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Civil Engineering and Development Department

Agreement No. CE 18/2012 (CE) Development of Anderson Road Quarry - Investigation

Environmental Impact Assessment Report

227724-REP-037-03

Final 3  |  June 2014

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This report takes into account the particular
instructions and requirements of our client. 

It is not intended for and should not be relied
upon by any third party and no responsibility
is undertaken to any third party.

 

Job number    227724

 

ArupLogo2010_k_OvaWord1000mm_CompoundTransparent_100kGreyscale.wmf

 

Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd

Level 5  Festival Walk

80 Tat Chee Avenue

Kowloon Tong

Kowloon

Hong Kong

www.arup.com

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


10                          ECOLOGICAL IMPACT

10.1                   Legislation and Standards

10.1.1           The relevant legislation and associated guidelines to the present study for the assessment of ecological impact include:

(1)          Forests and Countryside Ordinance (Cap. 96) and its subsidiary legislation, the Forestry Regulations;

(2)          Wild Animals Protection Ordinance (Cap. 170)

(3)          Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (Cap. 499) and relevant Annexes 8, 11, 16, 20 and 21 of the associated Technical Memorandum;

(4)          EIA Study Brief No. ESB-247/2012;

(5)          Protection of Endangered Species of Animals and Plants Ordinance (Cap. 586) and its subsidiary legislation;

(6)          Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG) Chapter 10, “Conversation”;

(7)          Planning, Environment and Lands Bureau Technical Circular 1/97/ works Branch Technical Circular 4/97, “Guidelines for Implementing the Policy on Off-site Ecological Mitigation Measures”;

(8)          EIAO Guidance Note No. 6/2002 – Some Observations on Ecological Assessment from the Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance Perspective;

(9)          EIAO Guidance Note No. 7/2002 – Ecological Baseline Survey for Ecological Assessment;

(10)      EIAO Guidance Note No. 10/2004 – Methodologies for Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecological Baseline Survey

(11)      Revised versions of EIAO Guidance Notes 6/2010, 7/2010 and 10/2010 (issued December 2010).

10.1.2           International conventions and guidelines potentially relevant include:

(1)          Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (“CITES”). This Convention regulates international trade in certain animal and plant species. Their trade is subject to permits or certificates of origin. Hong Kong’s obligations under this Convention are enforced via the Protection of Endangered Species of Animals and Plants Ordinance (Cap. 586).

(2)          IUCN – The World Conservation Union maintains, through its Species Survival Commission, a “Red List” of globally threatened species of wild plants and animals (see http://www.iucnredlist.org).

(3)          United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. This convention requires parties to regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity whether within or outside protected areas, with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use. It also requires parties to promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity on 5th January 1993. The HKSAR Government has stated that it is “committed to meeting the environmental objectives” of the Convention.

10.2                   Description of Existing Environment

10.2.1           Baseline ecological conditions presented in this report are derived from the results of ecological field surveys conducted within the Study Area and Assessment Area of the proposed development. Surveys were conducted between April and July 2013.

Study Area and Assessment Area

10.2.2           In accordance with Section 3.4.10.2 of the Study Brief No. ESB-247/2012, the Assessment Area for the purpose of the terrestrial ecological impact assessment includes all areas within 500m of the boundary of the Study Area (Figure 227724/E/6101) and the areas likely to be impacted by the Project. In this context, “Study Area” in this section refers to the areas within the boundary of the proposed developmental design, whereas “Assessment Area” refers to the whole area within the 500 m radius from the boundary of the “Study Area”.

10.2.3           The Study Area involves an existing quarry site at Anderson Road. It is located on the southwestern slope of Tai Sheung Tok Hill at the far northeastern edge of urban East Kowloon, overlooking the densely populated areas of Sau Mau Ping, Lam Tin and Tsui Lam. The existing quarry site is excavated into the southwest facing slope of Tai Sheung Tok Hill, and forms a series of rock faces, slopes and benches of approximately 60 degrees. With a total area of approximately 86 ha, the quarry operation will not cease until 2015, and the associated rehabilitation works will be completed by mid-2016. According to the approved Kwun Tong (North) Outline Zoning Plan No. S/K14N/13, the Study Area falls within Other Specified Uses (Mining and Quarrying), in which the planning intention is primarily for the implementation of quarry operations and rehabilitation works.

10.2.4           The Assessment Area comprises a mix of urbanised habitats such as public housing estates (Shun Lee Estate, Shun On Estate, Shun Tin Estate, Sau Mau Ping Estate and Po Tat Estate), the existing construction site for the development at Anderson Road (i.e. the ex-quarry site to the southwest of Anderson Road), associated infrastructure and villages, as well as secondary woodland, shrubby grassland and natural watercourses (including Tseng Lan Shue Stream) mainly situated to the northeast, east and south of the Assessment Area.

10.2.5           According to the latest RODP (details refer to Chapter 3) for the Project, the proposed development in the Study Area will include residential development (including public housing) and other associated commercial and recreational uses to meet territory, district and local needs. A population of approximately 25,000 is targeted for the residential development, with plot ratios for subsidised housing and private housing at 6.3 and 4.2 respectively. In identifying ecological resources and habitats/areas of ecological significance, the ecological impact assessment will examine the flora, fauna and other components of the Study Area and Assessment Area, identify the potential ecological impacts associated with the Project and recommend any mitigation measures for the identified ecological impacts predicted from the Project.

Recognized Sites of Conservation Importance

10.2.6           There are a number of recognized sites of conservation importance surrounding the Study Area. Any development within the Study Area should define and address potential impacts to these sites. Locations of these recognized sites of conservation importance are shown in Figure 227724/E/6106.

Conservation Area

10.2.7           A Conservation Area covering an area of about 33 ha is located to the northeast and east of the Study Area. The planning intention of this area is to protect and retain the existing natural landscape, ecological or topographical features of the area for conservation, educational and research purposes, and to separate sensitive natural environment such as Country Park (i.e. Ma On Sha Country Park in this Project) from the adverse effects of development. This Conservation Area is a natural hill slope vegetated with a mosaic of mature secondary woodland and shrubby grassland. Foraging and roosting habitats for wildlife within this Conservation Area are present, but the existing knowledge is limited. The Conservation Area does not fall within any part of the Study Area, though almost all lies within the Assessment Area.

