Material:

Concrete surface with curbs and pavement to the south.

Table 3.5         Details of Chancery Lane Steps

Site Name:

Chancery Lane Steps

Location:

South of the Site at the east end, leading from Chancery Lane to Arbuthnot Road

Type:

Steps

Distance from Site:

1 metre

Designation:

none

Construction date:

c.1840s

Historical Appraisal:

As mentioned above, Chancery Lane as been on the site since the 1840s, as have the steps at the east end. These steps were originally constructed of long, narrow granite slabs, and have three intermediate landings with approximately 20 steps between. In the earliest graphic representation of the steps (1851) they are shown with four landings having approximately 5 steps between; it is unclear whether this is evidence of change or merely a drawing convention.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Architectural Appraisal:

The width of the steps has been somewhat altered with the construction of new buildings on the south side, and there have been several unsympathetic repairs over the years. This include patching and large areas of replacement carried out in concrete and cement, much of which is due to the insertion of drainage pipes. While these alterations detract from the overall appearance of the steps, which are not of any high architectural significance anyway, they nonetheless form an important part of understanding the historic layout and circulation patterns of the Site.

Construction Material:

Granite and other stone with some concrete in-fill and cement patching.

 

Table 3.6         Details of Arbuthnot Road

Site Name:

Arbuthnot Road

Location:

East of the Site, bordering both the Central Police Station and Victoria Prison

Type:

Road

Distance from Site:

1 metre

Designation:

none

Construction date:

Completed 1842

Historical Appraisal:

Named for George Arbuthnot, a member of the Treasury present at the drawing up of the HSBC Charter, this road dates from the 1840s and slopes downward to the north. It has undergone more changes than any of the others around the Site, namely alterations to the north junction (the northeast corner of the Site) to accommodate a turning area for vehicles in the 1960s, and a widening of the road which removed the pavements on the west side and made the street level door of the Magistracy unusable. Today this road provides some of the best views of the Site from the exterior, especially of the Magistracy and building 04.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Architectural Appraisal:

The road has most certainly been altered since its establishment, changing from a dirt track to a busy vehicular route with road markings, pavements, curbs, drainage and traffic lights.

Construction Material:

Asphalt with concrete curbs and pavements.


Table 3.7         Details of Pottinger Street

Site Name:

Pottinger Street

Location:

East of the Site, bordering both the Central Police Station and Victoria Prison

Type:

Steps

Distance from Site:

5 metres

Designation:

Grade 1 (graded structure #63, confirmed 18 December 2009)

Construction date:

c.1840s

Historical Appraisal:

Pottinger Street is a pedestrian route running downhill (north) from Hollywood Road to Queen’s Road Central. Due to its steep slope, stone slab steps were installed, allowing for easier pedestrian access. Gutters along the site of the steps were also provided for the draining of rainwater. Therefore, though Pottinger is the official name of the street, it is commonly known as the Stone Slabs Street (‘Sek Baan Gaai’) by locals, so-called for the granite slab steps which run the full length.

 

Pottinger is one of the earliest streets in Hong Kong, and so named for the first governor, Irish-born Sir Henry Curwen Pottinger.  Following a stint in the army, he joined the British East India Company and later held the post of Resident Administrator in Sindh and Hyderabad. Following a return to England and creation as baronet in 1839, Pottinger was soon after made British Administrator (1841) and the first Governor (1843) of Hong Kong. Pottinger’s immediate plan for the lawless island was to bring order by any means, and in August 1842 he negotiated the Nanking Treaty to bring an end to the Opium Wars. Pottinger left Hong Kong after a very short tenure in 1844.

 

The street was certainly in place by 1843, when it is mentioned by the Reverend James Legge (a missionary in China), who said that, ‘Looking up Pottinger Street, you could see the Magistracy and Gaol of the day, where the dreaded Major Caine presided, and below them were two or three other buildings’.1

 

The earliest known plans of the site (1851) show Pottinger running south to a large revetment wall (now the line of the south side of Building 01). Along with a narrow curved road entering the southeast of the Site, it was one of only two entrances into the walled compound. These plans suggest that Pottinger originally had a gateway at the point it entered the ‘Gaol Compound’. This street would have then run virtually down to the harbour, which was originally along Connaught and Queen’s Roads.

 

In the early 20th century, the part of Pottinger Street south of Hollywood Road became fully integrated into the CPS; firstly with the construction of officers’ quarters at the northeast corner of the site in 1903, and soon after by the much larger Headquarters Block along virtually the whole north side of the site in 1916. It was at this time that the actually entrance into the CPS moved from its position at the former revetment wall down to the junction of Pottinger and Hollywood Road.

 

Historically, the Pottinger Street Entrance has continued, from the 1840s onward, to be the principal entrance onto the site for all users with the exception of prisoners and prison visitors. Its retention as a ramped entrance today makes clear reference to the early street layout of Central Hong Kong, while the steps from Queen’s Road to this day provide a clear and defined path up to the site. It is therefore desirable in terms of historic significance that this remain one of or the principal entry to the site.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Architectural Appraisal:

The road width and layout has changed little since construction, and is important for maintain its historic appearance.

Construction Material:

Granite steps and drainage channels with some cement and concrete repair. Cast iron railings.

(1)   Sayer, Geoffrey Robley (1937) Hong Kong: birth, adolescence, and coming of age.


Table 3.8    Details of Walls (and Potential Tunnel) at Old Bailey Street

Site Name:

Walls (and potential tunnel) at Old Bailey Street

 

Location:

Southwest of the Site

 

Type:

Wall

Distance from Site:

1-5 metres

 

Designation:

none.

Construction date:

c.1840s

Historical Appraisal:

Overcrowding was a constant problem at the Victoria Gaol, and in the late 19th century the continued desire for further space led to designs for new prison buildings outside the actual site. In 1894 – despite opposition from the Chinese community – a proposal was made for the construction of two blocks of buildings in a site on the corner of Old Bailey and Staunton Street. Following approval by the Public Works Department for the drawings and estimates, Mr. Foo Sik was given the contract for the work.  At the end of the year the old buildings on the site had been demolished and the excavation of the trenches was in progress.

 

The following Public Works Report of 1896 gives clear evidence that both the masonry walls in Old Bailey and the tunnel running under it can be dated to the gaol extension of 1894 – 6: 

 

‘The new buildings in Old Bailey have been completed and were handed over to the Superintendent of the Gaol on the 20th December, 1895. These buildings consist of two main blocks three stories in height having basements under the northern portions. The blocks contain 155 separate cells and are connected by a covered way. In the basements ample store and bath-room accommodation has been provided. A portion of the site has been utilised for the erection of a workshop and workshed with storeroom adjoining. The whole of the site is surrounded by a high masonry wall, and communication with the existing Gaol premises situated on the east side of Old Bailey has been provided by the construction of a subway under Old Bailey. Gas and water have been laid on at convenient places throughout the premises.’

 

The exact location of the tunnel is unknown, though it is likely that it ran in a straight line across Old Bailey into the prison side of the Site, entering into the space either north or south of what was then the east wing of the radial plan prison (where the General Office – building 18 – is today).  There is no evidence for the entrance of the tunnel within the CPS, and this is likely owing to several later alterations. It is also a possibility that the tunnel was in-filled, much like the nearby tunnel in Pottinger Street which was constructed as an air raid shelter in the 1940s. This tunnel, which ran approximately 75m south into the hill (being entered into from Pottinger Street between Stanley and Wellington) was found in the 1980s to be in danger of collapse and was filled in. The Bailey Street tunnel perhaps suffered a similar fate.

 

The walls around the original gaol extension still remain in place, and form a complete perimeter around the Site now occupied by the Police Married Quarters.

Architectural Appraisal:

The walls are of the same construction type and style as many of the walls around the CPS, making them an important visual (as well as historic) link to the Site.

Construction Material:

Granite

 


Table 3.9   Details of No. 20 Hollywood Road

Site Name:

No. 20 Hollywood Road

 

Location:

Northwest of the site, at the corner of Hollywood Road and Old Bailey Street.

 

Type:

Building

Distance from Site:

5 metres

 

Designation:

Proposed as Grade 3 historic building #791 (on AMO List of 1,444 Historic Buildings up to 20 September 2010)

Construction date:

c.1920s or 1930s

Historical Appraisal:

 Land records show that the lease on this landed property commenced in 1844, and this must have been one of the earliest lots to be sold; however, it is not known when the lot was first built on. The building lots along Hollywood Road were some of the first to be sold after the cession of Hong Kong Island to Britain. As a “second generation” or even possibly “third generation” building on this site, 20 Hollywood Road is significant in the evolution of Hong Kong’s social, cultural and commercial development. The building dates from sometime in the 1920s or 1930s, judging by its vaguely Art-Deco Style design. It would have originally been one of many narrow terraced buildings of four to five storeys which lined Hollywood Road and other streets in Central in the first half of the 20th century. However, many have since been demolished or their plots redeveloped. In the case of 20 Hollywood Road, the ground floor has been completely redesigned to accommodate more modern commercial use.

Architectural Appraisal:

 

The building is four storeys on the Hollywood Road frontage, though the ground floor slopes steeply upward to the south. The exterior features regular rows of set-back windows with projecting window canopies on the north and east sides, Crittall-style metal windows on the upper floors and small oculus windows at the southeast corner, a high parapet stepped up at the corners with decoration at the northeast corner, and these are all indicative of the Art-Deco Style. The ground floor of the building, which is presently an art gallery, has a much more commercial character, with its open shop front, than the more office style upper floors. A pedestrian bridge section of the Central to Mid-Levels Escalator runs alongside the front of the Hollywood Road elevation of the building and obscures its façade.

The interior has been modernized and its authenticity and integrity have therefore been compromised, but the Art Deco style staircase with its green polished terrazzo handrail and skirting has largely survived.

Presumably brick or concrete, finished externally with painted Shanghai plaster grooved with artificial joint lines.


3.4.6                                Archaeological Resources

Topographical Background

The Site is situated at the northwest part of the Hong Kong Island near the northern coast.  The northern part of Hong Kong Island has been heavily developed at the very beginning of the colonial period and the original coastline (see Figure 3.14) at the northern shore of the Island has been reclaimed a number of times to the present condition.  The Site is now surrounded by built urban environment.  When chasing back to the 1843 and 1863 historic maps of the area as shown in Figure 3.15, development commenced at the north of the Site in 1843 and major roads around the Site have been developed in 1863. 

The Site is located not far from the original northern coastline at its north. To the southwest and southeast, the Site is protected by the Victoria Peak (with 552m height) and the Mount Gough (with 479m height) respectively and they are separated by the Victoria Gap.  Review of 1843 and 1863 historic maps also indicated that a number of south-north running streams can be found adjacent to the Site running from the mountains towards the sea, and the Site is situated between streams.   Based on the topographical condition of the area, the Site is a possible location for human activities because it is well protected by the mountains at the south from strong wind, not far from the sea for water transportation and with additional food supply, and supplied with fresh drinking water from streams sources.

Geology Background

The Site is situated on Kowloon Granite (Klk), which are Cretaceous intrusive rocks with an approximate age of 140.4 ± 0.2 million years before present.  The lithology of Kowloon Granite is equigranular medium-grained biotite granite.  Between the University of Hong Kong and the Central District, the granite is light grey to light pink, uniform, equigranular and medium-grained, with an average grain size of 3 to 4 mm (CEDD website).  A NE-SW fault runs through the Victoria Gap.  The superficial deposit of the Site is debris flow deposit.  The geology map of the Site and the adjacent area is shown in Figure 3.15. 

Archaeological and Historical Background

According to the AMO List of Sites of Archaeological Interest in Hong Kong (as of February 2009, http://www.amo.gov.hk/form/list_archaeolog_site_eng.pdf) there are no sites of archaeological interest within the Site.  With regard to unknown archaeological potential within the Site, an archaeological desk-based assessment has been carried out for the Site as part of the establishment of the CMP for the Site conducted in June 2008, the findings of which are detailed in the CMP (June 2008). The summary findings are presented below.

There is little written information regarding the Site prior to colonial occupation. Early maps of Hong Kong from the 19th century show little detail beyond the coastline or cover a larger area with limited details of Hong Kong Island at all (see Figure 3.15 for examples of early maps of Hong Kong).  Limited intrusive archaeological investigations had been conducted on the Site or at the adjacent area regarding the pre-colonial history of the area, therefore, there is very limited information to understand if any occupation existed on the Site prior to the 1840s.

The Site has, however, been occupied continually from the 1840s until the present, with construction work being carried out in virtually every area of the Site. The earliest buildings were in place from the 1840s to the mid 1850s and included cell blocks and guard houses to the north, a magistracy to the east, and the Magistrate’s House to the south; this was soon after converted to use a as a Debtor’s prison and then replaced by a new building with the same use (see Figures 3.5 and 3.6).  These buildings were typically built in a quick, low quality manner, and a description of the first Magistrate’s House provides a clear understanding of the poor construction:

‘This building, one of the first to be erected on the establishment of the Colony, was intended for and occupied as the first residence of the Chief Magistrate with Court Room, etc. The materials and workmanship are of the most ordinary kind, the several scantlings of timber used throughout extremely slight, and the whole put together in the manner common to all similar houses built here without efficient superintendence’.

‘In the year 1845 one half of the building was converted into a Debtor’s Prison, and subsequently the remainder was used as Gaoler’s residence; and although the utmost was done to render it suitable for such purposes it was perfectly impossible to arrange anything from satisfactorily for the former both on account of the unsuitableness of the plan and the insufficiency of the materials and workmanship, which to correct would have involved the reconstruction of the greater part of it’2.

Most of these structures were demolished in the late 1850s and 1860s, when the radial plan prison was constructed to the south and buildings 3 and 4 were built on the north side of the Site (see Figure 3.7). The earliest buildings on the Site presumably required only shallow foundations, while those of the radial plan prison, Barracks Block and Officers’ Quarters would have been much more substantial and likely removed any trace of the early structures.

Further construction works through the late 19th and early 20th centuries resulted in the systematic demolition of all the original buildings on the Site, with some areas undergoing several phases of construction and demolition over the years. One example is the area south of the Barracks Block (building 3) where the Site had a Guard House, Governor’s House, Superintendent’s House (still present; building 10), Matron’s House, Prison hospital, offices and Reception Block, and finally the still standing A Hall (building 11) and C Hall (building 13). In areas such as this where several rounds of construction took place, there is little likelihood that any original archaeological material remains. It is possible that some disturbed finds are contained under the present foundations, though these are likely to be out of context.

