11        CULTURAL HERITAGE

11.1      Overview

This section presents the assessment of impacts on cultural heritage associated with the construction and operation of NDA. The assessment includes the background information of archaeological potentials, declared monument and built heritage within the assessment area, results of archaeological surveys, the level of potential impact and recommended mitigation measures.

One site of archaeological interest is identified in the Project.  For the built heritage, appropriate mitigation measures comprising a baseline condition survey and baseline vibration impact assessment to be conducted during pre-construction stage and cartographic and photographic records have been recommended to mitigate the impacts to acceptable level. 

The cultural heritage impact assessment has been conducted in accordance with the requirements of Annexes 10 and 19 of the TM-EIAO as well as the requirements set out under Clause 3.4.11 of the EIA Study Brief.

11.2      Environmental Legislation, Standard and Guidelines  

The following legislations and guidelines are applicable to the assessment of impacts on sites of cultural heritage in Hong Kong:

·         Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) (Cap. 499.S16), Technical Memorandum on the EIA Process, Annex 10 and 19 (EIAO TM) and Guidance Notes on Assessment of Impact on Sites of Cultural Heritage in EIA Studies;

·         Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap. 53);

·         Criteria for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) (Appendix C of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-176/2008);

·         Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines (HKPSG); and

·         Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance.

11.2.1     EIAO & EIAO TM

According to the EIAO, Schedule 1 Interpretation, “Sites of Cultural Heritage” are defined as:

“an antiquity or monument, whether being a place, building, site or structure or a relic, as defined in the AM Ordinance and any place, building, site, or structure or a relic identified by the Antiquities and Monuments Office to be of archaeological, historical or paleontological significance”.

The technical scope for evaluating and assessing cultural heritage impacts is defined in Annexes 10, 18 and 19 of the TM-EIAO.  The approach recommended by the guidelines can be summarized as follows.

·         The general presumption in favour of the protection and conservation of all sites of cultural heritage because they provide an essential, finite and irreplaceable link between the past and the future and are points of reference and identity for culture and tradition; and

·         Adverse impacts on sites of cultural heritage shall be kept to an absolute minimum.

A Guidance Notes on Assessment of Impact on Sites of Cultural Heritage in EIA Studies has been established and the Criteria for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment in Appendix C of the EIA Study Brief No. ESB-176/2008(EIA Study Brief)) is being followed.

11.2.2     Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance

The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance (Cap. 53) (AM Ordinance) provides statutory protection against the threat of development on declared monuments and sites of archaeological interest to enable their preservation for posterity.  The AM Ordinance also establishes the statutory procedures to be followed in making such a declaration.

A large range of potential sites of cultural heritage, among which are historic buildings and structures and sites of archaeological interest, have been identified and recorded by AMO in addition to those for which a declaration has been made under the AM Ordinance.   Part of the recorded historic buildings and structures are graded by the Antiquities Advisory Board (AAB) and the AMO according to the grading system summarised in Table 11.1.

Table 11.1 - Definition of grading of historic buildings

Grading

Description

1

Buildings of outstanding merit, which every effort should be made to preserve if possible

2

Buildings of special merit; effort should be made to selectively preserve

3

Buildings of some merit, preservation in some form would be desirable and alternative means could be considered if preservation is not practicable. 

 

Between 1996 and 2000, AMO conducted a territory-wide historic buildings survey (mainly built before 1950) in Hong Kong and recorded 8,800 buildings.  A more in-depth survey of 1,444 buildings (selected from the 8,800 buildings and included the existing graded historic buildings) with higher heritage value was conducted between 2002 and 2004 and an Expert Panel was formed in March 2005 to undertake an in-depth assessment of the heritage value of these buildings.  The assessment comprised two stages and was completed in February 2009.  Gradings of these buildings were proposed and put forward by AMO for consideration by AAB and the results were released to public on 19 March 2009 for a four months public comments period completed in July 2009.  The AAB is now in the process of finalizing the proposed gradings and assessing the new items.  The final gradings of these historic buildings up to 17 December 2012 are considered and reflected in this CHIA accordingly.

The AAB endorsed at its meeting on 26 November 2008 the establishment of a formal relationship between the statutory monument declaration system and the administrative grading system for historic buildings of AAB.

Under this endorsement arrangement, the Grade 1 buildings will be regarded as providing a pool of highly valuable heritage buildings for consideration by the Antiquities Authority as to whether some of these may have reached the “high threshold” of monuments to be put under statutory protection.  In case where the buildings are under demolition threat, the Antiquities Authority will provide immediate protection to the buildings through proposed monument declaration on case-by-case basis.

For Grade 2 and Grade 3 buildings, appropriate actions to preserve them will be undertaken so that the buildings should be preserved in such a way which is commensurate with the merits of the buildings concerned, and priority would be given to those with higher heritage value. 

Over the years, surveys have been undertaken to identify sites of archaeological interest in Hong Kong.  The AMO has established boundaries for the identified sites and maintains a list of Sites of Archaeological Interest.  A set of administrative procedures for the protection of these sites has been established by the AMO.  However, since many areas remain not surveyed yet, procedures and mechanisms are required to be followed to identify unknown archaeological resources that may be discovered during project assessment or construction and any archaeological field works involved should be conducted by professional archaeologist who should obtain a Licence to Excavate and Search for Antiquities to be granted by the Authority under the AM Ordinance.  

11.2.3     Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines

Chapter 10, Conservation, of the HKPSG provides general guidelines and measures for the conservation of historical buildings, sites of archaeological interest and other antiquities.