Tseng Lan Shue Stream

10.2.8           Tseng Lan Shue Stream is a 3km long stream flowing through Tseng Lan Shue Tsuen and Pak Shek Wo Tsuen and finally entering the inner part of Junk Bay. Tributaries of this stream pass through various natural vegetated hillside areas as well as modified, disturbed areas until they reach the concrete channels in urbanised areas.  Ecological information on Tseng Lan Shue Stream is limited. CED (1998) reveals that the tributaries are either quite polluted with a heavy load of fine suspended sediment, or possess little water flow. No aquatic fauna were recorded in CED (1998). However, the recent Water Quality Index measured at the upstream monitoring station near Tseng Lan Shue Tsuen has improved from “Very Bad” (in 1991) to “Fair” (in 2011) (EPD 2011). Improvement in water quality and implementation of Sewerage Master Plans may benefit fauna recolonization in the stream.

Ma On Shan Country Park

10.2.9          Ma On Shan Country Park is located in the eastern New Territories and covers inland upland areas between Sai Sha Road and Hebe Haven, which lies between Pak Sha Wan and Port Shelter. The area was first designated as Country Park in 1979, with subsequent revision made in 1998, and covers an area of approximately 2,880 ha. Ecologically, the less disturbed ravines and valleys of the eastern slopes support rare flora, and, to preserve the natural resources in these lowland areas (55ha), the eastern lowlands were designed as a Special Area in 1980. Rare and protected plants such as shrubs Rhododendron spp., ferns (Hymenophyllum austrosinicum) and orchids are found in hilly areas, while the relatively undisturbed Country Park is also inhabited by common mammal species. The proposed development of Anderson Road Quarry is highly unlikely to impose significant impacts on species or habitats in Ma On Shan Country Park, as the nearest points of the Country Park and the Study Area are separated by urbanized habitats (i.e. roads, villages and public housing) and the Country Park lies at least 0.75km from the Study Area. It is also located outside the Assessment Area.

Ho Chung Valley SSSI

10.2.10      Ho Chung Valley SSSI is a valley area located above Ho Chung Village. This area includes vegetated ravines and hillsides running west and northwest from Ho Chung Village into the mountain mass of Fei Ngo Shan and Buffalo Hill. This SSSI covers approximately 395 ha and was designated in 1979 for the presence of rich floristic resources, including rare orchids, ferns and herbs. Due to its location, this SSSI is protected within Ma On Shan Country Park and situated approximately 1 km from the Study Area. It is also located outside the Assessment Area.

Literature Review

10.2.11      Existing knowledge regarding the ecology of the Assessment Area, especially for the natural terrestrial habitats at the north and northeast of the Area, is very limited. The Final Ecological Impact Assessment Report on Planning and Engineering Feasibility Study for Development at Anderson Road (CED 1998) and Final Environmental Review Report on Agreement No. CE 55/2005 (CE) Development at Anderson Road – Design and Construction (Arup 2009), in which the ecological review was mostly based on CED (1998), are the major relevant studies to the Study Area.

10.2.12      CED (1998) identified the terrestrial habitats, flora and fauna (including avifauna, breeding birds, mammals and aquatic fauna) in the development site of Anderson Road, and determined that woodlands at the northern and southern ends of the site supported higher floral and faunal diversity and were of higher ecological value than other natural and human-disturbed habitats. However, as the site was studied in 1997-1998 and habitat changes have arisen from concurrent site formation and associated infrastructural works in recent years, data collected in this earlier study is considered out of date.

10.2.13      In the feasibility study on future land use at Anderson Road Quarry, Arup (2012) identified woodland/shrubland and developed area as the two major habitat types within the current 500m Assessment Area, with natural streams scattered among the hillside habitats. In particular, Tseng Lan Shue Stream was identified as of potential ecological significance, a few tributaries of which lie within the Assessment Area. A Conservation Area located to the north and northeast of the Study Area comprises hill slope naturally vegetated with mature woodland, and it was also identified as of significant landscape value. Ma On Shan Country Park is located in the northwestern side and separated from the Study Area by Clear Water Bay Road. The Country Park lies at least 0.75km from the Study Area as well as outside the Assessment Area.

10.2.14      Botanically, the Master Landscape Plan Report, and its associated Milestone Reports for rehabilitation of Anderson Road Quarry provide the planting schemes and landscape plan implemented on the slopes and benches along the northeastern and eastern sides of the quarry. These reports provides the general species composition of plantation mix, tall shrub mix, climbers and ground cover planted on the slopes and benches throughout the period from 1999 to 2013.

10.2.15      A review of Arup (2001) and CEDD (2008) on the feasibility study for South East Kowloon Development and Kai Tak Development respectively did not provide any data related to habitats, vegetation or wildlife relevant to the current Study. Ecological impact assessment areas and scope of works studied by these two approved EIAs were located some way to the south of the current Study Area, and hence are considered to be irrelevant.

10.3                   Survey Methodology

10.3.1           In view of the lack of updated ecological data from the Project Area and its vicinity, ecological surveys of all flora and fauna were conducted within the Study Area and its 500m Assessment Area. Surveys were conducted from April to July 2013. Table 10.1 outlines the survey schedule of all flora and fauna groups during the four-month survey period. All methodologies followed the ecological survey methodologies recommended in EIAO Guidance Notes No. 7/2010 and 10/2010. Methodologies for each group are detailed below. Transects of fauna surveys are shown in Figures 227724/E/6201.

Table 10.1: Ecological survey programme during the four-month survey period (April to July 2013)

Surveys

April 2013

May 2013

June 2013

July 2013

Habitat and Vegetation[1]

 

 

Mammal

Mammal (night-time)[2]

 

 

Avifauna

Avifauna (night-time)

 

 

Herpetofauna (day-time)

Herpetofauna (night-time)

 

 

Dragonfly and Butterfly

Stream Fauna

 

 

Notes:

[1]   Surveys on habitats and vegetation were conducted on two survey days in June and July 2013 so as to cover the entire Study Area and Assessment Area.

[2]   Night-time surveys on mammal were adjusted from the tentative survey programme in May and June 2013 to June and July 2013 due to the rainy weather in May 2013.

