Persistent Organic Pollutants



8. What are the POPs being controlled under the Stockholm Convention?

The Stockholm Convention initially targets 12 most toxic POPs identified by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), also known as the "Dirty Dozen". The 12 POPs include intentionally produced pesticides (aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and toxaphene) and industrial chemicals (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)), and unintentionally produced by-products of industrial and thermal processes, i.e., dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)) and furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)).

The Stockholm Convention was amended in 2009 and 2011 to list 10 new POPs in its Annexes.  These POPs can be placed in three categories:

  • Pesticides: chlordecone, α-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, pentachlorobenzen, technical endosulfan and its related isomers
  • Industrial chemicals: hexabromobiphenyl, hexabromodiphenyl ether and heptabromodiphenyl ether, pentachlorobenzene; and
  • Unwanted by-products of industrial processes: α-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorobenzene.


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User review date: 
Wednesday, 15 July, 2015