11.2.4     Criteria for Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment

The criteria as stated in Appendix C of the EIA Study Brief, details the CHIA which include a baseline study, field evaluation and impact assessment.

11.2.5     Land (Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 28)

Under this Ordinance, it is required that a permit be obtained for any excavation within government land prior to commencement of any excavation work commencing. 

11.3      Assessment Methodology

11.3.1     Assessment Area

In accordance with Section 3.4.12.2 of the EIA Study Brief, the Cultural Heritage Assessment Area (CHAA) shall be 100m expanded from the boundary of the NDAs and associated infrastructure works.  The CHAA is shown in Figure 11.1, with the boundary developed based on the RODP and the associated infrastructure works.


11.3.2     Methodology

The methodology adopted for the CHIA follows the Criteria for CHIA as stated in Appendix C of the EIA Study Brief and comprised the following tasks. 

11.3.2.1  Desk-top Study

A desk-top review was undertaken to compile a comprehensive inventory of sites of archaeological interest and historic buildings and structures, which included:

·         All sites of archaeological interest;

·         All pre-1950 buildings and structures;

·         Selected post-1950 buildings and structures of high architectural and historical significance and interest; and

·         Landscape features include sites of historical events or providing a significant historical record or a setting for buildings or monuments of architectural or archaeological importance, historic field patterns, tracks and fish ponds and cultural elements such as fung shui woodlands and clan grave.

Information was obtained from the Reference Library of the Hong Kong Heritage Discovery Centre, the Map Publications Centre of the Lands Department, reports for the Planning and Development Study on North East New Territories under Agreement No. CE64/96 (previous NENT Study), public and tertiary institutions libraries, the internet and consultation with the villagers and local informants. A full bibliography is provided in Section 11.8.

11.3.2.2  Built Heritage Survey

Built heritage surveys were conducted to identify the built heritage items within the CHAA.  Historical and architectural appraisals and photographic records of each identified historic building or structure and landscape features were undertaken. These are detailed in Section 11.4.4 and Appendices 11.1, 11.3 to 11.4.  Key plans showing the identified built heritage items and 1:1000 location plans of the identified built heritage items are shown in Appendix 11.2. 

Site Coding System

A site code was allocated with two/three-letter-prefix denotes to each identified built heritage items identified.   Table 11.2 presented the site codes adopted and Table 11.3 provides a full list of items identified.   A number (in some cases added with an alpha) was allocated to each of the identified built heritage items.

Table 11.2 - Site codes used for built heritage items

Site Code

Category

DM

Declared Monuments identified within the CHAA

G

Existing Graded Historic Buildings within the CHAA. The first number/alphabet behind G (i.e. 1, 2, 3 and N) represents their respective level of grading.

PG

Proposed Graded Historic Buildings within the CHAA. The first number/alphabet behind PG (i.e. 1, 2, 3 and N) represents their respective level of grading.

HKT

Historic Buildings and Structures identified within KTN NDA  and associated infrastructure works CHAA (KTN NDA CHAA)

HFL

Historic Buildings and Structures identified within FLN NDA and associated infrastructure works CHAA (FLN NDA CHAA)

KT

Landscape Features identified within KTN NDA CHAA

FL

Landscape Features identified within FLN NDA CHAA

Noted:  For historic buildings with both existing and proposed grading, they are classified as the category of Graded Historic Building in accordance with their current existing grading status. 

 

Table 11.3 - Built Heritage Items identified within the CHAA

Category 

 

Site Code

Total

KTN NDA CHAA

FLN NDA CHAA

 

Declared Monuments

DM01

DM02

2

Existing Graded Historic Buildings

 

 

 

   Grade 1

G102

G103

2

   Grade 2

G201, G202, G203

 

3

   Grade 3

G301, G302, G303, G308

G304,G305, G309

7

 

   Nil Grade

 

GN01, GN02

2

Proposed Graded Historic Buildings

 

 

 

  Grade 1

PG101

 

1

Historic Buildings and Structures

 

 

 

   Ancestral Hall

HKT01

 

1

   Community Hall

HKT20

 

1

   Residential House

HKT02, HKT03, HKT04, HKT08, HKT11, HKT12, HKT13, HKT14, HKT15, HKT16, HKT17, HKT18, HKT19, HKT21, HKT22, HKT26, HKT29, HKT37, HKT41, HKT42

HFL05, HFL06, HFL08

23

Landscape Features

 

 

 

Fung shui woodlands/trees

KT70, KT71

 

2

Sites of Cultural/ Historical Events

KT72, KT73, KT74, KT75

 

4

Grave

 

KT01, KT02, KT03, KT04, KT05, KT06, KT07, KT08, KT09, KT10, KT12, KT13, KT14  KT16, KT18, KT19, KT20, KT23, KT24, KT27, KT29, KT30, KT31, KT36, KT37, KT39, KT40, KT41, KT42, KT43, KT44, KT45, KT46, KT47, KT48, KT49, KT50, KT51, KT52, KT53, KT54, KT55, KT56, KT57, KT58, KT59, KT60, KT61, KT62, KT63, KT64, KT65, KT66, KT67, KT68, KT69

FL01, FL02, FL06, FL07, FL08, FL09, FL11, FL12, FL13, FL14, FL15, FL16, FL17, FL18, FL20, FL23, FL24, FL25, FL26, FL34,

FL35

77

Shrines

 

KT15, KT17, KT22, KT25, KT26 

FL05, FL21, FL36

8

Tablet/Plaque

 

FL19, FL22, FL27

3

Well

 

FL04

1

Arch/Entrance Gate

KT21

FL37

2

Kam Tap

 

KT38

FL10, FL28, FL29, FL31, FL32, FL33

7

Note: G101, G306, G307, HKT05, HKT06, HKT07, HKT09, HKT10 and HKT23 to HKT25, HKT27 to HKT28, HKT30 to HKT36, HKT38 to HKT40, HKT43 to HKT44,  KT11, HFL01 to 04, HFL07, FL03 and FL30 deleted.