Habitat/ Vegetation Survey

10.3.2           Habitat mapping of the Assessment Area was initially conducted by reference to the latest available aerial photographs and verified through ground-truthing of the area, in order to confirm habitat types and condition. Vegetation survey was conducted in accessible areas and along paths on 19 June and 9 July 2013 to characterise vegetation in the Assessment Area. All plant species observed were recorded and their relative abundance in each habitat was noted. General characteristics of the flora community present in each habitat type were noted for use in habitat description and evaluation. All recognized sites of conservation importance, locations of habitats and species of conservation importance recorded within the Assessment Area were mapped. Representative colour photographic records of each habitat type and identified ecological features were taken and presented in Appendix 10.1.

Mammal and Bat Roost Survey

10.3.3           Daytime mammal surveys were undertaken on a monthly basis during the survey period from April to July 2013. Signs of mammals, such as droppings, diggings, burrows, scats, paw prints and tracks were photographed and identified as far as possible if found. Special attention was paid to identifying the potential presence of bat roosts and specific surveys for bats using detectors were conducted in suitable habitats within the Assessment Area in June and July 2013. During all other diurnal and nocturnal surveys, any direct observations of mammals were recorded. Nomenclature follows Shek (2006). 

Bird Survey

10.3.4           Monthly bird surveys were undertaken from April to July 2013. Survey effort was greatest in habitats that offer most opportunities for birds, e.g. patches of woodland and streams. During the bird survey, all birds seen or heard were identified and recorded according to the habitat in which they were observed. All bird species of conservation importance were enumerated. Special attention was paid to areas which may provide suitable habitats for raptors and woodland-dependent migratory bird species. Observations of any nocturnal bird species were conducted on two occasions in May and June 2013. Nomenclature follows the latest official Hong Kong Bird List available, whereas conservation status follows Carey et al. (2001) and Fellowes et al. (2002).

Herpetofauna Survey

10.3.5           Monthly daytime herpetofauna surveys were carried out from April to July 2013 within the Assessment Area. Given the lack of wetland habitats suitable for breeding amphibians, two nocturnal surveys were conducted in May and June 2013. Stream habitats, along with other potential microhabitats and refuge areas for reptiles were also searched (e.g. leaf letter, inside holes, under stones and logs). All reptiles seen and all vocalizing amphibians were identified, enumerated and recorded according to the habitat in which there were observed. Nomenclature and status for reptiles follows Karsen et al. (1998), while that of amphibians follows Chan et al. (2005).

Dragonfly/ Butterfly Survey

10.3.6           Monthly dragonfly/ butterfly surveys were undertaken from April to July 2013. All dragonflies and butterflies observed were identified and enumerated. Attention was paid to those habitats which provide suitable habitat for these species groups. Nomenclatures for butterflies and dragonflies follow Lo and Hui (2010) and Tam et al. (2011) respectively.

Stream Survey

10.3.7           Stream fauna survey was conducted twice along the accessible, natural and unpolluted watercourses, and the surveyed streams are shown in Figure 227724/E/6201. The streams were surveyed primarily by direct observation, active searching, sweep sampling and kick sampling techniques.

10.4                   Ecological Baseline Conditions

Physical Environment

10.4.1           The Study Area is an existing quarry site located to the northeast of Anderson Road. Situated at the far northeastern edge of East Kowloon areas, the majority of the Assessment Area comprises densely populated urban areas from northwest to south. These urban areas include various public housing estates and road infrastructure in Sau Mau Ping, as well as Tseung Kwan O Tunnel and approach roads, and an adjacent public housing development site immediately to the southwest of the Study Area. Low-rise residential buildings and village houses in Ma Yau Tong, Au Tau and Sam Long are also located to the southeast and northeast of the Assessment Area. Continuous vegetated hill slopes with secondary woodland, shrubby grassland and seasonal hillside streams on Tai Sheung Tok Hill are located from the northeastern to eastern parts of the Assessment Area. Remnant patches of secondary woodland and hillside plantation with native secondary growth are also found to the north and south, but are fragmented from the main part of the Assessment Area by Clear Water Bay Road and Po Lam Road respectively.

10.4.2           From an ecological perspective, the active quarry site largely occupies most of the Study Area, while the Assessment Area largely comprises of human-dominated developed areas in the western and southern sides. Both the quarry site and human-dominated developed area are of very low ecological value. Limited wildlife usage of the Study Area is anticipated in this active quarry site. However, the vegetated hillside environs in the vicinity are of higher ecological value, as they could provide suitable foraging and roosting habitats for wildlife.

Habitats and Flora

10.4.3           The areas of habitats present within the Study Area and the Assessment Area are listed in Table 10.2, while a habitat map is provided in Figures 227724/E/6101 –227724/E/6105. A full list of flora species recorded and the relative abundance within each habitat is provided in Appendix 10.2. The identified floral species of conservation importance are summarised in Table 10.3 and their locations are shown in Figures 227724/E/6301 – 227724/E/6303.

Watercourses

10.4.4           Two watercourses are located in the secondary woodland in the southeast part of the Study Area. The uppermost sections of these watercourses within the Study Area were difficult to access due to the steep topography of Tai Sheung Tok Hill. Their lower sections run underneath the southeastern part of Anderson Road and Po Lam Road within the Assessment Area and finally merge in Ma Yau Tong area. Of these two watercourses, one is a permanent stream with natural bottom and riparian vegetation along the banks; it is believed its upper section within the Study Area is natural, though access to this section was not possible. 

10.4.5           Access to the watercourse to the west was not possible between the survey period (i.e. April to July 2013) due to the lack of access path within the dense woodland in the southeast. Access to this watercourse was available in August 2013 with the provision of temporary access path by the ground investigation works of the current Study. The watercourse to the west is a steep seasonal stream only fully in water after periods of heavy rain, though three semi-permanent pools exist at the base of short waterfalls towards Anderson Road. Below Anderson Road, but above Po Lam Road, this stream has been disturbed by on-going construction works and site clearance. It is piped underneath Po Lam Road into a semi-natural stream.   Its upper section within the Study Area is natural and passes through closed canopy hillside secondary woodland.

10.4.6           Several watercourses within the Assessment Area are located in the northeast and east, and are either tributaries of Tseng Lan Shue Stream or dry/ seasonal watercourses flowing from ravines. These tributaries of Tseng Lan Shue Stream are largely semi-natural, permanent watercourses, and some sections have partly concrete banks. These streams are generally clean, but localized domestic discharge from village houses was still observed during surveys. The watercourses running from the ravines are mostly narrow, with dry or seasonal water flow providing opportunistic foraging grounds for herpetofauna and dragonflies. Common herbaceous vegetation were recorded along the banks of the watercourses in the Assessment Area, including the grasses Brachiaria mutica and Microstegium ciliatum, other herbs such as Alocasia macrorrhizos, Commelina diffusa and Alternanthera philoxeroides, and woody shrubs and trees. One seedling of the protected tree species Aquilaria sinensis was recorded in woodland close to a dry watercourse near Wilson Trail Stage 3 in the east side of the Assessment Area (Figure 227724/E/6302).