The original Magistracy was an early structure on the Site (c. late 1840s) (see Figure 3.5) which was replaced in 1914 by the present building (see Figure 3.11).  It is presumed that very little of the original structure remains, given that it would have had very shallow foundations which would have been completely demolished to construct the partial basement in the new building. Public Works reports described the digging of the basement, reporting that the land was mostly rock and difficult to excavate; it is assumed that this extreme level of excavation would have destroyed any remnants of the earlier building. At the north side of the Site is the Headquarters Block (building 1), partially constructed on what was previously a residential area with 18 terraced houses set on two stepped platforms around a central street. Again, the deep basements for the new building would have required extensive excavations that most likely destroyed any remains of the earlier buildings.

The Parade Ground presents some possibility of archaeology, as it was previously the location of early gaol buildings and has not been built on since their demolition in the 1860s. However, several factors have caused disturbance to the Parade Ground and may have destroyed or damaged any below ground evidence.  This includes the digging of the basement for building 1 (Headquarters Block) which extends south into the Parade Ground; the digging of trenches for electric wiring and piping, construction of an air raid shelter in the northwest corner, re-surfacing, and potential bomb damage from the Second World War.  It should also be remembered that the original buildings would not have had substantial foundations anyway, and may have left little or no trace of previous structures.  Aside from the possibility of some earlier foundations or other substantial archaeology, there is also the possibility for small finds.  The Parade Ground historically had a more porous ground covering, with areas grassed over and other parts dirt or gravel.  As a high traffic area, it is likely that some small objects – be they personal items or police related – would have been dropped and have perhaps been trapped within the layers of archaeology beneath the present surface.

The Prison Yard also has some potential for archaeology, as it was originally the location of the 1858 radial plan prison, and there may be evidence of the four wings which have been demolished. Some evidence of this early prison has likely been lost, however, with the construction of later buildings like a cell block in the southeast and a printing shop – later replaced by F Hall (building 17) in the southwest.

There is also a possibility of finding small artefacts in the Prison yard, though here the remains are more likely to be related historic use as an area for various types of prison labour. The following are known to have been undertaken at the prison, and archaeological remains relating to any of these items could remain: stone breaking and dressing, mat making, laundering clothes and blacksmithing. There is also potential for finding remains of the wall which separated F Hall from the rest of the prison in the first half of the 20th century; it was demolished following the Second World War.

Based on the findings as presented above, the desktop findings identified the following ten areas considered to have some archaeological potential to identify colonial period remains or even earlier period remains if they are still survived in the ground and their locations are presented in Figure 3.16.

·            Parade Ground;

·            Prison Yard;

·            Barracks Lane;

·            the Garage ;

·            the married inspector’s quarters and deputy superintendent’s house (building 04)

·            the area between A Hall (building 11) and B Hall (building 12);

·            the area between and beneath Ablutions block (building 08) and the revetment wall to the south;

·            west of D Hall (building 14);

·            Laundry (building 16); and

·            General Office (building 18).

As the desk-based assessment identified areas with archaeological potential but the information is considered inadequate for further detailed impact assessment, a non-destructive Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Survey was conducted in August 2009 to obtain the field data.   Detailed results of the GPR Survey are presented in Annex A3 and the summary findings are presented below.

Ground Penetrating Radar Survey Result

Figure 3.1 shows the area coverage of the GPR survey.  The GPR survey revealed four major types of below ground elements, namely voids, utility cables, pipes and loose materials, all of which range in depth from 0.5 – 1.8 metres below ground level. There were a total of:

·            Parade Ground - 128 transverse passes, and 85 longitudinal passes.

·            Prison Yard - 63 transverse passes, and 97 longitudinal passes.

·            F Hall (building 17) – several passes made in rooms 17/G/16 – 19.

·            Narrow strip from north side of A Hall to south side of D Hall west extension – 67 transverse passes and 58 longitudinal passes, including rooms at the west ends of A Hall (building 11), B Hall (building 12) and D Hall west extension (building 14) as well as the open alleyways between these buildings .

Generally, the survey revealed various areas of possible voids and loose materials typically occurring at 0.6 or 0.8m below the surface. The results of the GPR do not provide a clear indication of what these disturbances could be. There were several occurrences of utility cables and pipes ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 metres below ground.

The results for 17/G/18 showed ‘no observable void or loose material or detectable pipe or utility’, while there were possible voids or loose material throughout 17/G/16. Room 17/G/19 revealed possible voids or loose materials throughout, as well as some utility cables and pipes.

The most substantial finding of the survey is a tunnel in the northwest corner of the Parade Ground, which runs south from the Headquarters Block (building 01) at the west end. The general location of this tunnel – built as an air raid shelter during the Second World War – was previously known, though the GPR has identified its exact dimensions and position.

Another possible find is a series of drains in the Prison Yard, which appear to follow almost exactly the foundations for a previous cell block in the southeast corner. This building was constructed in 1901 in an area previously occupied by the southeast wing of the radial plan prison, and was the first building to be designed in the style of the still remaining B and E Halls. While the GPR survey suggests that only the drainage (which would have following the exterior perimeter of the building) is in place, but there is the possibility that some fabric of the cell block remains. This possibility is increased due to the lack of construction of any later buildings on this area of the yard.

The narrow area surveyed across A Hall, B Hall and D Hall west extension was carried out in several transverse passes, with approximately 10 passes per space.  The number of longitudinal passes per space varied on the width of the room or open area. This included:

·            A Hall (building 11) Chapel – 6 transverse and four longitudinal passes

·            A Hall (building 11) Lavatory – 6 transverse and 6 longitudinal passes

·            A Hall yard – 8 transverse and 9 longitudinal passes

·            B Hall (building 12) – 5 transverse and 3 longitudinal passes in each of three north side and three south side cells

·            B Hall (building 12) – 4 transverse and 9 longitudinal passes in the central corridor

·            B Hall yard – 6 transverse and 10 longitudinal passes

·            D Hall (building 14) west extension – 10 transverse and 18 longitudinal passes

The findings of these passes revealed very little additional information, with the general result showing the detection of utility cables and pipes as well as some loose material between 0.5 and 1.5 metres below ground.

Based on the desktop findings and the results of the GPR survey it is likely that the continued demolition and construction in the years prior to 1950 on the Site have likely destroyed much of the early built fabric below ground, and that few archaeological resources remain.  However, considering the limitations of the GPR technique to identify small portable finds, there is still potential to identify archaeological remains in the areas of archaeological potential as shown in Figure 3.16.  Archaeological assessment including desk-based study for individual building and open space is also presented in Section 3.6.4 Impact on Archaeological Resources and Annex A1.

Need for Archaeological Investigation

The desk-top findings and the results of the GPR survey have been reviewed by two qualified archaeologists, Dr Jin Zhi-wei and Dr Liu Wen-suo, and it is now considered that the potential to identify archaeological remains exists.  In order to obtain further field data for a detailed impact assessment, an archaeological investigation is therefore considered necessary.   However, at this stage of the Project, a full archaeological investigation is considered not practical because:

 

·            Some of the areas with archaeological potential have existing buildings on them, such as the Garage and the Management Offices and the Laundry, and these will not be demolished until EIA consent has been granted;

·            Some of the areas with archaeological potential have existing historic buildings on them but no building works will be conducted during the EIA Stage of the Project; and

·            Consents for archaeological investigation in terms of test pits excavation across the open sites such as the Parade Ground and the Prison Yard have not been granted at this stage and these sites are occasionally being used for public access and exhibitions.

Given the above constraints, AMO has been consulted and it was principally agreed and considered practical that the archaeological investigation be conducted during the detailed design phase of the Project.  The archaeological investigation will focus on areas with archaeological potential that may potentially be impacted by the Project (i.e. proposed new development that involves excavation work in archaeological potential areas).  These areas are identified on Figure 3.17.   

 

3.4.7                                Bibliography

Books

·            Brodie, Allan (2002) English Prisons: an architectural history, English Heritage.

·            Carroll, John Mark (2007) A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman and Littlefield.

·            Crisswell, C & Watson, M (1982) The Royal Hong Kong Police, 1841 – 1945, MacMillan, Hong Kong.

·            Evans, R (1982) The fabrications of virtue, English prison architecture, 1850 – 1840, Cambridge University Press

·            Hong Kong Correctional Services Department (2005) 1841 – 2005 Victoria Prison Memorial Book, Hong Kong Correctional Services Department

·            Johnston, Norman (2000) Forms of Constraint: A History of Prison Architecture, University of Illinois.

·            Kyshe, N (1971) The History of the Laws and Courts of Hong Kong, Vetch and Lee Limited.

·            Lampugnani, V & Prior, E G (eds) (1993) Hong Kong Architecture: The Aesthetics of Density, Prestel, New York.

·            Munn, Christopher (2001) Anglo China: Chinese People and British Rule in Hong Kong, 1841-1880.

·            Routledge.

·            Sayer, Geoffrey Robley (1937) Hong Kong: birth, adolescence, and coming of age.

·            Sang, Wong Weh (ed.) (1998) Guide to Architecture in Hong Kong, Pace Publishing Limited, Hong Kong.

·            Tsang, Steve (2007) A Modern History of Hong Kong, Tauris.

·            Welsh, Frank (1997) A History of Hong Kong, 2nd edition, Harper Collins Publishers, London.

·            Zhuang Huiquan (Chuang Hue-tsuan), Malayan Chinese Resistance to Japan 1937-1945, Singapore

·            Cultural and Historical Publishing House, 1984.

Reports & Articles

·            Antiquities and Monuments Office (2004) Selected Historic Buildings and Sites in Central District, Leisure and Cultural Services Department, Hong Kong

·            Antiquities and Monuments Office (2004) ‘Declared Monuments in Hong Kong’. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from Antiquities and Monuments Office, Leisure and Cultural Services Department website: http://www.amo.gov.hk/en/monuments.php

·            Antiquities and Monuments Office (2004) ‘Definition of the Gradings of Historical Buildings’. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from Antiquities and Monuments Office, Leisure and Cultural Services Department website: http://www.amo.gov.hk/en/built3.php

·            Hirofumi, Hayashi (2001) ‘British War Crimes Trials of Japanese’, Nature-People-Society: Science and the Humanities, No. 31, July 2001 (Kanto Gakuin University).

·            Oval Partnership (2003) The Central Police Station Compound: Historical Research – Architectural Context, Oval Partnership, Hong Kong.

·            Oval Partnership (2003) The Central Police Station Compound: Historical Research – Historical and Cultural Context, Oval Partnership, Hong Kong.

·            Purcell Miller Tritton (2008) The Old Central Police Station and Victoria Prison, Hong Kong:      Conservation Management Plan.

·            Purcell Miller Tritton (2009) Headquarters Block: Draft Conservation Management Plan.

·            Purcell Miller Tritton (2009) Barracks Block: Draft Conservation Management Plan.

·            Purcell Miller Tritton (2009) Magistracy: Draft Conservation Management Plan.

·            Purcell Miller Tritton (2009) D Hall: Draft Conservation Management Plan.

Websites

·            Hong Kong Police Force, ‘History of the Hong Kong Police Force’. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from Hong Kong Police Force: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region website: http://www.police.gov.hk/hkp-home/english/history/history_02.htm

·            Hong Kong Public Libraries. The online library of photographs and maps was accessed, via http://www.hkpl.gov.hk/english/services/services_rls/services_rls.html

·            University of Wisconsin, American Geographical Society Library. Harrison Forman Collection: http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/

·            Gwulo: Old Hong Kong, photographic archive: http://gwulo.com/photos-of-old-hong-kong

·            Government Records Service, Public Records Office: http://www.grs.gov.hk/ws/english/ps_online_cata.htm

·            Hong Kong Museum of History: http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/CE/Museum/History/en/aboutus.php

·            Photo Library, Government Information Services: http://www.isd.gov.hk/eng/pub.htm

·            AMO List of Historic Buildings in Building Assessment as of 24 June 2010 http://www.amo.gov.hk/form/AAB-SM-chi.pdf

·            Government historic sites identified by AMO as at 24 June 2010 http/www.amo.gov.hk/form/build_hia_government_historic_sites.pdf?20100603

·            AMO List of Sites of Archaeological Interest in Hong Kong (as at February 2009) http/www.amo.gov.hk/form/list_archaeolog_site_eng.pdf

·            CEDD The Geology of Hong Kong (Interactive On-line) http://www.cedd.gov.hk/eng/about/organisation/int.htm

Theses

·            Chan, Kit-yi (2001), ‘Transformation of Central Police Station, Victoria Prison and Former Central Magistracy Complex’ BA Thesis, Hong Kong University Department of Architecture. Retrieved January 28, 2008, from Hong Kong University Digital Theses

·            Chan, Samson (1994) ‘Development of the Hong Kong Penal Policy and Programme Under the British Administration’ MA Thesis, Centre for the Study of Public Order, University of Leicester

Brochures

·            Antiquities and Monuments Office (undated) Heritage Tourism Development Project at the Central Police Station [Brochure], Leisure and Cultural Services Department

·            Centre of Architectural Research for Education (CARE) (2002) Caring for Our Heritage Project [Brochure], CARE, Hong Kong

·            Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Department of Architecture (2007) Side Stories of the Central Police Station Compound [Brochure], Chu Hai College, Hong Kong

·            Community Chest (2006) Victoria Prison Decommissioning Open Day [Brochure], Correctional Services Department, Hong Kong

·            Development Bureau (2007) Revitalising Historic Buildings Through Partnership Scheme [Brochure], Information Services Department, Hong Kong

·            Tourism Commission (2005) Heritage Tourism Development At the Central Police Station Compound [Brochure], Tourism Commission, Hong Kong.

Archives

Antiquities and Monuments Office

136 Nathan Road

Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon

Hong Kong

(852) 2208 4400

amo@lcsd.gov.hk

Hong Kong Jockey Club

Several photographs, maps and plans used in the creation of an exhibition for the HKJC were made available.