 

11.3.2.3  Archaeological Survey

Extensive and phased archaeological surveys were conducted for the previous NENT Study.  However, as the RODP and the associated infrastructure works do not fully cover the same areas as the previous NENT Study, some areas therefore have not been surveyed.  Thus, archaeological survey is considered necessary to fill in information gap under this Project. 

An archaeological survey proposal that defined the archaeological survey scope, strategy and programme of field investigation was established and agreed with the AMO and the project proponent under this Project.  A professional archaeologist was appointed to conduct the archaeological survey in government land where access can be obtained during this EIA Stage of the Project.  Relevant licence and land access permit were obtained prior to commencement of the archaeological survey. 

Based on the North East New Territories New Development Areas Planning and Engineering Study - Archaeological Field Survey Final Report (hereafter refers as “AFS Report”), the archaeological survey comprised  field scanning of 70 hectares of area, a total of 39 auger holes and 35 test pits have been conducted in the CHAA.  The summary findings related to the CHAA are presented in Section 11.4.2.2 below and the full AFS Report is appended in Section 11 of the Final EIA Report as Appendix 11.5.

11.3.2.4  Impact Assessment & Recommendations of Mitigation Measures

Based on the findings as described in Sections 11.3.2.1 to 11.3.2.3, an impact assessment has been conducted to evaluate whether the construction and operation of the Project is acceptable from cultural heritage point of view and the evaluation is presented in Sections 11.6 and 11.7.  Preservation in totality is taken as the first priority and the assessment has taken into account the requirement as specified in Clause 3.4.12 of the EIA Study Brief and the Criteria for CHIA.   In case adverse impact on cultural heritage items cannot be avoided, appropriate mitigation measures have been recommended and presented in Section 11.8.

11.4      Description of Environment

11.4.1     Topography, Geology and Hydrology

11.4.1.1  Topography

KTN NDA is bounded by the Fanling Highway (New Territories Circular Road (NTCR)) to the south, Pak Shek Au and Tit Hang villages to the west and the Frontier Closed Area to the north. The majority of the NDA lies in a large valley and flood plain, particularly within the central and southern parts. Within the northern portion of the NDA the elevation of the topography rises as a series of east-west striking hills (such as Tai Shek Mo and Fung Kong Shan to the north, Tit Hang and Pak Shek Au to the northwest and Ki Lun Shan) with natural terrain catchments are encountered. A number of smaller valleys branch off through this high ground in a northeast to southwest orientation. The majority of the topographic features in this part of the northern New Territories are strongly structurally controlled and often fault related.

Within KTN NDA, the site is rural in character and it comprises villages and rural industrial uses (vehicle repair, construction materials storage site, etc.) which intermix with active and inactive agriculture, horticulture and fish farming. On both sides of River Beas (also known as Sheung Yue River), there are some fishery ponds with flat land used for agriculture. Some of the land areas have been filled up and used as open storage, breaker yards and residential purposes in recent years. This is especially so in the western part of the NDA.

FLN NDA is located immediately to the north of the developed areas of Fanling/ Sheung Shui. The specific area of the NDA is bounded to the south by Sha Tau Kok Road, Ma Sik Road, Tin Ping Road, Jockey Club Road, Po Wan Road and a section of the East Rail. The northern boundary of the site is bounded by hills of Ma Tau Leng and Wa Shan. The Upper River Indus (Ng Tung River) also meanders through the area from the southeast.

The general area lies in a large valley and flood plain feature extending from Shenzhen in the north to Tai Po at the head of Tolo Harbour towards the southeast. The site is bounded to the north and northeast by high ground and a number of small natural terrain catchments are present in these areas. Wa Shan towards the north of the area peaks at an elevation of about 140mPD. A number of smaller valleys branch off through the high ground in a northeast to southwest orientation.

11.4.1.2  Geology

·         KTN NDA

The general sequence of material encountered in the low-lying areas are likely to comprise alluvium and/ or colluvium (up to 8.5m thick) and weathered rock (up to 77.5m thick) overlying bedrock comprising coarse ash tuff, meta-tuff, various meta-sediments or graphite schist. Fill material (up to 4.5m) is likely to be encountered in developed areas. Within the northern part of the Study Area, where the topography is steeper, ground conditions are likely to comprise metamorphosed sedimentary deposits and their weathered products. Given the close presence of the San Tin fault, it is highly likely that these deposits contain foliations and relict fabrics with orientations similar to the fault.

·         FLN NDA

The subsurface material likely to be encountered in the low-lying area of FLN includes alluvium and/ or colluvium (up to 8.5m thick), which overlie weathered rock (up to 40m thick) and bedrock. Meta-sediments may be encountered at the northwest boundary of the site, where the San Tin thrust fault passes through the site. Similar metamorphic features to those affecting the sedimentary and volcanic rocks within the KTN NDA are likely to be encountered in this area. Other localized fault features may be present within the Study Area, but these are largely currently masked by the presence of the extensive alluvial deposits. Fill material will also be encountered locally within developed areas.