10.4.7           Channelized watercourses to the north and south of the Assessment Area are highly modified, with concrete sides and bottom. It is connected with the channelized drainage system in the urban area, and is of very low ecological significance.

Agricultural Land

10.4.8           Two very small pieces of dry agricultural land are located to the west of Ma Yau Tong and in the southeast of the Assessment Area. These are small and isolated, and lie under a dense canopy of secondary woodland in the area of Ma Yau Tong village. This habitat is subject to high levels of disturbance (such as weeding practice and farming activity) and supports simple floristic diversity and structure. Common crops are present in this farmland; however, access was not possible.

Grassland

10.4.9           Four pieces of grassland are located in the northeast (i.e. in Sam Long area), east (i.e. to the west of Au Tau) and southwest (i.e. along Wilson Trail Stage 3) of the Assessment Area. These grassland patches are either evolved from abandoned farmland in village environs or constitute hillside grassland along the hiking trail. Grassland developed from abandoned farmland was extensively covered by grasses (such as native Neyraudia reynaudiana and Microstegium ciliatum and the exotic Pennisetum purpureum and Paspalum conjugatum) and other herbs (such as the exotic Bidens alba and Praxelis clematidea, and the exotic climbers Ipomoea cairica and Mikania micrantha). A few self-sown shrubs and trees were also recorded. The hillside grassland was mainly covered by native grass species such as Neyraudia reynaudiana, Miscanthus floridulus and Microstegium ciliatum. With regard to the landform of the lowland grassland in the village environs, these grassland patches appear to be seasonally flooded after heavy rain and may provide temporary habitat for amphibian and dragonfly in wet season. However, recent human disturbance (such as dumping of domestic waste and construction materials) was noted on these patches in the surveys.

Grassland/ Shrubland

10.4.10      A small piece of shrubby grassland was identified in the east of the Study Area. It covers the peak of Tai Sheung Tok Hill and distributes further east towards the Wilson Trail Stage 3 within the Assessment Area. This hillside habitat is located between two continuous patches of secondary woodland to the north and south, and graves are present in this shrubby grassland, indicating this habitat may have been subject to infrequent hill fire in the last decade. Two relatively small patches of shrubby grassland were found in the hillside between Sam Long and Au Tau, and are located in the northeast of the Assessment Area.

10.4.11      At least 10 individuals of the protected herb Chinese Lily Lilium brownii were identified in the shrubby grassland within the Study Area (Table 10.3 and Figure 227724/E/6303). Chinese Lily can be found in restricted localities only and is distributed in hillside areas among grasses (AFCD 2011). It is protected under the Forestry and Countryside Ordinance (Cap. 96).

10.4.12      Apart from Chinese Lily, this habitat in the rest of the Study Area and Assessment Area supports moderate floristic diversity and typical plant species, such as the grass Miscanthus floridulus, the fern Dicranopteris pedata, the herb Aster baccharoides and the shrubs Clerodendrum fortunatum, Melastoma malabathricum, Rhaphiolepis indica and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, were recorded.

Secondary Woodland

10.4.13      Secondary Woodland is located at the edges of the Study Area, from northeast to east and in the southeast of the Study Area. Woodland at the northern and eastern edges is continuous with the mature woodland of Tan Shan and Tai Sheung Tok Hill. These woodlands support higher structural complexity, with more continuous canopy than the woodland in the southeast. The woodland edge facing the plantations on quarry benches was planted with some plantation species (such as exotic Acacia confusa and native Castanopsis fissa), but the major woodland canopy is dominated by mature native trees (such as Celtis sinensis, Machilus chekiangensis and Schefflera heptaphylla). Common woodland plants, including shrubs Eurya nitida, Litsea rotundifolia var. oblongifolia and Psychotria asiatica, and trees Diospyros morrisiana and Litsea glutinosa, were also recorded. The southeastern woodland supports similar floristic diversity, but with simpler structural complexity and dominated by younger canopy tree species. Thirteen seedlings/saplings of the shrub Diospyros vaccinioides were identified at the edges of secondary woodlands within the Study Area. About 30 seedlings, two young saplings and one young tree of Ormosia pachycarpa, as well as a woody climber Gnetum luofuense were recorded in the young woodland patch located in the southeast part of the Study Area (Figure 227724/E/6303 and summarized in Table 10.3).

10.4.14      Secondary woodlands in the Assessment Area include relatively natural and complex woodland to the north, northeast and southeast, as well as younger woodland with native self-sown growth on man-made slopes in the northwest and south. Woodland in the north and northeast supports higher floristic diversity and structural complexity than other woodland within the Assessment Area. The former woodland is characterised by a closed canopy dominated by common overstorey trees such as Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus chekiangensis, Microcos nervosa, Schima superba and Syzygium hancei. The understorey is dominated by woody climbers, shrubs and small trees, including Desmos chinensis, Elaeocarpus chinensis, Litsea cubeba and Sarcandra glabra. In addition, as shown in Figures 227724/E/6301 – 227724/E/6303 and summarized in Table 10.3, five floral species of conservation importance, namely the woody climber Gnetum luofuense, the shrubs Diospyros vaccinioides and Rhododendron spp., and the trees Aquilaria sinensis and Artocarpus hypargyreus were recorded. These woodland patches are of higher ecological significance due to greater maturity and structural complexity; they also provide higher habitat diversity to wildlife.

10.4.15      The woodland in the southeast is continuous with patches in the Study Area. It supports lower floristic diversity than the mature woodland in the north and northeast, and is characterised by younger floristic structure of more open canopy. Ecological value of this woodland in the southeast is relatively low. The remaining woodland within the Assessment Area derives from native spontaneous growth on man-made slopes in the northwest and south. This woodland is formed either with the retention of the original native composition or with natural establishment in exotic plantation stands (such as stands of Acacia confusa and Lophostemon confertus). Their understoreys support lower plant diversity and some are colonized by more weedy species such as the herbs Bidens alba, the climber Mikania micrantha and the shrub Lantana camara. Ecological value of this woodland type is lower than the mature woodland in the north and northeast, and younger woodland in the southeast.  