Hong Kong Public Records Office

13 Tsui Ping Road,

Kwun Tong, Kowloon

Hong Kong

(852) 2195 7700

proinfo@grs.gov.hk

Hong Kong University Library

Digital Initiatives

Hong Kong Government Reports Online

http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/index.jsp

Sessional Papers (1884 - 1940Gaol Reports

Reports on the Legislative Council

Reports of the Colonial Surgeon

Police Reports

Public Works Department Reports

Administrative Reports (1879 – 1939)

Police Annual Report and Returns

Gaol Annual Report and Returns

Reports of Colonial Surgeon and other Sanitary Papers

Hong Kong Hansard (1890 – 1941)

Reports of the Meetings of the Legislative Council

Report of the Superintendent of Gaols

Report of the Superintendent of Police

Hong Kong Government Gazette (1853 – 1941)

Tenders for buildings, dry earth, waste, food and clothing

Notifications of employment at Prison

Notifications of employment at Prison

Public Notice for Rules, Regulations of Gaol

Prison reports on punishments, treatments of prisoners

National Archives

The National Archives

Kew, Richmond

Surrey

TW9 4DU

United Kingdom

44 20 8876 3444

www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

Maps Collection

MPG 1/118 : 001 – 005 a, b  (original plans for the Buildings 3 & 4)

MPG 1/113: 001 (plan of the radial plan prison c. 1864)

MPG 1/118:17, 18 (plans of Stonecutter’s Prison)

Hong Kong Heritage Discovery Centre, Antiquities & Monuments Office

Kowloon Park

Haipong Road

Tsim Sha Tsui

Kowloon

2208 4400
http://hdclib.lcsd.gov.hk/index.htm

 

3.5                                      Potential Sources of Impact

3.5.1                                Construction Phase

The potential sources of impact on the heritage site during the construction phase include:

·            The demolitions of existing buildings.

·            The excavations for the basements of the new buildings.

·            The dismantling and reinstatement of sections of revetment walls, either to repair them or to enable ground excavations to be made for new basements.

·            The excavations for the site-wide underground services, including new drainage.

·            New openings to be made in the revetment walls to improve access into the Site.

·            The safe collection and discharge of rainwater off the roofs of the existing buildings into the permanent or temporary drainage system to avoid damaging ingress into the interiors.

·            The erection of essential scaffolding and any temporary roof protection for the repair and refurbishment of the existing buildings and for the new buildings.

·            The use of construction cranes and vehicles on the Site.

·            The use of areas of the Site for temporary construction storage.

·            The construction of a new footbridge.

These potential sources of impact may result in direct loss, and permanent or temporary changes to the buildings.  The construction works will be controlled and monitored by suitable construction methods and procedures to avoid damages to the historic buildings to be conserved.  

3.5.2                                Operational Phase

The potential sources of impact on the heritage site during the operational phase may generally arise from:

 

·            Potential operation visual impact due to the construction of a new footbridge

·            Visitors across the Site in great numbers

·            The tenants and users of the particular buildings

·            Poor management of the operation and maintenance of the Site facilities and landscape

The existing heritage buildings have different qualities ranging from those with quite robust constructions and finishes to others which are more fragile. The impact on the buildings from the way they are used can therefore vary significantly. It is for this reason that the adaptive uses in the buildings have been selected to avoid the most damaging effects of inappropriate uses. The uses selected should be capable of being sustained without irreversible damage by employing suitable operational controls. In some cases there will be the need to control visitor numbers within certain buildings to preserve the significant features. Generally the aim is that by taking suitable precautions to safeguard the heritage resources all the individual buildings will be able to be fully used to their greatest sustainable potential. 

The operational controls to avoid damage to the heritage buildings include:

 

·            Built –in protections required for certain fragile historic finishes and features, which would include for instance fragile artifacts such as painted signs.

·            Heritage Operation and Maintenance Manuals for routine inspection and maintenance (including safe access methods) for window and gutter cleaning, cleaning of external and internal historic finishes, external and internal repainting, plant equipment and services maintenance. In particular the maintenance of fire precautions and the control of water services are of paramount importance in avoiding most damaging impacts on the buildings (please refer to Annex A4 Heritage Operational Strategies for more details). 

·            Suitable tenancy agreements clearly setting out the limitations of uses and the duties for maintenance.

·            Control of unauthorised alterations.

·            Visitor management where essential.

·            Security measures, both passive and active.

·            Guidance for operators carrying out maintenance work, for instance in the use of historic materials to maintain authenticity of the historic fabric.

·            Risk management procedures for routine and emergency operations.

·            Heritage related staff management.

·            Heritage related staff training.

3.6                                       Impact Assessment

The following section provides an assessment of the potential impacts on the declared monuments on the Site, on the potential archaeological resources of the Site, on other built heritage resources outside the Site and within 50m of the Site boundary, and during the operational phase, based on proposals for changes on the Site. This section is divided into five main categories, each with its own assessment of impact and the relevant mitigation for these impacts. Within each category, the impact on the Site will be assessed according to Clause 3.2.4, Appendix B of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-205/2009, including the impact ratings which determine the level of impact and possible requirement for mitigation measures. These are:

1      Beneficial Impact: the impact is beneficial if the project will enhance the preservation of the heritage site and heritage items such as improving flooding problem of the historic building after the sewerage project of the area, putting an unused historic building back into use and allowing public appreciation

2      Acceptable Impact: if the assessment indicates that there will be no significant effects on the heritage site or items

3      Acceptable impact with mitigation measures: if there will be some adverse effects, but these can be eliminated or reduced to a large extent prior to commencement of work

4      Unacceptable impact: if the adverse affects are considered to be too excessive and are unable to mitigate practically

5      Undetermined impact: if the significant adverse effects are likely, but the extent to which they may occur or may be mitigated cannot be determined.

The five categories of the impact assessment are listed below, along with a summary of their content:

The Site

This section will discuss the overall construction and operation impacts of the scheme on the whole CPS, looking both at the range of adaptive reuse alterations to the historic buildings and the new buildings.

Individual Built Heritage Resources within the Site

This section will look at the individual buildings, spaces and features within the Site that will be affected by the new proposals. In order to form a more coherent system of reference within this CHIA, summaries of the baseline studies and impact assessments for each of these heritage resources have also been provided within this section.

Other Built Heritage Resources within 50m but Outside the Site

There are some built heritage resources within 50 m of the boundaries of the Site (as stated in Section 3.4.6) which have a direct relationship to the Site and could potentially be affected to some degree indirectly by proposed development.  These mainly involve the roads and pedestrian routes outside the Site and there is a need to make road and footpath improvements for public safety and operational reasons. This section assesses the potential impact on these built heritage resources.

Archaeological Resources

This section will address the potential impact to the potential archaeological resources within the Site, based on findings of the Archaeological Desk-top study and the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey. It will discuss only those areas where the below-ground archaeology has the potential to be disturbed, for example in the Parade Ground and Prison Yard, or in areas where buildings are proposed for demolition.

Operational Phase

This section notes that there could be potential impacts on the exteriors and interiors of the heritage buildings and on the site features during the operational phase due to great numbers of visitors on the Site, from the tenants and users of the particular buildings, and the operational management of the Site services facilities and landscape (as stated in Section 3.5.2).

3.6.1                                Impact on the Site

General Impact

The following interventions are common to the adaptive reuses for all the existing buildings on the Site and will be addressed in detail on a building by building basis during the detailed design stage. The individual building studies included in Annex A1 refer to these interventions and their impact ratings:

·            Compliance with building codes using a recognised conservation approach for adaptive reuses in heritage buildings;

·            Underpinning;

·            Roof tiling: repairs or renewals;

·            New wall openings;

·            Stairs: retention and improvements;

·            Lifts: selection to suit buildings;

·            Services installations: plant and services (including utility and piping inside or side buildings) distribution;

·            Fenestration refurbishments: repairs and replacements;

·            Upgrading for fire doors;

·            Upgrading for safety: stairs and balustrades; and

·            Strengthening of timber floors.

In addressing the means of strengthening the timber floors across the Site, the general methodology has been to use the most appropriate means dependent on the current timber design and strength, the proposed adaptive uses, and the value of heritage significance.  

Two main options for strengthening include:

 

·            Reducing the span length of the existing timber member. This method uses a steel beam beneath the timber at mid-span to reduce maximum shear and moment.

·            Local strengthening of the existing timber section. This method strengthens the section of the timber beam by sandwiching it between steel plates.

 

Two main options for strengthening the floor of a kitchen or bathroom include:

 

·            The addition of a concrete floor cast over the existing floor and supported by steel frames resting on the existing masonry walls.

·            The use of non-slip water resisting vinyl sheeting over the existing construction.

 

 

The existing building structures have been assessed by the structural engineer as being capable of supporting the proposed new uses and alterations without extensive strengthening work.  In order to ensure that the impact to the historic fabric of the buildings is minimal due to the floor strengthening proposal, a detailed structural report will be prepared by the structural engineer during the detailed stage to evaluate if the above proposal needs to be revised and determine any strengthening work is required for the floors and foundations resulting from the loadings of the new uses, or the alterations, or from the condition of the existing structures.  Any structural strengthening proposals will be assessed for their impacts on the character defining elements, and mitigation measures will be considered.

In general, the interventions of these alterations to the buildings will vary depending on the method used and the significance of the building.  Ultimately, the key goal is to provide a safe environment while also following conservation principles for alterations to historic buildings, including minimum intervention and, where possible, reversibility.

Impact on Site Circulation

With at least three different levels making up the overall compound, a dense network of buildings separating the Parade Ground and the Old Prison Yard, and a heavy granite wall surrounding the original prison grounds, the CPS compound is presently difficult to navigate and almost impossible to access. Vital to the successful revitalization of the site is the ease through which it can be accessed by the public – and specifically by pedestrians who will be walking into, around and through the site. The aim is to transform what was once a closed and heavily restricted site into a public space that is open and welcoming.

To link the new pedestrian network of public spaces within the site, two main circulation paths running north-south and one running east-west are proposed:

·            The first north-south path directly connects the Central Mid-Levels escalator through a new footbridge to the lower Parade Ground. From there, a public path will be opened through the ground floor of Barracks Block leading to a new stair passageway under A Hall and through B Hall to the upper Prison Yard. Two sets of new elevators – the first through B Hall and the second through Old Bailey Wing – can also be accessed along the path ensuring equal accessibility and interpretive experience for all.

·            The second north-south path is more meandering and historical in nature. It begins as a continuation of the pedestrian Pottinger Street, through the Pottinger Gate and into the Parade Ground. From there, a set of stairs leads up to the Magistracy Terrace, and then through a new wall opening where the ground floor of D Hall East and the Laundry Yard can be reached. Like all paths, this historical heritage path will also be revitalized to ensure equal access for all.

·            The east-west path will be anchored by the two new proposed cultural buildings and will create a cross pedestrian route connecting Soho and Lan Kwai Fong through the Old Prison Yard. An opening in the prison wall along Old Bailey Street, close to Staunton Street, will create a new Western entrance that will be matched on the Eastern side with another new wall opening towards Arbuthnot Road. The Bauhinia House will be rehabilitated as a new gatehouse linking Arbuthnot Road to the Old Prison Yard.  

Based on the above described proposed changes in the circulation around the Site, the following interventions are required.

·            New openings into the south elevation of B Hall for both the new stair passageway which is the width of two prison cells and the accessible path of travel which occupies the width of one prison cell.

·            Several new openings and a minor alteration of the historic revetment walls in a clear modern style to ensure no confusion with historic openings.  The new openings will work with the coursing of the granite walls to ensure minimum disruption to historic fabric.   The proposed openings/minor alterations are listed below:

a)        A new opening by Bauhinia House in the wall to Arbuthnot Road;

b)        A new opening off Old Bailey Street under the location of the proposed new building; 

c)        A minor alteration to the wall between the Armoury and Police Headquarters where the proposed new bridge will land;

d)        New openings in the revetment wall to the south of the Barracks Block and under the Ablutions Block, A and C Halls; and

e)        New openings in the revetment wall to the south of the Ablutions Block and under the line of the new Old Bailey Wing building. 

The proposed interventions will have direct impact on the Barracks Block, the interior of B Hall and several revetment walls.   A marked change on the appearance of B Hall, a visual impact on several revetment walls as described above and fundamental change of the way people can circulate around the Site are also anticipated.   Nevertheless, the impacts are considered to have minimal significant change to the ability to appreciate and understand the cultural significance of the buildings/revetment walls.  The visual impact will be comparatively modest as the granite walls are large and dominant features and the new openings are small by comparison. 

The most significant heritage impact is the loss of the separation of the Site into three distinct areas. At present the distinction between the Police Station and the Prison is clear with a single controlled point of access. Similarly the Magistracy is separated off from the Police area.  To enable visitors to have easy access for the full use of the Site the new routes have been created and these will certainly blur the distinction between the areas, but this is really a problem of interpretation rather than impact on the historic fabric.  The winding route around B Hall and up to the north side of D Hall have deliberately been left to enable groups who are visiting the site to understand the history and previous uses. This will be a challenge for the education and interpretation plans.

3.6.2                                Impact on Built Heritage Resources within the Site: Baseline Studies and Impact Assessments           

The section looks individually at the separate buildings and features, any potential impact and mitigation measures.

For each of these buildings or features, this section will include both the Baseline Study and the Impact Assessment as a means of creating a coherent and readable section. Therefore, each element of the Site addressed here will include the following two sections:

 

·            A – Baseline Study. This includes a field study, archaeological survey, desktop study, assessment of significance, illustrative photographs and, where available, historic photographs and plans. Also included here is a list of character defining elements (where applicable) with figures and plan location references, which make reference to AMO’s archival records.

·            B – Impact Assessment.  This includes a general overview of proposals for each building or feature and a table setting out the various potential impacts and their potential mitigation measures.  As not all parts of the buildings are accessible during EIA stage of the Project,  comprehensive impact assessment and appropriate mitigation measures for all the character defining elements of the monuments and historic features of each building cannot not be conducted in this stage.  It is therefore proposed that the relevant comprehensive impact assessment be conducted during the detailed design stage when closer access to all parts of the buildings will be made possible and when further ground investigations will have been carried out.  Closer access at all levels inside and outside the buildings will clarify the condition of the fabric and features and finishes, and the further ground investigations will clarify any strengthening work required. The design and coordination of the services requirements and their integration into each building will be carried during the detailed design stage. The detailed design development of the historic buildings and structures, with the required interventions, strengthening and integrated services for new adaptive uses, will be carried out by the conservation design team and agreed with AMO.  The impact assessments on the historic features with reference to AMO’s archival records will be tabled in four categories in the protection schedule of the historic features for AMO’s approval:

·        Historical features to be preserved and repaired in-situ;

·        Historical features to be affected altered/ replaced with new replica;

·        Historical features to be temporarily removed for conservation treatment and reinstatement, relocation and/or display; and

·        Historical features to be affected and relocated for reuse, display and/or preservation by record.

The historical features of significant cultural heritage value will be defined as the character defining elements of the monuments.  All the character defining elements will be well preserved and repaired in accordance with the work methodologies approved by the AMO.  