11.4.1.3  Solid Geology

The solid geology of KTN NDA mainly consists of two types of bedrock: the upland sedimentary in the north and volcanic bedrock in the west. The metamorphosed sandstone with graphite schist and phyllite in upland terrain in Ho Sheung Heung, Fung Kong, Pak Shek Au and Shek Tsai Leng, and metamorphosed sandstone with metaconglomerate and phyllite in the upland terrain of Ma Tso Lung valley.  Pak Shek Au is the bedrock of Lapilli lithic-bearing coarse ash crystal tuff (see Figure 11.2).

The bedrock of FLN NDA consists of Lapilli lithic-bearing coarse ash crystal tuff (see Figure 11.2).

11.4.1.4  Superficial Geology

The solid geology is usually covered with layers of sediments from weathering at upland terrain, hill slope and lowland area.  These deposits are known as the colluvial and alluvial of Late Pleistocene and Holocene.  These deposits were one of the direct factors that affect ancient people in choosing their places for settlement.  Colluvium, alluvium and fluvial deposit areas are usually favourable to them and therefore, these deposits are considered to have higher archaeological potential.

Ancient people usually inhabited on the foothill and terrace and close to watercourse, and therefore, these areas are of archaeological potential.  At the hill slope area, the superficial deposit is the Late Pleistocene colluvial deposit (see Qpd (Quaternary Pleistocene debris) in Figure 11.2).  Further down slope is the Late Pleistocene terraced alluvium (raised terraces) (see Qpa (Quaternary Pleistocene alluvium) in Figure 11.2).  At the lowland plain area (usually 1.5 m to 2.5 m lower than alluvial terraces), the superficial deposit is the alluvium flood plain deposit. (see Qa (Quaternary alluvium) in Figure 11.2).

11.4.1.5  Hydrology

Streams from the hills near the NDAs are joined together and formed major rivers.  The Sheung Yue River, Ng Tung River, Shek Sheung River in KTN NDA and Ma Wat River and Ng Tung River in FLN NDA are the major rivers in the NDAs running from south to north joining the Shenzhen River.  These rivers not only provide water supply to ancient people of the area but also the water transportation to them.

The coastline 6,000 years BP (before present,1950) and 3,000 to 2,500 years BP reached eastern part of the KTN, west FLN NDA, north and south side of Shenzhen River, Ma Tso Lung Valley, west of Sheung Shui floodplain and Long Valley was inlet at that time (Fyfe and others 2000).

By studying the changes of rivers, wet lands, swamps and shorelines which have taken place, the forces that affect the local environment and population can be established.  The study of sediment profile is a record of these changes caused by water movement.  Such information could be found from soil stratigraphy of auger holes and test pits.  This information can be interpreted to reconstruct the landscape, coastline changes and fluvial deposits in different areas and establish where the dry land was so as to determine the possible settlement location and catchment areas for food and raw materials.

11.4.1.6  Summary

Based on the above findings, it is noted that there are a number of factors that may affect the ancient people inhibited in the CHAA.  These factors included sea level changes and colluvium, alluvium and fluvial deposit.  They are further elaborated below.

·         Sea level change: the last glaciation commenced about 25,000 years ago, low sea level reaching a maximum of about 17,000 BP (before present ,1950) to 18,000 years BP, sea level was falling around -120 mPD or -130mPD.  Post glacial climatic amelioration resulted in a sea level rise, a post glacial sea level reaching + 1 m to +3 m above present level at about 7,000 to 6,000 years BP, and a minor regression occur about 4,500 years ago.  During 7,000 to 6,000 years BP (as Middle Neolithic Age in local) and 3,000 to 2,500 years BP (as Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in local), the coastal line reached the inland area within the NDAs, including Long Valley, Ma Tso Lung Valley and western part of Sheung Shui flood plain.  These areas became shallow bays where ancient people might have lived along the ancient coastal line on hill slope.  Later in 4,000 years BP to 3,000 years BP (as Bronze Age in local), sea level fell to present coastline.  Where sea level has fallen, the former inlet became watercourse channel covered by fluvial or alluvial deposit, which is marked in the 1:20,000 geological maps as Qa (see Figure 11.2).

·         Colluvium, alluvium and fluvial sediment: two Quaternary geological formation affected ancient people inhabitation, the Chek Lap Kok (CLK) Formation and Fanling (FL) Formation.  CLK Formation is the oldest Quaternary colluvial and alluvial sediment found in most offshore area of Hong Kong and the age of CLK Formation are considered to be dated to Middle to Late Pleistocene, while much of the formation is considered to be older than 40,000 years ago (Fyfe, Shaw and others 2000).  The CLK Formation alluvial deposit consists of fine to coarse sand, coarse sand always with gravel, silt and black mud (clay) which were usually found to be associated with flood plain, especially along old river meandering channels.  CLK Formation alluvium reflected the deposit environment as ephemeral lakes, oxbow lakes and river channel in flood plain.  FL Formation deposit consists of colluvium and alluvium which dated to Holocene (12,000 years ago to present).  FL Formation colluvium occurs in steeply sloping ground, it is the result of mass washing from hills during heavy or stormy rain.  Alluvial and fluvial components of the FL Formation mainly occur in low-lying areas.  The deposit environment is considered as temporary seasonal lakes or abandonment of river channel during warm and rain period, which resulted in the accumulation of organic-rich clays.  The dating of FL Formation is between 1,400*200years BP to 2,200*300 years BP (late Warring State period / early Iron Age to Tang Dynasty period) (Fyfe, Shaw and others 2000).  CLK Formation colluvium is marked as Qpd, alluvium is marked as Qpa, FL Formation alluvial or fluvial deposit is marked as Qa in 1:20,000 geological maps.  Compared with Shenzhen geological studies, FL Formation shall be divided into two Formations, Chiwan Formation and Shajing Formation.  The former consists of dark grey mud or silty mud and the later consists of grey silty soil or silty clay.  The dating of such two formations is between 640 to 7,080 years BP (Guangzhou Geography Institute 1983).  Therefore, the dating of FL Formation is probably around 700 to 7000 years BP.