Plantation

10.4.16      Plantations within the Study Area occupy much of the north and east outside the quarry itself, and comprise primarily exotic species on the vertical benches. They have been established for rehabilitation under the operation of the Anderson Road Quarry and are relatively young, possibly less than a decade old. Plantations of this type are generally low in ecological value due to the predominance of exotic species such as Acacia spp., Eucalyptus spp. and Casuarina equisetifolia. The exotic climber Parthenocissus dalzielii was planted for vertical greening on the benches. Limited natural colonization by herbs (such as Bidens alba, Commelina diffusa, Mimosa pudica and Praxelis clematidea), shrubs (such as Lantana camara, Melastoma spp. Ligustrum sinense) and trees (such as Celtis sinensis, Leucaena leucocephala and Mallotus paniculatus) was also recorded.

10.4.17      Small areas of plantation are located within the Assessment Area in the southwest, west and southwest. They are established on man-made slopes, along roads or on hill slopes above infrastructure. These plantations were established for screening and aesthetic reasons, or sometimes for soil erosion control if on a hill slope. They support low floristic diversity and structure, with an overstorey dominated by exotic plantation species including Acacia confusa, Casuarina equisetifolia and Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. cumingiana. Limited natural colonization by plants was recorded in their understorey.

Developed Area

10.4.18      The only Developed Areas within the Study Area comprise the existing construction site to the west of Anderson Road, Anderson Road and southern section of Po Lam Road. These are either construction site or paved areas heavily used for traffic and quarry works.

10.4.19      Developed Area within the Assessment Area is composed of low-rise residential buildings and village houses in the northeast and southeast, public housing estates and infrastructure from north to south, as well as an extensive site formation area for a public housing development project under construction and located immediately to the southwest of the Study Area. This habitat is heavily modified and suffers from high levels of disturbance by anthropogenic factors. It often supports low faunal and floral diversity, in which the dominant plant species are heavily-managed species, such as ornamental shrubs and trees in landscaped areas or urban parks.

Quarry

10.4.20      The quarry site within the Study Area refers has been operating since 1956 and is excavated into the southwest facing slope of Tai Sheung Tok Hill. The vertical face is over 200m high, with a length of more than 1.5km from north to south. This active quarry site comprises plantation for rehabilitation, a quarry pond and an excavated platform with access roads and built offices. The quarry pond exists as a service reservoir and is of various sizes over time. The water quality of this pond is poor in ecological perspective. This habitat has been heavily modified and suffers from a high level of human disturbance. This quarry site is largely covered in bare ground, with scattered colonization primarily by grasses (such as Neyraudia reynaudiana and Melinis repens) and a few self-sown trees (such as Leucaena leucocephala, Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa and Ficus hispida).

 

 

Table 10.2: Habitats present within the Study Area and Assessment Area

Habitat

Study Area

Assessment area

(500m from the boundary of Study Area)

Total Area under

the Study

ha

%

ha

%

ha

%

Watercourses[1]

/

(1.48km)

/

0.3

(4.31km)

0.1

0.3

(5.79km)

0.1

Agricultural Land

/

/

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

Grassland

/

/

2.1

0.7

2.1

0.5

Grassland/ Shrubland

3.6

3.7

11.7

4.0

15.3

3.9

Secondary Woodland

15.4

15.6

113.0

38.5

128.4

32.8

Plantation

21.8

22.1

13.0

4.4

34.8

8.9

Developed Area

11.2

11.4

152.9

52.1

164.0

41.9

Quarry

46.5

47.2

/

/

46.5

11.9

Total [2]

98.5

100

293.2

100

391.6

100

Notes:

[1]   Habitat area includes channelized watercourses only; narrow natural watercourses are presented in length (approximate length measured in km shown in brackets) in Table 10.2 and in evaluations in the report.

[2]   Figures above are rounded to the nearest decimal place. Hence, figures may not add to the total value.

Table 10.3: Floral species of conservation importance recorded in the Study Area and Assessment Area.

Species

Conservation/ Protection Status

Distribution in Hong Kong[1]-[5]

Habitat Recorded

Recorded abundance in the Survey

Small Persimmon

Diospyros vaccinioides

Critically Endangered[6]

Very common in shrubland, thin forest and thickets in ravines or hillslope habitats

Secondary Woodland

- 13 seedlings (Study Area)

- >50 seedlings and larger individuals (Assessment Area)

Chinese Lily

Lilium brownii

Cap. 96A

Restricted to grassy hillside habitat at restricted locations

Grassland/ Shrubland

- >10 individuals (Study Area)

Incense Tree

Aquilaria sinensis

Cap. 586;

State Protection (Category II)[7];

 Near Threatened[7]* ;

Vulnerable[6]

Commonly found in lowland forest and fung shui wood

Secondary Woodland

- 13 seedlings and two trees (Assessment Area)

Natural Watercourse (Dry watercourse)

- One seedling (Assessment Area)

Rhododendron spp. (Wild population)

Cap. 96

Found in shrubland and forest

Secondary Woodland

- Two individuals (Assessment Area)

Luofushan Joint-fir

Gnetum luofuense

Near Threatened[6]

Commonly found in forest and shrubland

Secondary Woodland

- At least one individual (Study Area)

- Approx. 0.15 ha (Assessment Area)

Silver-back Artocarpus

Artocarpus hypargyreus

Vulnerable[6] ;

Near Threatened[7]*

Commonly found in lowland forest

Secondary Woodland

- Three trees (Assessment Area)

Hairy-fruited Ormosia

Ormosia pachycarpa

Endangered[7]

Restricted, found in several localities

Secondary Woodland

- About 30 seedlings, two saplings and one young tree (Study Area)

Notes:

[1]  Xing et al. (2000)                 [2] AFCD (2007)                  [3] AFCD (2008)

[4] AFCD (2009)                        [5] AFCD (2011)                  [6] IUCN (2013)

[7] AFCD (2003)

* Conservation/ Protection Status is stated in China Plant Red Data Book and Illustration of Rare & Endangered Plant in Guangdong Province as stipulated in AFCD (2003).

Mammals (Bats)

Literature review

10.4.21      The only mammal previously reported in the Assessment Area was Eurasian Wild Pig Sus scrofa in the woodland/shrubland in the north during Planning and Engineering Feasibility Study for Development at Anderson Road (CED 1998). This is a widely-distributed species in Hong Kong.