For ease of reference and reading this section, these individual building/feature studies have been included as Annex A1; with proposed drawings included as Annex A2.  Tables 3.10 to 3.31 provide a summary of the Baseline Studies and Impact Assessments; the mitigation measures are included in Annex A1.

Note that a comprehensive impact assessment on and photographic recording of the buildings, including all interior and exterior features and elements listed as being character defining or identified as heritage items for preservation, will be completed during the detailed design stage when better access will be possible. The field study images included in the baseline study are a selection.

3.6.3                                Impact on Other Built Heritage Resources within 50m but Outside the Site

The impact assessment on built heritage resources identified (as presented in Section 3.4.6) within 50m but outside the Site is presented in Table 3.32.   

Generally speaking, there will be little impact to the general road pattern and these resources as there are no proposals to alter the road pattern though in Old Bailey Street there are new gates proposed adjacent to the Barracks Block (building 03) and Ablutions Block (building 09) but these will not affect the actual street. The same applies to the new footbridge proposed at the northwest corner of the Site which will lead off from the mid-levels escalator; though it will visually change the junction of Hollywood Road and Old Bailey Street, it will cause no actual change to the traffic movement. Other planned changes are actually beneficial to the Site. For example, it is proposed that the pavement on the west side of Arbuthnot Road be re-established. This would both provide better access around and into the Site for pedestrians, but it would also return the street level door of the Magistracy to working order. The pavement on the east side of Old Bailey Street will also be realigned to provide a drop-off point.

 

Table 3.10          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 01

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

01

Police Headquarters Block

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

1916 – 1919

Central Police Station Headquarters, including:

Offices, gymnasium with locker rooms, dormitories, mess rooms, recreation space and storage

01-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor 2

01-GA-202 Lower Ground Floor 2

01-GA-203 Lower Ground Floor 1

01-GA-204 Lower Ground Floor 1

01-GA-205 Ground Floor

01-GA-206 Ground Floor

01-GA-207 First Floor

01-GA-208 First Floor

01-GA-211  Roof Plan

01-GA-212  Roof Plan

01-GA-220  North Elevation

01-GA-221  North Elevation

01-GA-222  South Elevation

01-GA-223  South Elevation

01-GA-224  East Elevation

01-GA-225  West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Four storey red brick building of Neo-Classical Revival style, with ornate cement render four-storey façade to Hollywood Road and more domestic two storey façade to the Parade Ground. The internal spaces have retained many of their original features, and the openness of the two storeys. Gymnasium and top floor dormitories are easily regained by removing later alterations. The central staircase, spine corridors, verandahs and ground floor Chief Inspector’s and Assistant Superintendent of Police’s offices are the most important spaces in the building.

In later years the first floor dormitories were converted into offices, with the rest of the building being used for various office and administration uses.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a pitched tiled roof.

Mixed Use:

                    LG2/F –Multipurpose and ancillary support; Retail and ancillary support

                    LG1/F – F&B and ancillary support; Toilets; Plant rooms; Site management office and store room

                    G/F – Interpretation room; Retail and ancillary support; F&B and ancillary support; Multipurpose and ancillary support

                    1/F – F&B and ancillary support; Toilets

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good balance between cultural and commercial uses, and it also contributes some interpretation of the former Police Station uses in the lower part of the Site.

The selected adaptive reuses are suitable for this reasonably robust building, and will be readily accommodated in the quality of the regained spaces.

HIGH

One of the most architecturally important buildings on the Site, and one of few remaining colonial buildings in Hong Kong of such a large scale and grand design. The north façade presents a striking elevation on the Hollywood Road side of the Site.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Overall Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The existing access and circulation layout will be retained. All stairs will be retained and conserved, and justified for use on the basis of a fire engineering analysis of the means of escape for the whole building. Some additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable.

Existing structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing original ceilings, plaster cornices and plaster features are to be retained and repaired wherever possible.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. Later attached concrete canopies will be removed as they detract from the original building design.

The original metal balustrade on the west side 1/F balcony will be retained and repaired, but because the design has unproven strength for safe public use it will only be used for maintenance access.

New external fire escape door and steps at LG2/F are to be provided on the west side, and the location is related to the fenestration pattern.

New external equal access door at LG2/F on east side for purposes of equal access to the Site via this building, location is related to the fenestration pattern.

Four new lifts will be installed in the central, east and west wings of the building for the purposes of equal access, goods access and fire access. The locations and types of lift are selected for optimizing user circulation and code compliance with minimum impact to the building structure and features.

Public accessible WCs will be provided on LG2/F, LG1/F, 1/F for new uses in building and for site-wide uses.

Removal of the later LG1/F inserted floor construction in the west side will regain the original double height (gymnasium) room.

Later partition walls and suspended ceilings to be removed to regain the original internal spaces.

New walls required for new uses generally to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 01 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 01 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes and Mitigations (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

 

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. Two new plant rooms are required for ventilation and air-conditioning, with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant. Kitchen extract flues will discharge into new chimney stacks matching the existing design.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

Original external doors that have been replaced are to be reinstated in their original form. Original internal panelled doors will be retained and repaired, and upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary.

The original stone and cast iron balustrades on the verandahs will be retained and repaired. Higher barriers are required for compliance with safety codes. Additional higher rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible on the overall façade.

 

 


Table 3.11          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 02

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

02

Armoury & Store

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

1924 – 1926

Armoury & Store, including:

Equipment store, outfit room, monthly store, strong room, armoury, workshop and magazine.

The last known use was for the Traffic Police.

02-GA-201 Ground Floor

02-GA-202 First Floor

02-GA-204 Roof Plan

02-GA-220 North Elevation

02-GA-221 South Elevation

02-GA-222 East Elevation

02-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Two storey brick building in the same style as the Headquarters Block, located on the west side of the Parade Ground.  The external construction on the east side was altered in the 1930s to fill in the verandah and soon after the first floor was extended over the verandah to provide additional floor space. 

Most of the external openings have been altered, and all the interiors have been stripped out, partitioned and refitted to create office space. The large granite revetment wall on which it sits on Old Bailey Street is one of the most important characteristics.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a pitched tiled roof.

Retail and ancillary support on both floors with toilets, for a single tenant.

The general tone of the Parade Ground area will be enhanced if there is a good balance between cultural and commercial uses.

As one of the buildings with little or nothing of significance internally the building, with its robust construction, prominent location and size, offers the possibility for a commercial use.

The selected adaptive reuse is suitable for this reasonably robust building.

MEDIUM

The significance of this building is mostly attributed to its visual link to the Headquarters Block, as well as its known use as a stable block during Japanese occupation.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

Elevations will be restored to the original design intention, inasmuch as possible.

The G/F infill of the verandah and the 1/F extension over the verandah will be removed to regain the original appearance of the building. A new barrier around the new accessible balcony over the verandah will be provided. Some original external walls are currently internal plastered walls, and will become exposed externally, and they will be refaced in brickwork.

Removal of a concrete entrance canopy & steps from the north east corner of the building, as they detract from the original building design.

The existing single non-code compliant internal concrete stair will be removed. 

Two new stairs are required for means of escape, and will be inserted on the north and south sides, located to maximise the main space on both floors for use.

A new platform lift is to be inserted into the building for the purposes of equal access.

Later partition walls will all be removed.

Some existing internal wall openings will be widened and new openings created and justified for the new adaptive use.

New walls required for the new use are generally to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for the new adaptive use. A new plant room is required for ventilation and air-conditioning, with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

On the east elevation where the original façade appearance is not known or is not revealed by the removal of the later extensions, a plain fenestration pattern will be reinstated.

A fenestration pattern like the original design will be reinstated on the east elevation following demolition of the in-fill and extension.

All the external and internal doors are to be replaced with new doors to compliment the original building design.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 02 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 02 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use. 

 


Table 3.12          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 03


Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

03

Barracks Block

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

1862 – 1864

Third Floor c.1906

Police Barracks, also including:

Offices for Clerks, the Superintendent of Police, Coroner and Interpreters; Reserve & Charge Room; Day Rooms.

03-GA-201 Ground Floor

03-GA-202 Ground Floor

03-GA-203 First Floor

03-GA-204 First Floor

03-GA-205 Second Floor

03-GA-206 Second Floor

03-GA-207 Third Floor

03-GA-208 Third Floor

03-GA-211 Roof Plan

03-GA-212 Roof Plan

03-GA-220 North Elevation

03-GA-221 North Elevation

03-GA-222 South Elevation

03-GA-223 South Elevation

03-GA-224 East Elevation

03-GA-225 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Four storey building (and the tallest on the Site) constructed of red brick with painted cement render. The basic floor plan is the same on all levels, with a central block of two or four rooms, a large open Dormitory space in the wings either side, and long verandahs on the north side. There are also projecting rooms on the north side for married and single sergeants. This building was constructed as a simple, functional building which responded to the local climate and a growing police force. The additional third floor is constructed in a similar style and scale, though it did necessitate the loss of a pedimented roof and the addition of buttresses on the south side.

The building continued in use as accommodation until decommissioning, with some spaces accommodating kitchens, cafeterias, offices and armouries.

The building construction is not as robust as others on the Site. The load-bearing brickwork walls support   relatively fragile timber upper floors, under a pitched tiled roof. The timber floors in this building will need to be strengthened for any new use. Some areas of timber floors have already been replaced with reinforced concrete slabs. There are currently also limitations for viable adaptive reuses from the available means of escape if the two existing staircases are to be retained.

Mixed Use:

               G/F – Museum; Interpretation room; Retail and ancillary support; Public circulation; Plant room

               1/F – Retail and ancillary support; Toilets; Plant room

               2/F – Retail and ancillary support; Toilets; Plant room

               3/F – F&B and ancillary support; Toilets; Plant room

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good balance between cultural and commercial uses, and it also contributes some interpretation of the former Barracks Block uses in the lower part of the Site. This block also provides a good G/F location related to the principle access for visitors into the Site for an Information Centre closely associated with a small Museum. Visitors will be able to begin their journey through the Information Centre and take escalators and lifts to reach the upper levels of the Site.

The selected uses are generally suitable for the relatively fragile timber floors in this building, which would need to be strengthened for any new use. The uses will be readily accommodated and the quality of the original spaces regained.

A conservation approach strategy is required for providing adequate means of escape whilst retaining the use of the original staircases and maximizing the use of the building, and minimizing the damage to its most significant elements.

HIGH

This is one of the oldest surviving buildings on the Police Station, and is an important example of early colonial design. Its location established the creation of the Parade Ground, and was the start of what would eventually become a much larger Central Police Station.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The existing access and circulation layout will be retained. The two existing open stairs are to be retained, conserved, and justified for use on the basis of a fire engineering analysis of the means of escape for the whole building. Additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable. The additional rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible.  Additional matching balusters to reduce the gaps will also be required. To provide alternative means of escape new bridges are to be constructed on the south side of the building to link the upper floors to the existing balconies and new staircases in Buildings 08 and 11.

Two new public lifts for user and equal access purposes, and one new goods/firemen’s lift will be installed in the central block. The central block is one of the areas of least significance within the building, and because of this it has been chosen as the location for both the lifts and the WCs. This location is not only convenient for these uses but by concentrating them together here will have the least amount of impact on the greater part of the historic building. It allows for all of the significant original room layouts in the wings to remain, and for the highly significant spaces like the verandahs and staircases to remain open and unaltered.

New public accessible WCs will be provided in the central block on each of the upper floors.

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 03 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 03 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use. 

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes and Mitigations (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

The existing covered bridge from the east side 1/F to the Magistracy Terrace will also provide an alternative means of escape. These bridges make it possible to provide the alternative means of escape without having to make further major interventions in the Barracks Block, such as additional internal or external staircases or major modifications of the existing stairs and verandahs. The new bridges will be designed with reference to the style of the existing south side bridges. Smoke curtains will be installed on the upper floor verandahs at the existing open stairs. Their use reduces the impact to the building as it negates the need for enclosed lobbies around the historic staircases, which would detract from the open character of the verandahs. The later infill walls in the arches of the ground floor verandahs, which detract from the original design of the building, will be removed, and the original open verandah access and circulation regained.

The later single storey timber framed open fronted porch on the north elevation detracts from the original balanced design of the most significant elevation of the building, and will be removed. The porch has little significance and no architectural merit.

The external ramp and steps to the north east side of the north elevation is a much later addition to the building and detracts from the overall appearance of the building, and will be removed. It has no significance and no architectural merit.

The block of cells attached to the south east side of the south elevation is an extension of poor quality and with no architectural or historic significance. It detracts from the original building design and will be removed. Its removal, together with the removal other relatively insignificant features in this area, will open up a lane behind the Barracks Block to create a more usable site circulation space, and will restore the full height of the south elevation of the building to its original design.

Existing internal structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing timber floors will be retained, repaired and strengthened, and upgraded to provide the required fire resistance for code compliance.

Existing original ceilings, plaster cornices, and plaster and fretwork features are to be retained and repaired wherever possible.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design.

Later partition walls and suspended ceilings throughout the building will be removed, with the aim of restoring the building to its original layout as far as possible. One original wall on the G/F in the east block, and some other later walls are to be removed to provide spaces for viable new uses.

An existing door opening in the G/F central block will be enlarged to provide a room for the Information Centre. Some new openings will be formed in walls on the all floors of the central block to provide layouts for the new uses.

New partition walls will be built in the central block and third floor for the new uses, and they will generally be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. New plant rooms, located in the central block on all floors, are required for ventilation and air-conditioning, with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant. Kitchen extract flues will discharge into new chimney stacks matching the existing design.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

All later corrugated metal sunshades over windows will be removed as they detract from the original design of the facades.

Blocked windows on the south side of the ground floor central block will be re-opened, and some converted into use as doors for the new G/F uses.

Original external doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Original internal panelled doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

The original pottery balusters with granite handrails on the verandahs will be retained and repaired. Higher barriers are required for compliance with safety codes. Additional higher rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible on the overall façade.

 

 


Table 3.13          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 04

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

04

Police Deputy Superintendents’ and Married Inspectors’ Quarters

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

1862 - 1864

Accommodation for the Captain Superintendents and the Deputy Superintendent

04-GA-201 Ground Floor

04-GA-202 First Floor

04-GA-203 Second Floor

04-GA-205 Roof Plan

04-GA-220 North Elevation

04-GA-221 South Elevation

04-GA-222 East Elevation

04-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey brick building with painted cement render, similar in style and construction to the Barracks Block. It is arranged as two blocks forming an L-shape in plan, with a central staircase in each block. Originally open verandahs on the north and east sides are now mostly infilled with windows. It is linked to Building 06 by a concrete bridge at G/F .  There are balconies to the upper windows on the south and west sides. The interiors have good quality and remain virtually intact. The original servants’ wing to the south has been demolished.