Based on the above analysis, the stratigraphy sequence of Quaternary superficial deposits of KTN and FLN NDAs from upper layer to lower layer is FL Formation →CLK Formation →weathering bed rock →solid bed rock.   

11.4.2     Archaeological Background

11.4.2.1  Sites of Archaeological Interest

Desktop review identified one Site of Archaeological Interest listed by the AMO within/near the CHAA as presented in Table 11.4 and its location is shown in Figure 11.1.


Table 11.4 - Sites of Archaeological Interest within the CHAA

Site Code

Sites of Archaeological Interest

Location

Description 

A1

Sheung Shui Wa Shan Site of Archaeological Interest

FLN NDA

Field investigation yielded prehistoric pottery shards with double-F and hard geometric patterns in 1977 (Loverlace 1978).  In-situ archaeological deposits were not recorded by the first and second territory-wide surveys.  Geometric hard pottery shards and ceramics of Song and Ming Dynasties were collected in close vicinity of the site in the year 2000 and confirmed that the site boundary does not reach the river channalised area (AMO 2000).  A late Neolithic to Bronze Age net pattern hard geometric pottery shard was recently identified from field scanning from the archaeological survey conducted for this EIA

Site 11 in Table 11.8 is located in this Site of Archaeological Interest.

11.4.2.2  Previous Archaeological Discovery

In order to fill in information gap about the existence of archaeological resources of NENT, numerous archaeological studies were conducted in and near the CHAA in the past.  Table 11.5 summarizes the archaeological studies.

In 2000 to 2001, extensive and phrased archaeological survey was conducted for the NENT Study.  The total numbers of auger holes and test pits conducted in 2000-2001 NENT Study for each NDA are listed in Table 11.6.  For ease of reference, the locations of auger holes and test pits conducted within CHAA for the NENT Study in 2000 to 2001, and those conducted within CHAA for this Study in 2010 are all presented in Figures 11.3.

Based on the two Studies, 20 locations with archaeological interest have been identified.  Their locations are presented in Figure 11.4.  Key plan showing the identified locations with archaeological interest and zoom-in location plans of those locations are shown in Appendix 11.6.  The findings in each of the location are summarized in Tables 11.7 to 11.8. 

Table 11.5 - Summary of past archaeological discoveries in and near the CHAA

Fieldwork Year

Summary of Archaeological Works Conducted and Summary of Discovery

1920s to early 1930s 

Prof. S.G. Davis mentioned that Dr. C.M. Heanly discovered celts in Sheung Shui and Fanling.  However, the exact location of the artefacts was not clearly indicated (Davis 1961).

1978

Four test pits were conducted by the Antiquities and Monuments Section in association with Mr. Lovelace after the discovery of the site of Sheung Shui Wa Shan in 1977. Some late prehistoric pottery sherds were found and collected in both test-pitting and on the surface.  A historic burial was also found in the survey. No stone artefacts were found.

The result suggests that the finds are not in situ and indicates limited human activities of the site.

Between 1984 to 1986

A territory wide archaeological survey was conducted by AMO in Hong Kong.  No sites of archaeological interest identified in relation to the CHAA.

Between 1997 and 1998

Another territory wide archaeological survey conducted.  The Shenzhen Museum was assigned to assess the area at the region (Shenzhen Museum 1998).  No sites of archaeological interest identified in relation to the CHAA.

1999 and 2001

Ceramic shards of Late Ming and Qing Dynasties were discovered at Lung Yeuk Tau by field investigations in 1999 and 2001 due to a proposed drainage work. It was regarded as Lung Yeuk Tau Archaeological Site.    However, during the course of this Study, this archaeological site was removed from AMO’s list of site of archeological interest.

And during the fieldwork of the previous NENT Study from 2000 to 2001, only a few Qing dynasty re-deposited artefacts were identified in test-pitting.  The significance of the part of the former Lung Yeuk Tau Archaeological Site is very low.

2000

An archaeological survey was conducted in the Sheung Shui Wa Shan Site of Archaeological Interest in 2000. 25 auger holes and 7 test pits were conducted. Some prehistoric potsherds were collected from the field scan. Only some pottery sherds dated to Ming-Qing Dynasty period and a few dated to the Song Dynasty were found in the test-pitting.

The survey result suggests that the site is suitable for human activities and   there were human activities in the site since the late prehistoric period. Yet cultural deposits may not be well preserved as the result of soil erosion and re-channelling activities of the river.

2000

Some drainage improvement works were conducted in the region where archaeological surveys were conducted.  No significant discovery had been reported.

2000-2001

Extensive and phased archaeological investigations were conducted during the previous NENT Study from October to November 2000 and June to August 2001 respectively.  Table 11.6 below listed out the quantity of auger holes and test pits conducted within CHAA and their locations are shown in Figure 11.3.

2001

Five test pits and 87 auger holes were conducted under the EIA Study for the Sheung Shui to Lok Ma Chau Spur Line (Binnie Black & Veatch 2001) in which 3 test pits and 34 auger holes were undertaken at Yin Kong, Ho Sheung Heung, part of Pak Shek Au and area to the south of Ho Sheung Heung.