10.4.22      Chan and Shek (2006) and Shek (2006) reported that small colonies (1-10 individuals) of Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus sphinx were found roosting in Chinese Fan-palm in the urban areas of Kwun Tong District. This fruit bat species is widely distributed in various habitats from woodlands, lowlands to urban areas (such as landscaped area and urban parks with suitable roosting palms) at lower elevations. The identified roosts in these two studies were located outside the 500m Assessment Area.

Field surveys

10.4.23      No suitable sites for roosting bats were recorded from the Study Area.  A single Japanese Pipistrelle Pipistrellus abramus, was recorded foraging in several locations in the secondary woodland and developed areas to the north, northeast and southeast of the Assessment Area in low densities during surveys, with no more than two individuals observed at a single time. Japanese Pipistrelle is protected under Cap. 170.  However, it is widespread and frequently recorded in urbanised areas in Hong Kong (Chan & Shek 2006, Shek 2006).

Avifauna

Literature review

10.4.24      Twenty-seven bird species were recorded in the EIA study for the Development at Anderson Road (AEIAR-005/1999) (CED 1998), but none are of conservation interest. Of these 27, 16 were recorded as possible, probable or confirmed breeding species in the survey site (CED 1998). All these 16 species are common and widespread in Hong Kong, and of no conservation significance.

Field surveys

10.4.25      Forty bird species were recorded in the surveys, 28 of which were recorded in the Study Area (see Appendix 10.3). Of the 40 species recorded, three are of conservation concern, (Black Kite, Crested Serpent Eagle and Grey-chinned Minivet), but only the first was recorded within the Study Area. A maximum of two Black Kites were observed flying overhead near the secondary woodland within the Study Area, while one Crested Serpent Eagle was seen over secondary woodland in the Assessment Area (Figure 227724/E/6304).  These two species are listed as of conservation concern by Fellowes et al. (2002) based on the restrictedness in breeding and/or roosting sites rather than in general occurrence. Hence, these observations in this area are of no conservation significance. Grey-chinned Minivet is a species common in mature secondary woodlands in Hong Kong and a maximum count of one Grey-chinned Minivet was recorded in the secondary woodland in the northeast of the Assessment Area.

10.4.26      Details of the bird species of conservation importance are shown in Table 10.4. A full list of species recorded, including scientific names, is shown in Appendix 10.3.

Table 10.4: Bird species of conservation importance recorded in the Study Area and Assessment Area.

Species

Conservation Status

(Fellowes et al. 2002)[1]

Max. count

Area/ Habitats Recorded

Black Kite

Milvus migrans

(Regional Concern)

2

Study Area

(Secondary Woodland)

Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela

(Local Concern)

1

Assessment Area

(Secondary Woodland)

Grey-chinned Minivet Pericrocotus solaris

Local Concern

1

Assessment Area

(Secondary Woodland)

Notes:

[1]   Conservation status in parentheses indicates that the assessment is on the basis of restrictedness in breeding and/or roosting sites rather than in general occurrence.

Herpetofauna

Literature review

10.4.27      Eleven amphibian species are likely to occur in the Assessment Area according to the habitat types and the distribution in Hong Kong (scientific names are provided in Appendix 10.4). They are Asian Common Toad, Asiatic Painted Frog, Butler’s Pigmy Frog, Ornate Pigmy Frog, Paddy Frog, Gunther's Frog, Green Cascade Frog, and Brown Tree Frog, which are all common in Hong Kong and of no conservation concern (Karsen et al. 1998, Chan et al. 2005). Amphibian species of conservation concern that may occur in the Assessment Area include Hong Kong Newt Paramesotriton hongkongensis, Lesser Spiny Frog Quasipaa exilispinosa, and Short-legged Toad Xenophrys brachykolos (Fellowes et al. 2002, Chan et al. 2005). However, no herpetofauna data relevant to the Assessment Area have been presented in the relevant literature (e.g. CED (1998)).

Field surveys

10.4.28      A total of 12 amphibian species and four reptile species were recorded in the whole study, of which eight amphibians and three reptile species were recorded in the Study Area (see Appendix 10.4). Three of the amphibian species and one of the reptile species recorded are of conservation concern (see Table 10.5) and locations are shown in Figure 227724/E/6305.

10.4.29      Hong Kong Newts were recorded in both the Study Area and Assessment Area. The species was found in the concrete U-channel in the Plantation in the Study Area in the May and June surveys; such channel habitat is not typical for this species, and these individuals were probably washed off nearby terrestrial habitat during their seasonal migration in their non-breeding period (Apr-Aug) (Chan et al.2005, Fu 2010).  In addition, up to nine Hong Kong Newts were recorded in the natural watercourse (watercourse no. 1) at Tan Shan village. This species is of Potential Global Concern (Fellowes et al. 2002) and listed as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2013), despite it being common and widespread in unpolluted mountain streams in Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2005).

10.4.30      Short-legged Toads were heard calling in three streams (watercourse no. 3, 5 and 6) in the Assessment Area in June and July. This species, which occurs in hill streams with wooded banks (Chan et al. 2005), is common and widespread on Hong Kong Island but restricted to a few localities in the New Territories and Lantau Island (Chan et al. 2005). Short-legged Toad is possibly endemic to Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2005), and is of Potential Global Concern (Fellowes et al. 2002) and listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2013).

10.4.31      Two Lesser Spiny Frogs were heard in the natural watercourse (watercourse no. 2) in the Assessment Area in the night-time survey conducted in May. Tadpoles of this species were recorded in significant numbers from both streams (watercourse section no. 8a and 8c) in the southeast of the Study Area.  This species can be found within or near streams at different altitudes throughout Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2005). It is listed as ‘Potential Global Concern’ in Fellowes et al. (2002) and ‘Vulnerable’ in the IUCN Red List (2013).

10.4.32      All three amphibian species of conservation concern recorded inhabit streams with good riparian vegetative cover; streams in the wider Assessment Area are good quality habitat for amphibians.

10.4.33      The only reptile species of conservation importance recorded was a Common Rat Snake Ptyas mucosus found in the plantation in the Study Area in the April survey. This species can be found in a range of habitats such as shrubland and grassland, but is much less common in wooded areas (Karsen et al. 1998). It is a ‘Potential Regional Concern’ species in Fellowes et al. (2002) and ‘Endangered’ in the China Red Data Book (Zhao 1998) although it is common in open habitats around Hong Kong (Karsen et al. 1998).