The last known use was for various Police staff spaces, including a briefing room, changing room, mess room and storage.

The building construction is relatively fragile. The load-bearing brickwork walls support relatively fragile timber upper floors, under a pitched tiled roof. The timber floors in this building will need to be strengthened for any new use. There are currently also limitations for viable adaptive reuses from the available means of escape if the two existing staircases, which are mainly of timber construction, are to be retained.

Mixed Use:

               G/F – Retail and ancillary support;  Interpretation rooms

               1/F – Arts-related support spaces

               2/F - Arts-related support spaces; Plant room

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good and viable balance between cultural and commercial uses in this relatively fragile building and in this area of the Site. The three Blocks 04, 06, 07, which have similar characteristics of style and construction, are considered suitable for providing a hub of arts-related support spaces, although Block 07 may be suitable for a Police office.

The G/F location of Retail and Interpretation uses makes them readily accessible to the public without difficulties for means of escape. The selection of Arts-related Support spaces for the upper floors, with the relatively small occupancy and relatively low floor loadings of office use, makes the retention and upgrading of the existing timber stairs viable for means of escape, and will limit any floor strengthening required. With office use it should also be relatively easy to ensure that the existing interior fittings and finishes are retained.

MEDIUM/HIGH

This is one of the earliest buildings on Site, and forms an historical and visual link with the Barracks Block. It also provides an understanding of the various types of accommodation which existed on the Site.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The original plan layout of the building is respected and altered as little as possible. New openings in the wall separating the two blocks on the two upper floors at the north east corner will allow the circulation routes along the verandahs to be linked to provide alternative means of escape and equal access. The two rooms on the upper floors at the north east corner will be reduced in size to provide the linking corridors. The existing timber stairs will be retained, repaired and upgraded for means of escape. One seriously non-compliant flight will be replaced to meet code requirements. Additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable. The additional rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible. Smoke curtains will be installed on the upper floor verandahs at the existing open stairs. Their use reduces the impact to the building as it negates the need for enclosed lobbies around the historic staircases, which would detract from the open character of the verandahs.

Existing internal structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

A new lift will be provided in the southeast corner of the building to provide equal access. This lift is to be located at the end of a historic circulation route, and requires the demolition of bathrooms for which the original features have been lost. Its location at the end of the circulation route means that the verandas of the building remain intact and without obstruction, as the original design would have intended, while still allowing access throughout the whole building. As only a single lift is necessary to allow equal access to all parts of the building, this reduces the need for disruption of historic fabric throughout the rest of the building. To avoid the need for further ramps the intention is to form a doorway in the existing window to allow level access from the Parade Ground into the lift. This will then transfer the visitor to all three floors of the building. The lift type will be selected to avoid the overrun penetrating the roof.

New public accessible WCs will be provided located at the end of the circulation routes so as not to disrupt the historic verandahs. WC provision in this building is limited so as not to unnecessarily divide the principal rooms.

New ramps are proposed behind the east block stair on 1/F and 2/F, with new fire partitions to enclose the staircase for means of escape. The existing steps in the circulation behind the north block stair on 2/F on the will be removed.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 04 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 04 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes and Mitigations (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

Existing timber floors will be retained, repaired and strengthened, and upgraded to provide the required fire resistance for code compliance.

Existing original ceilings, plaster cornices, and plaster and fretwork features are to be retained and repaired wherever possible.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design.  The reinstatement of original features including the west elevation 2/F balcony will be carried out. Because this balcony design has unproven strength for safe public use it will probably only be used for maintenance access.

Windows that have been added to infill the veranda arches will be removed. These later alterations detract from the original design characteristic of open verandas.

A new external ramp is proposed on the south side of the north block to provide disabled access.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. Chilled water will be supplied from central chiller plant. The proposed location of the plant room uses one of the second floor rooms in the north block already proposed to be subdivided for the new circulation.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

All later corrugated metal sunshades over windows will be removed as they detract from the original design of the facades.

Original external doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Original internal panelled doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

The original pottery balusters with granite handrails on the verandahs will be retained and repaired. Higher barriers are required for compliance with safety codes. Additional higher rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible on the overall façade.

 

 


Table 3.14          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 05

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

05

Garage

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

1924

Garage for ‘motor vans and cars’, and some servants accommodation

 

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Single storey red brick building with a pitched roof. Internally is a large open space with concrete posts and steel truss roof. There are also a range of small rooms to the east.

It was constructed on the Site of the earlier servants’ wing to the south of Building 04, and continued in use as a garage through to decommissioning.

This building will be demolished to create an open space.

LOW

This building does not have any architectural or historical significance. The main importance lies in the potential for archaeology of the original servants’ wing.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

 

This building will be demolished to create an open space.

 

Impact Rating 2 – Acceptable Impact

 


Table 3.15          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 06

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

06

Married Sergeants’ Quarters

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

c. 1904 -1908

Accommodation for Married Sergeants and their families (four units in all)

06-GA-201 Ground Floor

06-GA-202 First Floor

06-GA-203 Roofspace Plan

06-GA-204 Roof Plan

06-GA-220 North Elevation

06-GA-221 South Elevation

06-GA-222 East Elevation

06-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Two storey brick building painted cream, with WC towers at the north-east and north–west corners.  The exterior is plainly designed with covered balconies on the north, east and west sides. It is linked to Building 04 by a concrete bridge at 1/F.  The interior is divided into two blocks with a central timber staircase for each. The design of this building is similar to that of building 07, which is thought to be contemporary.

The last known use was as a Traffic Police Dormitory.

The building construction is relatively fragile. The load-bearing brickwork walls support relatively fragile timber upper floors, under a pitched tiled roof. The timber floors in this building will need to be strengthened for any new use.

Mixed Use:

               G/F – Retail and ancillary support: F&B and ancillary support; Toilet

               1/F – Arts-related support spaces; Toilet

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good and viable balance between cultural and commercial uses in this relatively fragile building and in this area of the Site.

The three Blocks 04, 06, 07, which have similar characteristics of style and construction, are considered suitable for providing a hub of Arts-related Support spaces, although Block 07 may be suitable for a Police office.

The G/F location of Retail units and an Arts-related café makes them accessible without difficulties for means of escape. The selection of Arts-related Support spaces for the upper floors, with the relatively small occupancy and relatively low floor loadings of office use, makes the retention and upgrading of the existing timber stairs viable for means of escape, and will limit any floor strengthening required. With office use it should also be relatively easy to ensure that the existing interior fittings and finishes are retained.

MEDIUM

This building has a visual and historical link to Building 07, and is evidence of the constant expansion of the Site. It also adds to the understanding of various types of accommodation on the Site.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes(for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The original plan layout of the building is respected and altered as little as possible. Both existing timber stairs will be retained, repaired and upgraded for means of escape. Additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable. The additional rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible. The stairs will be separated by a new partition at G/F, and one stair will discharge to the north side. New openings in the wall separating the two blocks on each floor will provide a shared circulation pattern.

Existing internal structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing timber floors will be retained, repaired and strengthened, and upgraded to provide the required fire resistance for code compliance.

Existing original ceilings, plaster cornices, and plaster and fretwork features are to be retained and repaired wherever possible.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. The existing covered way, with its tiled roof, linking Building 06 with Building 07 will be retained and repaired.

A new platform lift will be provided in the north east corner tower of the building to provide equal access. The lift requires the demolition of WCs for which the original features have been lost, and this location avoids the need for disruption of historic fabric throughout the rest of the building.

New accessible WCs will be provided located at both floor levels in the north east corner tower. WC provision in this building is limited so as not to unnecessarily divide the principal rooms.

A new external ramp is proposed on the south side of the block to provide equal access.

The existing doorways from the north side veranda and balcony into the rooms, lift and WCs will need to be widened for equal access purposes. New doors will match the original detailing.  

It will be necessary to raise the level of the rear verandah and extend it to allow for equal access circulation. The first floor north side balcony will require its finished level raising at each end for equal access, with short ramps not visible from the north elevation.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. Chilled water will be supplied from central chiller plant. The proposed location of the plant room is in a new attic under the roof, and a new floor will be installed for it.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 06 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 06 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

The present balustrade of the east side balcony is of a plain design, and is of a later date and at odds with the historic balconies around the rest of the building. A new balustrade to match the existing ones would create a more coherent exterior design. The strengthening works to the underside of the balcony are of a poor quality and detract from the façade, which will be fully revealed with the removal of the covered sheds adjacent. Because the east and west balcony design has unproven strength for safe public use they may be restricted for maintenance access only.

The canopy over the bridge link to Building 04 will be removed. It is of a later date and does not form part of the original design. The support structure is plain and at odds with the more delicate and slender columns of the balcony.

 

This will avoid having to use one of the rooms for plant. Supply and exhaust air could be provided with louvred openings in the east and west gable walls or with new ‘chimneys’ matching the existing chimneys.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

All later corrugated metal sunshades over windows will be removed as they detract from the original design of the facades.

Original external doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Original internal panelled doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

 

 


Table 3.16          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 07

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

07

Single Inspector’s Quarters

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

c. 1904 – 1908

Accommodation for Single Inspectors

07-GA-201 Ground Floor

07-GA-202 First Floor

07-GA-203 Second Floor

07-GA-204 Roofspace Plan

07-GA-205 Roof Plan

07-GA-220 North Elevation

07-GA-221 South Elevation

07-GA-222 East Elevation

07-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey brick building painted cream, set on a single storey brick plinth. The interior layout is the same on each floor, with two main rooms and a corridor linking to a staircase on the east side. There is also a small projecting bathroom tower on the south side.  There were originally balconies at each floor on the north side, but the ground floor balcony has been lost. The design of this building is similar to that of building 06, which is thought to be contemporary.

The last known use was as a medical office.

The building construction is relatively fragile. The load-bearing brickwork walls support relatively fragile timber upper floors, under a pitched tiled roof. The timber floors in this building will probably need to be strengthened for any new use.

Police Reporting Centre, on all three floors, with Toilets.

This use is seen as suitable for this relatively fragile building, and can be accommodated with minimal changes to the internal layout, and will allow all the spaces to be used. The limited number of people who would use the upper floor offices makes it probable that agreement can be reached over the retention of a single means of escape staircase. The floor loadings for support or office use can also be more readily justified with minimal strengthening if required.

MEDIUM

The building has a visual link to building 06, and similarly is important for showing the constant expansion of the Site and adds to the understanding of various types of accommodation. It also provides an important elevation facing Hollywood Road.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

The new adaptive use will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The original plan layout of the building is respected and altered as little as possible. The existing timber stair will be retained, repaired and upgraded for means of escape. Additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrade for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable. The additional rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible.

Existing internal structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing timber floors will be retained, repaired and strengthened, and upgraded to provide the required fire resistance for code compliance.

Later suspended ceilings are to be removed, and new ceilings will be reinstated in their original form. The later ceilings detract from the original interior character of the building.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. Because the north balcony design has unproven strength for safe public use the balconies may be restricted for maintenance access only.

The existing covered way, with its tiled roof, linking Building 07 with Building 06 will be retained and repaired.

A new platform lift will be provided for equal access. The desirability of installing lift in the building is debatable. This is a small building and it could be argued that disabled access to the ground floor would be sufficient for the small number of occupants. However there is the view that wherever possible the principle of equal access for all users should be adhered to. A conventional passenger lift to reach all floors would require the serious intervention of a lift pit in this small building. The proposal is to provide a platform lift that will serve the first floor but not the second. This provides 2/3 of the building with disabled access. The possibility of inserting a lift into the bathroom tower was considered

This option was rejected as it took up an unnecessarily large amount of useful space in the tower, and the tower was more suitable for WCs. The compromise proposal is to fit a platform lift in the southwest corner of the smaller of the two rooms in a reversible manner.

New accessible WCs will be provided on G/F and 1/F located in the south side tower. WC provision in this building is limited so as not to unnecessarily divide the principal rooms.

Later partitions will be removed throughout. These detract from the original layout of the building, and will help to return the spaces to their original configuration.

The existing doorways into the new WCs in the south tower will need to be widened for equal access purposes. New doors will match the original detailing.  

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. Chilled water will be supplied from central chiller plant. The proposed location of the plant room is in a new attic under the roof, and a new floor will be installed for it.

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 07 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 07 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  


Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

This will avoid having to use one of the rooms for plant. Supply and exhaust air could be provided with louvred openings in the east and west gable walls or with new ‘chimneys’ matching the existing chimneys. Externally accessible access doors for service risers in the bathroom tower are to be provided at ground floor level on the west elevation of the south tower, detailed to match the other external doors.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

Original external doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Original internal panelled doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

 

 


Table 3.17         Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 08

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

08

Ablutions Block

Within Central Police Station Declared Monument

c. 1930s

Sanitary Block for the police officers in Barracks Block

08-GA-201 Ground Floor

08-GA-202 First Floor

08-GA-204 Second Floor

08-GA-206 Roof Plan

08-GA-220 North Elevation

08-GA-221 South Elevation

08-GA-222 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey red brick building set on a granite plinth. The building forms a physical separation between the CPS and Prison areas of the Site. Internally, the building is a single storey deep, with an external stair to the northwest and balconies along the north side.  This space was lastly used as an ablutions building, containing WCs and showers.

The building was updated with new facilities, allowing it to continue in use as a sanitary block. There were also some administration spaces and a gym.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a pitched tiled roof.

Mixed Use:

                    G/F  -  Plant rooms; Site management office and store rooms; Toilet

                    1/F  - Plant rooms

                    2/F  - Plant rooms; Store room

MEDIUM/LOW

This building is of little architectural interest, though the west elevation adds to the overall character of the Old Bailey Street side of the Site, and consciously responds to the domestic scale here.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

The scheme for the whole Site requires a completely new electrical provision with new transformers and associated switchgear rooms, and emergency generators. After considering several options for locating these functions around the Site there was found to be no adequate locations in operational terms to suit the HEC’s requirements for access to their centralized equipment. It was therefore decided that the Ablutions block 08 should be altered in a major way to accommodate all the electrical supply equipment for the Site integrated in one location. In putting it all into the Ablutions Block major damage to other more sensitive blocks can be avoided.

The Ablutions Block also has the dual advantages that it is one of the very few buildings where vehicle access is available, which is an essential requirement of the Hong Kong Electric Company, and it is also relatively central to the whole Site, making the electrical sub-main distribution routes effective and least damaging.