A fragment of Song dynasty bowl was identified at the area to the south of Ho Sheung Heung but there is a lack of other associated diagnostic Song dynasty material or related features.  This suggested that the material does not represent an in situ deposit.

2002

An archaeological survey was conducted near Kam Tsin Village near the Fanling Highway in 2002 by AMO. One test pit and two auger holes were conducted.  No cultural layer was identified and the survey result suggests that although the surveyed area is suitable for human settlement, there were no archaeological deposits.

2003

An archaeological survey was conducted in the alluvial plain north of Dill’s Corner in Kwu Tung as Area 1-3 of the Kwu Tung Station Box Site and in an alluvial plain approximately 200m southeast of Ho Sheung Heung village and directly to the west of the Beas River as the EAP Shaft Site. A total of 13 test pits and 50 auger holes were conducted. No archaeological materials and cultural deposits were found Kwu Tung Station Box Site and only some isolated finds dated to late Qing period were found in the EAP Shaft Site.

The results indicate there is no archaeological potential in the survey areas.

2003

An archaeological survey was conducted by Archaeo-Environments Ltd. In a number of places in the Northern New Territories under a drainage improvement works projects. A total of 15 test pits and 164 auger holes were conducted.

The survey results suggest that the areas near the former shallow sea near San Tin have been blanketed by alluvium in the past 500 years, in which the existence of primary archaeological deposits is unlikely.

Early historic period kiln and potsherds were collected from field scan at Ma Tso Lung. Although the deposits were under disturbance, the result suggests lime production and a more diverse activity in the early historic period. However, the broad scale paddy field to fish pond conversion in the Northern New Territories in the past 40 years has caused disturbance to the archaeological deposits in particular those dated to the early historic period.

2004

An archaeological survey was conducted near Ho Sheung Heung by Mott Connell Ltd. under a CHIA studies. One test pit and 12 auger holes were conducted. No archaeological materials were found. And the result further supports the 2003 survey conducted by Archaeo-Environments Ltd. that the existence of primary archaeological deposits near the former shallow sea near San Tin is unlikely.

2010

An archaeological survey within government land has been conducted under this EIA Study for the Project.  Field scanning, a total of 39 auger holes and 35 test pits have been conducted in the CHAA.  The auger holes and test pits locations are shown in Figure 11.3.  The full AFS Report is appended in Section 11 of the Final EIA Report as Appendix 11.5.

2011

An Archaeological Impact Assessment has been conducted at Yin Kong, Sheung Shui in 2011. Field scanning, a total of 22 auger holes and 10 test pits have been conducted. The site boundary of the fieldwork is shown in Figure 11.3. The result of the survey suggested that the artefacts dated to Song dynasty in Site 4 the 2001 survey were considered isolated findings as the site has been disturbed by modern construction of Enchi Lodge. Hence the archaeological potential area identified in the 2001 survey which covers Site 4 is considered insignificant.

 

Table 11.6 – Numbers of auger holes and test pits conducted within CHAA in 2000-2001 NENT Study

NDAs

Auger Holes

Test Pits (size ranging from 1m x 1 m to 3 m x 2 m)

KTN

149

53

FLN (including the proposed Fanling Bypass)

100

17

Total

249

70

 


Table 11.7 - Locations with archaeological potential within the KTN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Description

Site 1

Fung Kong Hillslope

Identified in 2000-2001:

Finds dated to late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age were found in surface collection; finds dated to Tang Dynasty, Song Dynasty and Qing Dynasty were unearthed from cultural layers.  Finds included net pattern pot shards, celadon fragment, burial urn fragment, blue-and-white porcelain fragment, roof tiles fragment.  The site covers approximately 62m x 125m.  The site has been partially disturbed due to previous developments.

Site 2

Fung Kong Valley

Identified in 2000-2001:

Finds dated early Iron age, Song Dynasty and Qing Dynasty were unearthed; finds included union jack pattern pot fragment, celadon fragment, blue-and-white porcelain fragment covering approximately 12m x 35 m.  Unstable cultural layer was identified.

Site 3

Sin Wai Nunnery, Ho Sheung Heung

Identified in 2000-2001:

Dated to late Bronze Age, Iron Age, Song and late Ming dynasties, finds included a Double-F pattern shard, union jack pattern pot fragment, green glaze bowls, grey and buff roof tiles, blue-and-white porcelain fragment.  Two stable cultural layers were identified which implies Song, late Ming to early Qing dynasties settlement may exist nearby. A Double F shard and union jack pattern pot shards indicated the ancient Yue people inhabited this area 3,500 to 2,500 years ago.

Identified in 2010:

Archaeological materials dated to Song dynasty and Ming to Qing dynasties were collected on the surface.  Cultural layers of Southern Song and Ming Dynasties were identified.  An area with archaeological potential is identified (see Figure IAAP-1 in Appendix 11.5), which is mostly overlapping with the Site 3 identified in 2000-2001.  Details of findings are presented in Appendix 11.5.

Site 4

Enchi Lodge, Yin Kong

Identified in 2000-2001:

Dated to Song and Qing Dynasty, finds included green glaze stoneware fragment, celadon bowl base, buff roof tiles fragment, blue-and-white porcelain fragment.  Song and Qing pottery shards are mixed together in a layer in both test-pits. However, with reference to an archaeological survey in conducted in 2011, it is considered that Site 4 has been disturbed by the modern construction of Enchi Lodge and the Song artefacts found in the 2003 NDA EIA Report are considered isolated findings.