Table 10.5: Herpetofauna species of conservation importance recorded in the Assessment Area

Species

Conservation Status

(Fellowes et al 2002)

IUCN Red List Status

Max. count

Area/ Habitats

Hong Kong Newt

Paramesotriton hongkongensis

Potential Global Concern

Near Threatened

10 (1 at Study Area and 9 at Assessment Area)

Study Area

(Concrete U-Channel in Plantation)
Assessment Area (Watercourse no. 1)

Short-legged Toad

Xenophrys brachykolos

Potential Global Concern

Endangered

5

Assessment Area (Watercourse no. 3, 5 and 6)

Lesser Spiny Frog

Quasipaa exilispinosa

Potential Global Concern

Vulnerable

2

Study Area

(Watercourse section no. 8a and 8c)

Assessment Area

(Watercourse no. 2)

Common Rat Snake

Ptyas mucosus

Potential Regional Concern

-

1

Study Area

(Plantation)

Dragonflies

Literature review

10.4.34      No data directly relevant to the Assessment Area could be found in the literature.

Field surveys

10.4.35      A total of 18 dragonfly species were recorded in the whole study, of which seven were recorded in the Study Area (see Appendix 10.5). Five dragonfly species recorded in the study are of conservation concern and two of these were found within the Study Area. Details of their conservation status are shown in Table 10.6 and locations shown in Figure 227724/E/6306.

10.4.36      A single Chinese Yellowface was recorded in the streams (watercourse no. 1 and 3) in or close to secondary woodlands in the April and June survey respectively. Habitats of this species are forest seepages and small streams in woodland (Tam et al. 2011).  Although this species is of ‘Local Concern’ (Fellowes et al. 2002), it is abundant around Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011).

10.4.37      A Blue-tailed Shadowdamsel was recorded in the stream (watercourse no. 3) in secondary woodland in the Assessment Area in the survey conducted in June. This species can be found in small streams in mature forest (Tam et al. 2011). Blue-tailed Shadowdamsel is listed as ‘Global Concern’ in Fellowes et al. (2002); despite it being common and widespread in well forested areas around Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011).

10.4.38      A Hong Kong Clubtail was seen perching in plantation in the Study Area during the survey conducted in June. This is a species that lives in woodlands near streams (Tam et al. 2011); it is of Local Concern in Fellowes et al. (2002) and endemic to Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011), although it is common and widespread here (Tam et al. 2011).

10.4.39      A Ruby Darter was recorded in the grassland next to village environs in the Assessment Area in the May survey. This species can be found in marshes and densely vegetated ponds (Tam et al. 2011). It is of ‘Local Concern’ (Fellowes et al. 2002) but this species is common and widespread in Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011).

10.4.40      Emerald Cascader was recorded in the Study Area in June and July. Emerald Cascaders were found soaring over the plantation, secondary woodland and grassland/ shrubland in the Study Area. This species can be found in fast-flowing section of streams and young adults of this species often soar over woodlands (Tam et al. 2011). Emerald Cascader is a species of Potential Global Concern in Fellowes et al. (2002) but it is abundant and widespread in woodland streams all over Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011).

10.4.41      All except one dragonfly species of conservation importance recorded in the surveys lives in streams in woodlands (Tam et al. 2011); this shows that streams in the Assessment Area are of some ecological importance to dragonflies, despite the fact that all species are either abundant or common throughout Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011).

Table 10.6: Dragonfly species of conservation importance recorded in the Assessment Area

Species

Conservation Status

(Fellowes et al. 2002)

Status in Hong Kong (Tam et al. 2011)

Max. count

Area/ Habitats

Chinese Yellowface

Agriomorpha fusca

Local Concern

Abundant

1

Assessment Area (Watercourse no. 1 and 3)

Blue-tailed Shadowdamsel

Drepanosticta hongkongensis

Global Concern

Common

1

Assessment Area (Watercourse no. 3)

Hong Kong Clubtail

Leptogomphus hongkongensis

Local Concern

Common

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Ruby Darter

Rhodothemis rufa

Local Concern

Common

1

Assessment Area (Grassland)

Emerald Cascader

Zygonyx iris

Potential Global Concern

Abundant

14

Study Area (Plantation, Secondary Woodland & Grassland/Shrubland)

Butterflies

Literature review

10.4.42      No data directly relevant to the Assessment Area could be found in the literature.

Field surveys

10.4.43      A total of 63 butterfly species were recorded in the surveys, of which 54 were recorded in the Study Area (see Appendix 10.6). A total of 16 butterfly species of conservation importance were recorded in the surveys, of which four are of ‘Local Concern’ (Fellowes et al. 2002), three are ‘Very Rare’; four are ‘Rare’ and seven are ‘Uncommon’ (Chan et al. 2011). Among these 16 species of conservation importance, 11 and three butterflies were recorded in the plantation and secondary woodland respectively within the Study Area. These 16 species, including their scientific names, are listed in Table 10.7 and their locations are shown in Figure 227724/E/6307.

10.4.44      Orange Awlet and Bamboo Tree Brown are the only two butterfly species of conservation concern not recorded in the Study Area. A caterpillar of Orange Awlet was recorded in the secondary woodland in the Assessment Area in July. This species occurs in woodland and has been recorded in a few localities in Hong Kong (including Sai Kung West) only (Lo and Hui 2010). This is a ‘Very Rare’ species in Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2011).

10.4.45      Except Orange Awlet, the other two ‘Very Rare’ species are Indian Awl King and Hainan Palm Dart. Only a single individual of each species was recorded in plantation in the Study Area (Chan et al. 2011). Both species are listed as ‘Local Concern’ in Fellowes et al. (2002). They have different habitat preferences, with Indian Awl King preferring shaded woodland while Hainan Palm Dart preferring abandoned exposed grasslands and shrublands (Lo and Hui 2010). The larval food plant of the former are native tree species found in mature secondary woodland (Meliosma fordii and M. rigida), while the food plant for the latter is a common perennial herb species (Miscanthus sinensis). Both species are found in most country parks in Hong Kong (Lo and Hui 2010).

10.4.46      Four ‘Rare’ butterfly species were recorded in the study; they are Banded Awl, Common Dart, White-banded Flat and Constable (Chan et al. 2011); Of these, Common Dart and Constable are also listed as species of ‘Local Concern’ in Fellowes et al. (2002). Apart from Constable, which was recorded once in the survey period with a count of two individuals, only a single individual of the other species were recorded once in the survey period.