Although the interior 1/F and 2/F floors will be completely removed, the exterior fabric, including the north side balconies, will be retained and refurbished as an element of the historic site and surrounding streetscape. The existing balconies provide an important alternative means of escape for the Type 1 grade Barracks block 03, which would otherwise require additional interior interventions with significant impacts. The existing bridges from Barracks block 03 will be retained and new bridges added.

The G/F corridor from the north side balcony to the south side yard will be retained.

The existing single story extension on the south side at the west end will be removed to provide the essential turning into the yard for HEC and other delivery vehicles. The existing yard will be excavated to lower the level in relation to Old Bailey Street, and the south side of the Ablutions Block will be underpinned. The new loading/unloading yard will be provided with a vehicle turntable.

Existing internal 1/F and 2/F floors and walls will be removed. These alterations are being made in order to create the required heights of space for centralized electrical equipment serving the whole Site. The existing partition configuration and storey heights do not allow for the installation of the required electrical transformers and associated switchgear and cable trenches and the emergency generators. The new concrete floors are to be supported on a new internal independent steel structure that will both support the new floors and provide structural stability to the existing brick envelope, removing the risk of collapse of the original structure. Where possible, some cross walls are to be retained, such as the one to the western side of the new service stair.

Significant elements of the ground floor plan arrangement are to be retained, including the cross walls and in particular the passageway that provides access through the building, together with the associated arches to the north and south elevations.

The existing timber king-post trussed roof structure is considered to be of some architectural interest, and is to be retained in its entirety.

A new internal stair from the G/F north side balcony is to be located centrally in the building to provide service access to the first floor transformer rooms and meet code compliance for means of escape.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout. All windows to upper floors are to be locked shut with security mesh fitted behind for the safety of users and to meet code compliance.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 08 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 08 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for  Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

Original external doors will preferably be retained for reuse and overhauled or upgraded as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Elevations will be retained in their existing condition as far as possible, with repair work only being carried out as required. Although the south elevation will need to be altered for the operation of the electrical equipment, the remainder of the building will retain its historic appearance on the exterior. On the south elevation there will be several interventions for new louvres and access doors for the essential operation of the new transformer and switchgear equipment. The aim is to use the existing fenestration openings and widen them or form new openings only where necessary. The south elevation has the least significant aspect for the Site given that it faces an existing high revetment wall. 

For the construction method to remove the existing floor slabs and add the new floor stab, it is proposed that the external walls will be retained, however the internal structure of the Ablutions block will be removed and replaced with a strengthened structure. The roof will be temporarily removed during construction, however will be replaced once adequate support has been provided to the internal shell of the structure. The façade and balconies are proposed to be retained and refurbished in their current form.  To mitigate the impact, full recording before the work commence will be conducted.

 

 


Table 3.18          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 09

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

09

Central Magistracy

Former Central Magistracy Declared Monument

1912 – 1914

Hong Kong Central Magistracy

09-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

09-GA-202 Ground Floor

09-GA-203 First Floor

09-GA-204 Second Floor

09-GA-206 Roof Plan

09-GA-220 North Elevation

09-GA-221 South Elevation

09-GA-222 East Elevation

09-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey Neo-Classical red brick building set on angled granite plinth with basements. This building uses the same architectural detailing as the Headquarters Block, and is one of the most notable elevations overlooking the exterior of the Site.  The interior consists of two large double-storey courtrooms and a central lightwell in the upper levels, with offices around it (some of which were previously dormitories). The building is serviced by three main staircases. There have been several alterations to the building, but most are reversible and the majority of high significance areas remain intact.

The building ceased judicial use in 1979, and was converted into use for Immigration and Police Officers’ Associations. In the 1990s it was converted into various administration uses by the police.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a pitched tiled roof.

Mixed Use:

               LG/F – Retail and ancillary support; Interpretation room; Site management office and store rooms; Toilets; Plant Rooms

               G/F – Multipurpose and ancillary support; Retail and ancillary support; Toilets; Public circulation

               1/F – Multipurpose and ancillary support; Toilets

               2/F – F&B and ancillary support; Toilets

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good and viable balance between cultural and commercial uses. The two courtrooms have sufficient of the original fabric remaining to allow both of them to be fully restored, and they will be excellent spaces to hold a variety of activities including lectures, music performance and private functions. These spaces, along with the holding cells in the basement, will also be a very important part of the interpretation of the history of the Site for the administration of the Law through the Courts. The restaurant will provide a good support use for the functions. Retail units will be suitable in the low height spaces of LG/F.

A conservation approach strategy is required for providing adequate means of escape whilst retaining the use of all the existing staircases and maximizing the use of the building, and minimizing the damage to its most significant elements.

HIGH

The Magistracy forms an important contribution to the history of law and order in Hong Kong, and is a fine example of Neo-Classical colonial architecture, the design of which influenced that of the Headquarters Block. The building also provides one of the most dominating and architecturally interesting external facades of the Site.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

All the existing will be retained. The stairs do not individually comply with code requirements for means of escape, but using a fire engineering approach suggests that if they are linked with corridors to act together and when they are given some upgrading, they can provide sufficient and adequate means of escape for the new uses. Some additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable.

The circulation pattern on the principal entrance G/F will be retained, but on 1/F and 2/F there will be new circulation patterns which resolve the means of escape and the accessibility between the east and west sides of the building accommodation across the central lightwell, which will be covered with a new glass roof to become an atrium. The circulation patterns on the upper floors have been previously altered to suite changing uses. The circulation on LG/F uses the existing corridors with some new openings to provide suitable means of escape.

The balconies overlooking the two courtrooms will be reinstated by removing the plant currently installed there and the inserted balcony walls. Equal access will provided by extending the adjacent floor level into platforms on the balconies. Platforms will be constructed in timber for reversibility.

 

The original narrow stair up to the north courtroom on G/F from the holding cell on LG/F is to be unblocked, and the original prisoner access route reinstated for interpretation. A trap door in the floor of the courtroom will enable a recreation of the courtroom layout to be set up when required.

Later timber lobbies at the entrance doors to the courtrooms on G/F within the central entrance lobby are to be removed to regain the appearance of the lobby.

The modern rooflights over the central entrance lobby are to be removed, and the central dividing panel will be removed to reinstate the single large aperture. This will be left open under a new high level glazed atrium roof. This roof will also improve the collection and safe discharge of rainwater which currently overflows the guttering and causes dampness in the building.

The existing balconies and bridge in the lightwell are not original to the building and were installed as later modifications, and are no longer required in the planning of the building for new uses. They detract from the integrity of the lightwell and will be removed..

Existing structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing original ceilings, plaster cornices and plaster features are to be retained and repaired wherever possible.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design.

The original stone balustrades on the east side balconies will be retained and repaired. Higher barriers are required for compliance with safety codes. Additional higher rails will be of minimal design and have as little visual impact as possible on the overall façade. The original metal balustrades on the west side balconies will be retained and repaired, but because these balconies have unproven strength for safe public use they will only be used for maintenance access.

Windows at south end of the principal east elevation’s second floor balcony are to be removed. These windows were added later to increase office accommodation, and they detract from the original design of the elevation.

Two later small windows on the north elevation detract from the historic elevation, and are not required, and they will be removed and the openings bricked up.

Access into the building at LG/F and G/F levels generally uses the existing external entrances which currently have steps. Equal level access is provided at the north east corner at LG/F by modifying an existing window, and at the west side at G/F by providing a short external ramp to the existing doorway.

Two new lifts will be installed in the building for the purposes of equal access, goods access and fire access, and one change-of-level platform goods lift will be required in LG/F. The locations and types of lift are selected for optimizing user circulation and code compliance with minimum impact to the building structure and features. The location of the passenger lift in the north west corner enables it to be an element on the route providing equal access from the Parade Ground up through the Magistracy building, and thence into adjacent buildings, including the Superintendent’s House (building 10) and through to buildings 13, 11 and 12, and also southwards to D Hall (building 14). It is located beside the existing principal stairs so that at lower ground level it shares the north access into the Magistracy building with the staircase. This location is in an area of relatively low significance, and provides disabled access both into the building from the north side and to every floor of the building with the use of a single lift. Other options for locating this important element of accessibility would be in areas of high historic significance and therefore more damaging.

The location of the fireman’s/goods lift is in an area of the building which has little historic significance on each floor previously used as mechanical space, toilets and later offices.

New steps are needed for access circulation across the central lightwell, now to become an atrium, whose level is raised above the various first floor rooms around the lightwell. New steps will be provided from the west side circulation up to the lightwell level, and new steps will be provided into each of the east side function rooms. Chair lifts to meet code compliance for access will be provided on these new steps. New steps will be constructed in timber for reversibility.

Public accessible WCs will be provided on all floors for the new uses in the building and for site wide uses. Their locations are in areas of little historic or architectural interest.

Later partition walls and suspended ceilings to be removed to regain the original internal spaces, and to enable the layouts for the new uses.

New walls required for new uses generally are to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. New plant rooms are required for ventilation and air-conditioning, with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant. The plant rooms will be in LG/F, in spaces which are utilitarian with no existing significant features. Kitchen extract flues will discharge into new louvres located on the inner slopes of the roof facing the lightwell to avoid detracting from the external appearance of the building.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout.

Original external doors that have been replaced are to be reinstated in their original form. Original internal panelled doors will be retained and repaired, and upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 09 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 09 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  


Table 3.19          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 10

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

10

Superintendent’s House

Within Victoria Prison Declared Monument

c. 1860s

House for the Superintendent of the Prison/Police; historic main entrance into Prison

10_13-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

10_13-GA-202 Ground Floor

10_13-GA-203 First Floor

10_13-GA-204 Second Floor

10_13-GA-205 Roof Plan

10_13-GA-220 North Elevation

10_13-GA-221 South Elevation

10_13-GA-222 East Elevation

10_13-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey rendered brick building, fully attached to the adjacent building 13 (C Hall - a much later and poorer quality building dating from the 1920s), and so has no aspect of any significance to the west. The building is of a domestic scale and design, with elements similar to buildings 03 and 04, which are contemporary.  The general layout of two principal rooms on the upper floors has been retained, and a large archway, originally the main entrance to the prison, remains at ground floor but has been blocked.  Many early features survive such as panelled door and window surrounds, a first floor balcony, skirting boards and timber staircase to the southwest. A later extension to the south east is of less significance.

The building was last used as administration and dormitory rooms.

The building construction is relatively fragile. The load-bearing brickwork walls support relatively fragile timber upper floors, under a pitched tiled roof. The timber floors in this building will probably need to be strengthened for any new use.

Mixed Use:

               G/F – Retail and ancillary support; Public circulation; Toilet

               1/F – Arts-related support spaces; Toilets

               2/F – Arts-related support spaces

The mix of adaptive reuses is seen as providing a good and viable balance between cultural and commercial uses in this relatively fragile building and in this area of the Site. The G/F location of Retail units makes them readily accessible to the public without difficulties for means of escape, and the character of the upper floors will be suitable for Arts-related Support spaces. The relatively small occupancy and relatively low floor loadings of such support spaces, makes the retention and upgrading of the existing timber stair viable for means of escape, and will limit any floor strengthening required.

To make building 10 viable for new uses its circulation will be linked to the adjacent accommodation in building 13 (C Hall). A new staircase in building 13 is to be linked to operate with the existing main staircase in building 10 to provide the necessary alternative means of escape from both buildings, and this new staircase is beneficially located to provide a connection to Barrack Lane on the north side. 

MEDIUM / HIGH

This is one of the earliest buildings on the Site, and would have been an essential part of the early prison/police site. The pediment is the only remaining characteristic of the early site. Those at the original Magistracy (now demolished) and the Barracks Block (lost when the third floor was added) are now lost.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The original plan layout of the building is respected and altered as little as possible. The later single storey extension the southeast corner and the two storey extension to the south are to be removed. The removal of these extensions will restore the building to its original configuration and improve the appearance of the exterior elevations. The later plain concrete planter on the east elevation detracts from the elevation and will be carefully removed and the wall made good.

The existing main timber stair will be retained, repaired and upgraded. It does not completely comply with code requirements for means of escape for the new uses, but a fire engineering approach suggests that if it is linked with corridors to the new compliant stair in building 13, they can act together. Some additional rails to raise the height of the existing balustrades for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable.

The later masonry infills to the original G/F arched openings in the east side external wall and in the connecting wall to Building 13. The east side external steps will be retained, and this will reinstate the original G/F through route, and when linked to the G/F circulation spaces in building 13, will provide improved public access across the Site. The use of a platform change-of-level lift at G/F adjacent to the east side arch in an existing opening, requiring minimal widening and the removal of the modern unsightly external steps, will provide for equal access into the building on the east side.

The removal of the existing suspended timber floor to the G/F south east room of the building will allow for an equal level access floor into this room from Magistracy Terrace. The existing window will be altered for a door designed to have original design details.

A new lift is to be inserted in the south side of the building for the purposes of equal access. The location has been selected to minimise the impact on the original building fabric, as the space here has little historic or architectural significance. The location of a passenger lift on the south side also enables it to be an element on the route providing equal access from the Parade Ground up through the Magistracy building to Magistracy Terrace, into the Superintendent’s House using a platform lift, and from there up to the D Hall and Prison Yard level.

Accessible public WCs will be installed on G/F adjacent to public WCs provided in the adjacent building 13, and also on 1/F. The ground floor toilet is in an area of low significance, and provides an accessible WC adjacent to the other grouped public WCs to be provided in the adjacent building 13 which has less historical significance than building 10. The first floor WCs are located in the south east extension which is of a later date and an area of least significance in the building. By installing the necessary WCs here, the rest of the first and second floors retain their original layout and the Principal rooms remain intact.

New walls required for new uses generally are to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 10 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 10 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

The existing circulation pattern on 1/F and 2/F will be retained, and two new single door openings will link it to the new circulation on 1/F and 2/F in building 13.

Existing internal structural walls will be retained, with some new openings justified for the new adaptive uses.

Existing timber floors will be retained, repaired and strengthened, and upgraded to provide the required fire resistance for code compliance.

The later G/F wall and corridor in north east room will be removed, and this will restore the room to its original size with the chimney breast within it.  Later modern partitions and suspended ceilings on 2/F are to be removed to regain the room sizes of the original design, and new ceilings will be reinstated in their original form. The later partitions and ceilings detract from the original interior character of the building.

All elevations, including features and finishes, balconies and balustrades, and roof tiling, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. Because the 1/F east side balconies and 2/F east and north side balcony design has unproven strength for safe public use the balconies will probably have to be restricted for maintenance access only.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. The plant room for the services in building 10 will be located in the adjacent building 13.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout. Wire security mesh will be removed from windows because this is no longer necessary and detracts from the elevations.