Spot A

Shek Tsai Ling, Kwu Tung

Identified in 2000-2001:

Two Song Dynasty celadon bowls fragments were collected on ground surface.  The spot is now an orchid area and next to the former Dill Corner Camp.  Part of the area may have been levelled for construction of the Dill Corner Camp.

Spot B

Ma Tso Lung

Identified in 2000-2001:

Two Song Dynasty celadon bowls fragments were collected on ground surface.  No cultural layer was identified.

Spots C and I

Fung Kong

Identified in 2000-2001:

Objects included Song Dynasty and Qing Dynasty celadon fragment and blue-and-white porcelain.  Although only low density of surface collection of Song Dynasty pottery shards were identified, Spots C and I are closest to Site 2, the findings in Site 2 should also be considered.  Thus, the archaeological potential of these two Spots are high.

Spots D to H

Fung Kong

Identified in 2000-2001:

Intensive augering results indicate, seasonal lakes, swamp, river channel or wet land existed in the area between 15,000 to 1,500 years ago, the low land of the Kwu Tung area is considered not suitable for human inhabitation, which suggested low archaeological potential.

Noted:  Sites refer to areas with cultural layer(s). Spots refer to location identified with artefacts but without cultural layer.

 

Table 11.8 - Locations with archaeological potential within the FLN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Description

Site 5

Fu Tei Au East

Identified in 2000-2001:

Three Qing Dynasty building structure units were found.  Other finds included blue-and-white porcelain fragment, ink stone, bricks, roof tiles, square stone, pot fragment, and a stoneware pipe.  The features are in fairly good condition.

Identified in 2010:

Celadon bowl fragments and large areas (approximately 38m x 15m) of surface with shards of blue-and-white porcelain were identified.  The identified area with archaeological potential  is located within the boundary of Site 5 (see Figure IAAP-3 in Appendix 11.5 for the area)

Site 6

Tin Ping Tsuen

Identified in 2000-2001:

Qing Dynasty cultivation drainage pattern were found in test pits and auger holes findings supplement further information to identify the horizontal extent and a few Qing Dynasty pottery shards scattered in the ground.

Site 7

Shek Wu San Tsuen

Identified in 2000-2001:

Qing Dynasty cultivation drainage pattern were found in test pits and auger holes findings supplement further information to identify the horizontal extent and a few Qing Dynasty pottery shards scattered in the ground.

Site 8

Wu Nga Lok Yeung

Identified in 2000-2001:

Qing Dynasty cultivation drainage pattern were found in test pits and auger holes findings supplement further information to identify the horizontal extent and a few Qing Dynasty pottery shards scattered in the ground.

Site 9

Fu Tei Au West

Identified in 2010:

During surface scan, tiles and bowl base fragments were discovered.  No stable cultural layers were identified in the auger holes and test pits survey. An exposed slope profile revealed a layer of tiles with shards of blue-and-white porcelain and celadon.  Celadon collected can probably date to Song to Yuan Dynasties.  See Figure IAAP-2 in Appendix 11.5 for the site boundary.

Site 10

Hung Kiu San Tsuen

Identified in 2010:

Blue-and-white porcelain shards which could be date to Ming to Qing Dynasties were unearthed. Some white wares as well as some pottery vessel bases and jar shards and shattered bricks and tiles were also found. Thus, an area of archaeological potential is identified (see Figure IAAP-4 for in Appendix 11.5 for the site boundary).

Site 11

Sheung Shui Wa Shan Public School

Identified in 2010:

A square-geometric pottery shard was found during surface scan.  It could be dated to Late Neolithic to Bronze Age.  The Site 11 (see Figure IAAP-5 in Appendix 11.5 for Site 11 boundary) itself is located within the Sheung Shui Wa Shan Site of Archaeological Interest.

 

11.4.3     Historical Background

11.4.3.1  General History

Clues of human occupation to the Study Area can be found in historic textual records such as Shiji (史記) and Hanshu (漢書) written in the first to second century A.D.. These records describe that Yue () ethnic groups (also called “Hundreds of Yue” (百越)) scattered around in south China. Such ethnic groups are comprised by different tribes bearing various surnames and can be differentiated from the Han ethnic group who lived in central China in terms of physical characteristics, language, and folklore. It was until south China became an administration territory of China’s central government in 221 BC (Qin dynasty),the Yue people was gradually assimilated by the Han culture.  During Qin period (221-206 BC), the Study Area was subordinated to Panyu (番禺) County.

In 208 BC, Nan Yue (Southern Yue) State was established in Canton, by military officials sent from the Qin (221 - 206 BC) Court to conquer Yue in the south. Following the collapse of Qin’s political power in the north it began Han dynasty (206 BC - AD 220). Nan Yue State soon became a vassal state of Han. During Han to Eastern Jin dynasties (206BC – AD331), the Study Area was subordinated to Bolaw (博羅) County1. From AD331 to AD756, the Study Area was subordinated to Baoan (寶安) County After AD757, the Study Area was subordinated to Dongguan(東莞) County. And later between 1573 and 1912, the Study Area was subordinated to Xin’an (新安) County, and then Xin’an renamed as Baoan County.