10.4.47      Both Common Dart and Constable are listed as a species of ‘Local Concern’ in Fellowes et al. (2002) and regarded as a ‘Rare’ species in Chan et al. (2011). Lo & Hui (2010) noted that the former species is the rarest of the four Potanthus species in Hong Kong and is found in Sai Kung West. However, the larval food plant is a common perennial herb in Hong Kong (Micanthus floridulus) and is common in abandoned fields and grasslands. Constable can be found in most country parks in Hong Kong and has a habitat preference for well vegetated uplands (Lo & Hui 2010). Its larval food plant is M. fordii and M. rigida (HKLS 2010) which are found in mature secondary woodlands.

10.4.48      The caterpillar of Banded Awl feeds on a common native coastal tree species Pongamia pinnata and is found mainly in woodlands near the coast, including Sai Kung (Lo & Hui 2010).White-banded Flat is known to occur in well-vegetated areas in most country parks (Lo & Hui 2010). Seven ‘Uncommon’ butterfly species were recorded in the study; they are Restricted Demon, Indian Palm Bob, Plains Cupid, Striped Blue Crow, Bamboo Tree Brown, Dark Evening Brown and Yellow Orange Tip. Of these, Bamboo Tree Brown was only recorded in the Assessment Area (single observation of one individual), and Restricted Demon and Dark Evening Brown were observed in both the Study Area and the Assessment Area. All other ‘Uncommon’ species were recorded only in the Study Area, and, with the exception of Indian Palm Bob, all records involved single observations of one individual. Two individuals of Indian Palm Bob were recorded once in the plantation area within the Study Area.

10.4.49      Though considered ‘Uncommon’, Restricted Demon, Indian Palm Bob, Dark Evening Brown and Yellow Orange Tips are known to occur in most country parks and all, except Indian Palm Bob, prefer well wooded area such as forest, woodlands and shaded woodlands (Lo & Hui 2010), while Indian Palm Bob is noted to prefer urban areas (Lo & Hui 2010). The larval food plant for Plains Cupid is Cycas revoluta (HKLS 2010) which is commonly planted as an ornamental species in Hong Kong. Striped Blue Crow and Bamboo Tree Brown prefer forest areas (and bamboo groves for the latter) and are known to occur in several locations with mature secondary woodlands in Hong Kong.

Table 10.7: Butterfly species of conservation importance recorded in the Assessment Area

Species

Conservation Status

(Fellowes et al. 2002)

Status in Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2011)

Max. count

Area/ Habitats Recorded

Orange Awlet

Bibasis oedipodea

-

Very Rare

1 (Caterpillar)

Assessment Area (Secondary Woodland)

Indian Awl King

Choaspes benjaminii

Local Concern

Very Rare

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Banded Awl

Hasora chromus

-

Rare

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Swift sp.

-

[1]

[1]

1

Study Area (Plantation & Secondary Woodland)

Restricted Demon

Notocrypta curvifascia

-

Uncommon

1 (Study Area) and

1 (Assessment Area)

Study Area (Secondary Woodland) & Assessment Area (Secondary Woodland)

Common Dart

Potanthus pseudomaesa

Local Concern

Rare

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Indian Palm Bob

Suastus gremius

-

Uncommon

2

Study Area (Plantation)

Telicota sp.

-

[2]

[2]

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Hainan Palm Dart

Telicota besta

Local Concern

Very Rare

1

Study Area (Plantation)

White-banded Flat

Gerosis phisara

-

Rare

1

Study Area (Grassland/ Shrubland)

Plains Cupid

Chilades pandava

-

Uncommon

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Striped Blue Crow

Euploea mulciber

-

Uncommon

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Constable

Dichorragia nesimachus

Local Concern

Rare

2

Study Area (Secondary Woodland)

Bamboo Tree Brown

Lethe europa

-

Uncommon

1

Assessment Area (Secondary Woodland)

Dark Evening Brown

Melanitis phedima

-

Uncommon

3 (Study Area)

and

1 (Assessment Area)

Study Area (Plantation) & Assessment Area (Secondary Woodland)

Yellow Orange Tip

Ixias pyrene

-

Uncommon

1

Study Area (Plantation)

Notes:

[1]   Paintbrush Swift (Baoris farri), Colon Swift (Caltoris bromus) and Dark Swift (Caltoris cohira) are indistinguishable in field.  Paintbrush Swift and Dark Swift are 'Rare' species and Colon Swift is 'Very Rare in Hong Kong (Chan et al. 2011).

[2]   There are four species of Dart in the Genus Telicota in Hong Kong. Of which T. besta and T.colon are species of Local Concern (Fellowes et al. 2002). In Chan et al. (2011), T. ancilla is listed as 'Uncommon', T.colon and T. ohara are listed as 'Rare' and T. besta is listed as 'Very Rare'.

Stream fauna

Literature review

10.4.50      No data directly relevant to the Assessment Area could be found in the literature.

Field surveys

10.4.51      Surveys of aquatic invertebrates recorded nine taxa in the Study Area (see Appendix 10.7), including two crab species of conservation concern (see Table 10.8 and Figure 227724/E/6308).

10.4.52      The freshwater crab Cryptopotamon anacoluthon was recorded in the streams (watercourse section no. 8a) found within the young woodland to the north of Anderson Road and that to the south (watercourse section no. 8c) of Anderson Road in the Study Area. It is endemic to Hong Kong, of ‘Potential Global Concern’ (Fellowes et al. 2002) and listed as ‘Vulnerable’ in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2013). C. anacoluthon occurs in unpolluted, shaded and fast-flowing streams (IUCN 2013) and is fairly common and widespread in local unpolluted streams.

10.4.53      Another Freshwater Crab species Nanhaipotamon hongkongense was found in the stream (watercourse no. 3) in the Secondary Woodland in the northeast of the Assessment Area. This species is also endemic to Hong Kong (IUCN 2013) and of Potential Global Concern (Fellowes et al. 2002). It is usually found in Secondary Woodland and is a terrestrial crab species that lives in dry areas of the banks of the streams and is rarely found in water body (IUCN 2013).

Table 10.8: Stream fauna of conservation importance recorded in the Assessment Area.

Scientific Name

Conservation Status

(Fellowes et al. 2002)

IUCN Red list Status (IUCN 2013