Original external balcony doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

Original internal panelled doors will preferably be retained and overhauled or upgraded for compliance with fire code as necessary, but where their condition is unacceptably poor they will be replaced. New doors will match the original detailing.

 

 


Table 3.20          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 11

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

11

A Hall

Within Victoria Prison Declared Monument

1928

Reception Block , including:

Baths, dressing boxes, disinfecting rooms, visiting boxes, prisoners’ clothes store, solicitors’ rooms, reception, registration and photographing room.

11-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

11-GA-202 Ground Floor

11-GA-203 First Floor

11-GA-204 Second Floor / Roof Plan

11-GA-220 North Elevation

11-GA-221 South Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Two storey brick building with regular fenestration to the north and south, attached to building 13 to the east and 9 to the west. It is plain in design, with a single room on the first floor as all original internal walls have been removed, and with ground floor rooms being as deep as the building. There is a staircase at the south west and south east corners.

In later years the building contained a room used as a chapel on the ground floor, with the last known use of the building as an Immigration Office.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a flat concrete roof.

Education Centre and ancillary support on both floors, with Classrooms on G/F and Education Offices on 1/F; Toilets; Site management office and store room.

New underground Foyer for Site circulation.

The narrow yard between A Hall and B Hall is seen as one of the spaces where it will be best to interpret the function and nature of the Prison. As one of the buildings with little or nothing of significance internally A Hall, with its robust construction, central location and modest size, offers the possibility for a cultural and interpretation use. An Education Centre will be an appropriate use.

The selected adaptive reuse is suitable for this reasonably robust building.

A new underground foyer beneath A Hall will create an entrance at the Parade Ground level in Barrack Lane for a new principal public circulation route with a wide stairway and a lift rising within B Hall to the upper site levels where the new building elements of the project are situated. This foyer will also be connected up to A Hall via a new staircase at the west end. Which will replace the existing non-compliant one in A Hall.

LOW

This functional building was designed without any architectural detailing of note, and was built of materials which were readily available and matched the surrounding context. There is little original fabric remaining, and the main point of interest is the granite revetment wall below the north elevation which is of an earlier construction date.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

All elevations will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. Modern razor wire and fencing is generally to be removed from the buildings’ facades and roofs, but some wire and broken glass and the fencing on the north edge of the A Hall roof may be retained for interpretation purposes in this particular context in A Hall Yard. It will be done in a way that is acceptable and readily removable to comply with Health and Safety requirements and to not impede proper maintenance. The flat concrete roof will be refurbished.

The two existing west and east end stairs are to be removed and replaced with code compliant stairs in similar locations for the building to be converted to a sustainable new use with compliant means of escape. The new west stair will provide means of escape for building 11, and also for building 03 via the new bridges to the building 8 balconies, and also for Building 08 down to the Barrack Lane level. Connection to the new staircase from the second floor balcony of building 08 will result in the new staircase being raised one storey above the roof level of building 11, and it will be constructed as a clearly identifiable modern addition so as not to impinge on the clarity of the original design of A Hall. The new east stair will enable a new connection to be provided into the adjacent building 13 where a new lift is being provided which will also serve building 11 and avoid needing a lift specifically for building 11. The internal character and fabric of the building is of low historical importance, and the removal of the existing narrow concrete stairs that are not code compliant together with small structural interventions is considered to be acceptable in this building.

Linking the buildings 11 and 13 and putting a new lift in the northwest corner of Building 13 negates the need for an additional lift in Building 11.

New WC facilities are required for the proposed new use of an Education Centre, and will be provided at the east end of the building. On the G/F new male and female WCs, an accessible toilet and cloakroom facilities, are provided adjacent to the teaching rooms, and on the first floor a single WC and a disabled WC will be provided for the Education Centre staff.

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 11 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 11 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

Internal walls are to be removed and new walls constructed as shown on the plans to suit the new uses and circulation. New walls required for new room layouts are generally to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for new adaptive uses. A new plant room is required for ventilation and air-conditioning, with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant. If the new plant room serving buildings 13 and 10 is not capable of serving building 11 also, a new plant room will be located on the roof of A Hall at the east end adjacent to the 2/F wall of building 13. This will maximise usable floor space on the lower floors and avoids excessive subdivision of the building. The plant room will be constructed as a clearly identifiable modern addition so as not to impinge on the clarity of the original design.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout. The original steel bars are to be retained and refurbished.

Original doors that have been replaced are to be reinstated in their original form where this is known. Wherever later doors detract from the historic appearance of the building, these will be replaced with more sympathetic replacements. Steel-barred gates to the stairs are to be retained and fixed open flat against the facade, with new timber doors placed within the reveals.

The walls of A-Hall will be propped by steel beams prior to any excavation works being carried out below the building. This will ensure that the superstructure remains stable during works below. The methodology for the construction of the tunnel will be finalized in discussions with the contractor, however the primary principle is to first stabilize the existing structure, prior to trying to form any new structure or openings below.  In terms of mitigation measures, the existing structure will be propped prior to construction activities, and monitoring will be carried out during the construction phase. If any there is any risk of potential damage to the existing structure, the construction approach may need to be revised. 

Documentation will be conducted prior to works commencement and the project proponent will ensure that the works will not affect the significance of the CDE.

 

 


 Table 3.21          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 12

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

12

B Hall

1910

Cell block

12-GA-201 Ground Floor

12-GA-202 First Floor

12-GA-203 Second Floor / Roof Plan

12-GA-204 Roof Plan

12-GA-220 North Elevation

12-GA-221 South Elevation

12-GA-222 East Elevation

12-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

This three storey brick building was one of three cell blocks of this design on the Site, with another being demolished and E Hall following it. The exterior features regular fenestration on all sides, and the interior has a central corridor and flights of straight open staircases with cells either side (a total of 26 each floor). Much of the original fabric survives.

This building continued in use as a cell block until decommissioning.

The construction of B Hall is reasonably robust with load-bearing brickwork cell walls and reinforced concrete floors, under a flat concrete roof which replaced the original tiled roof bomb-damaged in WW2.

Mixed Use:

                    G/F – Public Circulation; Interpretation rooms; Site management office

                    1/F – Interpretation rooms

                    2/F – Interpretation rooms

A new principal public circulation route will be created to link the lane at the south side of the Barrack Block to the upper site levels. It will be in a tunnel under A Hall and A Hall Yard before rising up into the G/F of B Hall with a new wide stairway.  Adjacent to the stairway will be a new lift rising to the G/F.

Except for the interventions associated with the new public circulation, B Hall is to be generally left in its current state, and as such it will provide a primary interpretation resource of a cell block in a most useful location adjacent to the Education Centre in A Hall.  Site management office and store room will also be provided in the building.

 

MEDIUM / LOW

This building is one of the earliest surviving examples of this style of prison block, though it was not unique or architecturally interesting. Though the roof has been replaced it is substantially as built and a good example of cell block design of the time.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Overall Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

 

Except for the interventions associated with the new public circulation, B Hall is to be generally left in its current state. The ground floor cells to the east of the new stairway will be left intact for interpretation purpose, and the cells to the west of the new stairway and lift will also be left intact and can be used for stores. The first and second floors cannot be made safely and equally accessible without additional code compliant staircases and a lift, and this would be very damaging to the interior. It may be possible to allow occasional organised visits for small numbers of supervised visitors to the upper floors.

The characteristic central open stairways and balconies on the upper floors will be retained intact.

There is no requirement for plant rooms in B Hall for the proposed uses because air-conditioning is not required.

All elevations will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. The flat concrete roof and clerestory rooflights will be retained and refurbished, on the basis that the replacement roof is authentic evidence of the building’s history.   

The main interventions for the public circulation stairway and lift will be located within the width of three cells to be removed across the building at G/F level. Although the corridor walls of the cells will be removed up to door height the walls above will be retained. A new opening in the south elevation at G/F level across the width of three cells will be made at the top landing of the new stairway and lift for access to the regraded level of B Hall Yard and the yards round to C Hall and A Hall which remain their existing levels.  

The alterations to the facades have been designed and are seen as being a clear modern intervention that removes the minimum of fabric consistent with making the new access , stair and lift work properly.  The intervention is intended to remove the fabric with a clean cut finish so that there is no confusion between the original fabric and the modern intervention.

 

Documentation will be conducted prior to works commencement and the project proponent will ensure that the works will not affect the significance of the CDE.

 

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 12 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 12 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

 


Table 3.22          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 13

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

13

C Hall

Within Victoria Prison Declared Monument

c. 1929

Prison hospital, including:

Operating Theatre,

Wards, offices, mortuary, armoury, etc.

10_13-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

10_13-GA-202 Ground Floor

10_13-GA-203 First Floor

10_13-GA-204 Second Floor

10_13-GA-205 Roof Plan

10_13-GA-220 North Elevation

10_13-GA-221 South Elevation

10_13-GA-222 East Elevation

10_13-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

Three storey brick building, ‘U’- shaped in plan with a central atrium on the upper levels. It abuts building 10 to the east and building 11 to the west. It has regular fenestration on the exterior facades and overlooking the atrium. The ground floor is self –contained, and was last used for prisoner reception; the first and second floors have open ward rooms accessed by a staircase in the south west corner. The first floor also has a large Prison kitchen which is a later alteration. The building has undergone several alterations.

This space was lastly used as the Prison kitchen, immigration reception and workshops.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a flat concrete roof.

Mixed Use:

               G/F – Retail and ancillary support; Public circulation; Toilets

               1/F – Interpretation room; Plant room

               2/F – Site management offices and store room; Arts-related support spaces; Toilets

The mix of adaptive reuses in this building is seen as providing only limited commercial uses, because it hemmed in by surrounding buildings and has very poor outlooks. It is not one of the most significant buildings on the Site and offers little architectural value. However it does provide useful functional value for the uses in the adjacent buildings 10, 11 and 03 for circulation purposes and resolving adequate means of escape. A new compliant staircase and lift are provided in the building located to serve these surrounding buildings, as well as providing a link to Barrack Lane on the north side. New bridges, used as means of escape from the upper two floors of building 03 (Barrack Block), are aligned with this new means of escape stair. The central G/F area when linked to the G/F circulation space in building 10 will provide improved public access across the Site. 

The G/F will have a small amount of retail space and a sizeable provision of public WC accommodation serving this area of the Site. The 1/F houses the Prison kitchen, and this will be used as an Interpretation space. The rest of the first floor will be used for plant room.   The upper floor will mainly be used for site management offices and store rooms with a small area designed for arts-related support spaces and WC..

MEDIUM / LOW

The design of the building is functional and without any unique architectural characteristics. The building still retains some elements of its original use such as the ward rooms and cross-ventilation, but this use changed prior to decommissioning. Of some significance is the Ladder Store at ground level, which is representative of various functions of the Site.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions.

The removal of later masonry infill to the original granite arched opening connecting to building 10 will reinstate the original through-route to building 10, and provide improved public access across the Site. The later central prisoner holding cages on the ground floor in the atrium space will be removed to create this access. The removal of these cages reinstates the early G/F layout of the building.

The 1/F houses the Prison kitchen, and this will be retained and refurbished as an Interpretation space.

The existing stair in the southwest corner of the building is to be retained.  Although it is not of any great historic or architectural interest. It remains a viable part of the building’s circulation.

All elevations will be repaired and refurbished to the original design, and the flat concrete roof will be refurbished.

A new code compliant stair will be inserted into the north side of the building. It is linked to the existing retained and upgraded stair in building 10 by new circulation corridors in building 13 which enables the stairs to function together for means of escape justified by a fire engineering approach. This is preferable to replacing the historically important staircase in building 10. The new staircase is located in a position which will maximise the use of the main spaces of the building. It is located in the north wing, which will allow the west and south wings to remain as large integrated spaces. The selected location also provides secondary means of escape from the Barrack Block (building 03), across two new footbridges into building 13 and thence down to Barrack Lane, thus negating the need for a new staircase within the highly significant Barrack Block. The stair also provides an additional escape route for people in the A Hall and B Hall Yard area. The new stairs are to be of lightweight steel construction, ensuring that they have a minimum impact on the building and are easily reversible.

The windows will be retained so that the north elevation fenestration will not be greatly affected.

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 13 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 13 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

The central G/F area will be re-graded to create a sloping ground. This is necessary to provide equal level access into the building from the west and through to building 10 on the east, and the overall impact on the appearance of the space is minimized. The floor surface here is of a later date and of little historical importance.

A new lift is to be inserted into the north west corner of the building for the purposes of providing equal access. The location of the lift has been selected to minimise the impact on the original building fabric. It is positioned adjacent to the other major intervention of the new staircase, so that all of the new interventions can be contained within one area of the building. A lift model has been chosen in which the shaft dimensions have been kept to a minimum and the overrun reduced to avoid any interventions to the roof structure, which will remain untouched. The lift shaft will require two existing windows to be blocked from the inside whilst retaining them from the outside. Alternative lift locations which should relate to the adjacent new staircase, will take up more floor space.

Accessible public WC’s will be provided on the G/F which has low significance, and allows the greatest flexibility for alteration. The location of the WCs here makes them easily accessible from outside this building and therefore available to a  wide surrounding on this level of the Site. The design of the WCs retains the original walls beside the central open space, the granite revetment wall to the south, and it also retains the original door layout. Though the demolition of dividing walls in the southeast corner is necessary to provide the WC spaces, they are not of great historic interest. The original door openings in the wall to the central circulation area will be blocked but their forms exposed. Two staff  WC’s will be provided on the 2/F for the Site Management Offices.

New walls required for new room layouts are generally to be of reversible lightweight stud and plasterboard construction.

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for the new adaptive uses in building 13 and the adjacent building 10. The plant for both buildings is to be centralised and located on the 1/F in building 13, which has less architectural and historical significance than building 10, and has a very poor outlook for other uses. The plant could be located in a new room built on the flat roof of C Hall which is probably of a later date and of little historic significance. However it would need a stair access and the additional bulk would significantly alter the heritage roof line.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout. Wire security mesh will be removed from windows because this is no longer necessary and detracts from the elevations.

Original doors that have been replaced are to be reinstated in their original form where this is known. Wherever later doors detract from the historic appearance of the building, these will be replaced with more sympathetic replacements. Some new internal door openings will be necessary for the new uses. Two new external doors at 1/F and 2/F will be formed on the north side for the new means of escape bridges from the Barrack Block.

 

 

Table 3.23         Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 14


Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

14

D Hall

Within Victoria Prison Declared Monument

1858

Cell block; par t of the original radial plan prison

14-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

14-GA-202 Ground Floor

14-GA-203 Ground Floor

14-GA-204 First Floor

14-GA-205 First Floor

14-GA-206 Second Floor

14-GA-207 Second Floor

14-GA-208 Roof Plan

14-GA-209 Roof Plan

14-GA-220 North Elevation

14-GA-221 North Elevation

14-GA-222 South Elevation

14-GA-223 South Elevation

14-GA-224 East Elevation

14-GA-225 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

This building is divided into an east and west wing which are connected by a narrow link; both have three storeys with a basement in the east wing. Both wings are accessed only by a single staircase at the far west end.  It is all constructed of brick with cement render, with regular fenestration on all elevations. All floors in both wings are based on a central corridor with rooms either side; these have all been individual cell blocks at some stage, but now all levels of the east wing and the second floor of the west wing have either two, three or four bay rooms. The second floor of both wings and first floor east wing were lastly used as a hospital with the larger spaces being wards. At the east end of the east wing is an extension originally used as WCs. The ground and first floors of the west wing and east wing basement are the most intact as cell blocks, with major alterations occurring elsewhere.

The last known use for the building was as cell blocks, offices, and the prison infirmary and maternity ward.

The building has a reasonably robust construction of load-bearing brickwork and reinforced concrete floors, under a flat concrete roof with rooflights which replaced the original tiled roof bomb-damaged in WW2.

 

Mixed Use:

West Wing

                    G/F – Arts related support space; Interpretation Rooms; Public circulation

                    1/F – Arts-related support space; Arts-related Organization Archive; Plant rooms

                    2/F – Arts-related Organization Record Centre; Plant rooms

 

East Wing

                    LG/F – Public Circulation; Store room; Toilets; Plant

                    G/F - Public Circulation; Store room; Toilets; Plant

                    1/F – Arts-related support space, Arts-related Organization Archive; Plant rooms; Toilets

                    2/F – Arts-related Organization Record Centre; Plant rooms; Toilets

The adaptive reuse of the upper two floors for an Arts-related Organization Archive and Record Centre is seen a most suitable function for this building in this part of the Site. The location is adjacent to the new buildings which will help bring the planned arts-related revitalization to the former bleak Prison site.

D Hall is a high significance prison building, with some areas which are remarkably intact and impressive, particularly the range of cells on G/F of the West Wing. It is important that some of these cells are retained for interpretation of the Prison in its last use before closure. It will be difficult to find feasible adaptive uses for all the cells with their narrow doors and minimal high level windows and the aim is to continue to search for suitable sustainable arts-related uses for the cells not retained for interpretations. As well as providing entrance lobbies at LG/F and G/F levels for the Arts-related Organization accommodation on the upper floors, the uses on the LG/F and G/F levels of the East Wing are related to the new entrance into the Site from Arbuthnot Road, and the cultural, interpretation and leisure activities planned in the adjacent areas of the Prison Yard and the Laundry Yard. These activities will require toilet and storage facilities, and the lower floors of the East Wing can provide such spaces.  Store for site management office will also be provided in the building.

HIGH

This is one of the earliest buildings on the Site, and has remained one of the most commanding structures both for it representation of prison use and for its size. It is notable as the only remnant of the radial plan prison which was most probably one of the earliest of its kind in Asia. The interior changes from single to shared cells are evidence of the constantly changing opinions of prison reform, and – though it has necessitated significant alterations – the hospital parts of the building are important for their function as well.

 

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be all accommodated within the existing building. The whole building has only one staircase at the west end of the West Wing serving all floors, and this will be retained and refurbished. Two additional new code compliant means of escape staircases are required. One will be inserted into the building at the east end of the East Wing, and one will be provided externally to the building in an existing recess on the north side between the East and West Wings. It will be designed to have minimum visual impact on the north elevation, and be clearly distinguishable as a contemporary feature.

 The existing access and circulation layout in both wings will be retained, although additional entrances to the LG/F of the East Wing will be made in the north and south elevations by lowering the cills of existing windows. This is to provide suitable equal access entrances into the East Wing from the improved site circulation. The existing West Wing stair will be retained and conserved, and justified for use in conjunction with two new compliant staircases on the basis of a fire engineering analysis of the means of escape for the whole of D Hall. Some additional rails to raise the height of the balustrades of the existing staircase for compliance with safety codes may be required if alternative safety measures are not agreeable.

In the West Wing a set of 6 G/F cells under their impressive vaults will be retained for Interpretation, and the other 3 similar sets of 6 cells will be difficult to find feasible adaptive uses for all the cells with their narrow doors and minimal high level windows and the aim is to continue to search for suitable sustainable arts-related uses for the cells not retained for interpretations. The original impressive archway passage across the building at LG/F level at the west end of the East Wing will be regained by removing the non-compliant stairway up to G/F level. This will also provide the location for an additional means of escape stair required for the adaptive reuse of D Hall.   

All wall elevations will be repaired and refurbished to the original design. The flat concrete roof and clerestory rooflights will be retained and refurbished, on the basis that the replacement roof is authentic evidence of the building’s history. 

It will be necessary to provide some work places on some of the floors which have only high level cell windows, and these workplaces should be provided with some outlook. The existing windows will not have their cills lowered, but instead additional small window openings will be made under the existing windows. It will therefore be evident what the original window pattern is and what is new, no damage will be done to the existing windows, and the intervention is effectively reversible.

 

One of the additional new code compliant means of escape staircases required for D Hall will be inserted into the east end of the East Wing. It is designed to be shared as a means of escape for the new Multipurpose space in the new building to be built over the Laundry Yard, and as such it will be a PPE staircase. It will discharge to the Laundry Yard level via a new exit door by altering an existing window on the east elevation. Several options for locating this staircase were considered, and this option was chosen because it does not absorb the more useful spaces in the central area of the building, can provide the shared egress required without having to designate D Hall as PPE use, and is in an area where the building requires considerable strengthening repairs due to substantial damaging subsidence. The intervention for this new PPE staircase is fairly significant, with some rooms in a stack on the north side at all levels being opened up for the stair shaft. However without this stair there would be a very limited prospect for new uses in the East Wing. Some small windows which are crossed by the flights of the new stair will be blocked on their inside reveals, but the windows themselves will be retained.

The second additional compliant means of escape stair is required under a fire engineering assessment of the whole building. It will be located on the north side of the building in the recess between the East and West Wings where there is an existing non-compliant stair from G/F to LG/F. It will be designed to have minimum visual impact on the north elevation, and be clearly distinguishable as a contemporary feature.

 Three new lifts are required to provide convenient and equal access into D Hall which has an extensive overall length on the two upper floor levels. One will be inserted at the west end of the West Wing adjacent to the existing staircase, and two will be inserted in the East Wing. One of these is a firemen’s’ lift. The two lifts are required for the significant change of level from the external ground to the internal LG/F level on the north and south sides of the East Wing. The lifts are generally motor-room-less lifts and can be accommodated within the height of the building. The lift shafts will require some cell division walls to be removed to create sufficient space for the lift sizes, and some existing windows will be blocked from the inside whilst retaining them from the outside. They are located to have the least impact on the significant elements of the building.

Accessible public WC’s will be provided on the LG/F and G/F of the East Wing which are beneficial locations for making them easily accessible from the Laundry Yard and Prison Yard, and therefore available to a  wide surrounding area on the upper levels of the Site. Some toilets will also be provided on 1/F and 2/F of the East Wing specifically for the users of the Archive and Record centre. All toilets will be in rooms.

To create spaces for the adaptive reuses, particularly for the Arts-related Organization Archive and Record Centre on 1/F and 2/F, some wide openings in existing walls between rooms and cells will be made, and some wide openings will be formed in the corridor walls. At 1/F level for the West Wing Archive Centre some wide openings in cell walls will be made to provide double cell rooms for archive storage with close-controlled environments. At 2/F level for the West Wing Record Centre, where previous interventions have already opened up rooms to form larger spaces, some wide openings will be formed in the corridor walls to create an open library environment with good outlooks appropriate for the users.

The sense of the corridor and the original cells and rooms will be retained by making wide openings rather than removing walls completely. The widths of the new openings and the floor loadings will be restricted by the limits of what the existing structure can accommodate without significant structural strengthening interventions.

 

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 14 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 14 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions in Block 14 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 14 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

 

Existing mechanical and electrical services will be removed, and new services including air-conditioning with chilled water supplied from central chiller plant, water, power and lighting are to be installed suitable for the new adaptive uses in building 14. In the G/F area of the West Wing, where there are vaults, it is proposed to design an air-conditioning provision without ductwork. Plant Rooms are provided in both West and East Wings of D Hall.

All original windows will be repaired. Later windows are to be replaced by replicas of original windows to regain the original building appearance throughout. The original steel bars are to be retained and refurbished.

 

 


Table 3.24          Summary of the Assessment for Building No. 15

Building No., Name & Designation

Date of Construction and Original Use

Reference Drawings

15

E Hall

Within Victoria Prison Declared Monument

1913 – 1915

Cell block

15-GA-201 Lower Ground Floor

15-GA-202 Ground Floor

15-GA-203 First Floor

15-GA-204 Second Floor

15-GA-205 Roof Plan

15-GA-220 North Elevation

15-GA-221 South Elevation

15-GA-222 East Elevation

15-GA-223 West Elevation

Brief Overview

Proposed Adaptive Uses

Significance (refer to Section 3.11 of the Conservation Management Plan dated June 2008)

This three storey brick building was one of three cell blocks of this design on the Site, with another being demolished and B Hall preceding it. The exterior features regular fenestration on all sides, and the interior has a central corridor and flights of straight open staircases with cells either side (a total of 26 each floor). Much of the original fabric survives, including the original Chinese tile roof. The building is visible as a prison structure from Arbuthnot Road and Chancery Lane.

This building continued in use as a cell block through to decommissioning.

The construction of E Hall is reasonably robust with load-bearing brickwork cell walls in the upper floors and reinforced concrete floors, under a pitched tiled roof.

Mixed Use:

                    LG/F – Multipurpose uses and ancillary support

                    G/F – Art Gallery and ancillary support; Interpretation rooms; Toilets; Plant rooms.

                    1/F and 2/F – Multipurpose and ancillary support; Toilets; Plant rooms

The LG/F open area is seen as being most useful in providing visitors entering the Site from the new Arbuthnot entrance, either as individuals walking in or as coach parties being dropped off, with an impressive covered space to assemble in and be given some preliminary information about the history of the Site before going on guided tours.

The selected adaptive reuses for the upper floors will be considered suitable for this reasonably robust building if the new occupancy and structural loads are not excessive, and the interventions retain the characteristic open stair and balcony circulation, and the structural integrity. The main interventions will be the provision of a change of level lift at G/F level, and a new code compliant staircase for adequate means of escape.  

The G/F of cells is seen as providing a good accessible location for some interpretation of the former Prison activities in the context of the Prison Yard, alongside some smaller spaces which can be used for an arts-related programme of small scale activities or exhibitions.

The 1/F and 2/F of cells will be used as small scale support spaces for the adjacent new Multipurpose area with access bridge links at each level.

MEDIUM / LOW

This building forms part of a larger group of cell block accommodation on the Site, along with B Hall and D Hall. The construction of three buildings of the same design is indicative of their perceived effectiveness. While there are no architectural features of note, it nonetheless forms an important part of the external façade of the prison.

Conservation Approach

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments

All new adaptive uses will be accommodated within the existing building without new extensions. However the building has open non-compliant internal stairways which will not provide the required means of escape. These stairs will be retained for use as far as possible, and alternative means of escape will be provided by using the new stair in the adjacent new building on the north side, and inserting a new internal stair leading to a final flight of external stair on the south side. This arrangement enables all floors to have adaptive new uses.  

The removal of all existing walls in LG/F will regain the full extent of this impressive space with its characteristic brickwork piers, and provide an open area for cultural, interpretation and leisure activities. 

 The original characteristic cell block plan layout, access and circulation on G/F, 1/F, 2/F will be respected and altered as little as possible. The existing central flights of open stairs between floors and the narrow balconies overlooking these stairs will be retained, although the open cores of the stairway and lightwells at G/F level will need to be enclosed with fire resisting glass to separate the different uses.

The existing open stairs are not code compliant for means of escape, but will be retained. Alternative means of escape will be achieved by providing links to the new stair serving the Multipurpose area in the adjacent new building on the north west side at each floor level, and by providing a new code compliant stair within a shaft formed from a group of cells in the building on the south side. The final flight of this stair from G/F down to Laundry Yard level will be external within a fire glass enclosure on the south side. It will be hidden from view from outside the Site by the Chancery Lane boundary wall. The alternative of taking this final flight through the G/F structure would be a very damaging intervention structurally and to the LG/F area for its intended use.

Lift access for E Hall will be provided by the passenger lifts provided for the new adjacent building on the north side via landing bridges linking to the north west corner of E Hall, where protected lobbies will be provided using the cells.

Doors to the bridges will be formed by adapting the existing windows.

 

The range of Impact Category Ratings for the interventions after mitigations in Block 15 are 1 (Beneficial), 2 (Acceptable), and 3 (Acceptable with Mitigation Measures). The overall Heritage Impact of the proposed interventions in Block 15 is therefore regarded as acceptable to enable the building to have a new adaptive use.  

 

Conservation Approach (continued)

Major Proposed Changes (for Mitigations see Annex A1) (continued)

Other Heritage Impact Rating Assessments (continued)

All elevations, including the tiled roof, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design, and the clerestory rooflights will be retained and refurbished.

The original characteristic cell block plan layout, access and circulation on G/F, 1/F, 2/F will be respected and altered as little as possible. The existing central flights of open stairs between floors and the narrow balconies overlooking these stairs will be retained, although the open cores of the stairway and lightwells at G/F level will need to be enclosed with fire resisting glass to separate the different uses.

All elevations, including the tiled roof, will be repaired and refurbished to the original design, and the clerestory rooflights will be retained and refurbished.

Accessible public WC’s will be provided on the G/F, 1/F, 2/F levels within cells. This will require the narrow cell doors to be widened, but it will be possible to retain and preserve the barred prison doors held back against the walls.

To create larger spaces for the adaptive reuses wide openings will be formed in the structural brick cell division walls rather than removing all the walls full width. Groups of two and three cells will be opened up to form larger rooms, and some of the narrow cell doors will be widened with the barred prison doors retained and preserved and held back against the walls. Where cell doors are not required the barred prison doors will be retained in a closed position with the openings blocked up on the inside with a reversible construction. The new wider doors will be sympathetically designed.