Tolo Harbour was the main pearl harvesting centre since the 8th century.  During the 9th century, Hong Kong was already a major salt production centre.  Since the 9th century, the salt production fields were distributed all around Hong Kong and the west bank of Pearl River.  The northern New Territories area became favourable settlement area.  During Southern Song dynasty (南宋) (AD 1127-1279), Hong Kong as one of the famous thirteen salt production centre of China, it is believed that many salt workers’ settlements established since then and the inland was also settled by people working for cultivation which provide food supply to the local.  Historic textual records such as Yudi Jisheng (輿地紀勝) and Songhuiyao Jilu (宋會要輯錄) describe smuggling related to salt production.  According to oral history and local genealogical records, a big wave of immigrants from mainland China migrates to the north New Territories area since the southern Song Dynasty when Mongol was conquering China. The study of local genealogy indicated that five major clan groups, the Pangs, the Lius, the Haus, the Mans and the Tangs, were believed to be the first settlers in the northern New Territories since the southern Song Dynasty.

During the Yuan Dynasty () (AD1271 - 1368), permanent settlements were found in the New Territories including the Tang clan in Lung Yeuk Tau and Ping Shan, Liu clan in Tuen Mun, Cheung Muk Tau and Sheung Shui, the Tao clan in Tuen Mun, the Hau clan in Ho Sheung Heung and the Man clan in Tai Po and San Tin etc. The inhabitation history for areas within the CHAA can be traced back to AD 13th century (South Song Dynasty to Yuen Dynasty) when Pangs clan, Haus clan and Lius clan moved in or closed to CHAA from other place. Pangs clan inhabited in Fanling, Haus clan inhabited in west and south of Long Valley, Liu clan inhabited in Sheung Shui plain.

During 15th century, the coastal areas of Dongguan County were attacked by marauding bandits and pirates.  In order to protect against the bandits and pirates, Xin’an County was set up in 1573.  According to the record of the Xin’an Gazetteer ( ), the current whole area of the New Territory, Kowloon and Hong Kong was zoned within the Xin’an County, which covered 2/5 of the County.  In 1586 and 1643 two editions of the Xin’an Gazetteer were published but both of them were lost. 

Few clan genealogical records (such as Lius, Pangs and Haus) could be traced back to 13th century and there was a lack of detail official records of the CHAA before 1688.

In 1661, the Coastal Evacuation was promulgated by the Qing Dynasty () Emperor in order to stifle the supply of the Anti-Manchu troops in Taiwan, people living along the coast of Guangdong were moved 50 li () inland.  The New Territories settlers were forced to move back to China.  Until 1669, Boundary Extension was promulgated and the New Territories settlers moved back to their villages. 

The population and economy of Xin’an County was strongly affected by the Coastal Evacuation.  In 1594, the population of Xin’an County were 13,302 people, but it dropped to 3,912 people in 1677.  When the Boundary Extension was promulgated, newcomers in particular the Hakka (客家) people were encouraged to immigrate to the New Territories in late 17th to early 18th century.

Following Qing’s failure in the First and the Second Opium Wars to Britain, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutter's Island were successively ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom under the Treaty of Nanking (南京條約) (1842) and the Convention of Peking (北京條約) (1860). In 1898, under the terms of the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (展拓香港界址專條), Britain obtained the New Territories.

There is not much historical record to understand the village history within the CHAA.  However, the study of the genealogy of clan groups indicated that settlements in the CHAA existed since the Song Dynasty.  The New Territories was occupied by five main clan groups, the Tang, Man, Liu, Hau and Pang since the Song Dynasty.  According to the genealogical record, the clan groups settled in relation to the CHAA are listed below.

·         Tang clan were first settled in Kam Tin (4th generation) in 1069 and one of the sons of the 9th generation settled in Lung Yeuk Tau (east of FLN NDA) since late Yuan Dynasty.

·         Liu clan were first settled in Tuen Mun during late Yuan Dynasty and later settled in Sheung Shui and branch out to Ping Kong and near Sheung Yue River and Ng Tung River.  In Ming Dynasty the 7th generation settled in Ng Tung River area and at Sheung Shui Heung.

·         Hau clan settled at Sheung Shui area since South Song Dynasty and the 5th generation settled in Ho Sheung Heung during the late Yuan Dynasty to early Ming Dynasty (late 14th century).  Before Hau clan settled in Ho Sheung Heung, there were five clans inhabited in the same area. During the early Qing Dynasty (18th century), the Hau clan branched out and settled in Kam Tsin, Yin Kong and Fung Kong.

·         Pang clan, first settled in Lung Shan hill slope, east most of Fanling floodplain.   The clans’ 5th generation settled along Ma Wat River during late Ming Dynasty (late 16th century to early 17th century).

Other clans that have been recorded to be located around the CHAA included the Wan clan settled in Lung Yeuk Tau during Ming dynasty, the Liu clan settled in Ping Kong during mid Ming dynasty and the Tang clan in Sheung Shui Wa Shan during mid Qing Dynasty.

The CHAA is now covered by the North District administrative region.  The earliest record on local villages within the CHAA is the Xin’an Gazetteer 1688 edition and the villages recorded within or in close proximity to the CHAA at that time comprised:

·         Heshang Xiang (Ho Sheung Heung in KTN NDA);

·         Longyue Tou (Lung Yeuk Tau to the east of FLN NDA).

In a later edition, 1819 edition, of the Xin’an Gazetteer, the number of villages relevant to the CHAA was increased to five including:

·         Heshang Xiang (Ho Sheung Heung at KTN NDA);

·         Gudong Cun (Kwu Tung Tsuen at KTN NDA);

·         Yangang Cun (Yin Kong Village at KTN NDA); and

·         Longyue Tou (Lung Yeuk Tau to the east of FLN NDA).

“According to the records of the Xin’an Gazetteer in the 24th year of the Reign of Jiaquing (A.D. 1820) and the Lockhart’s Report (1898), the New Territories was primarily an agricultural district.  Village life evolved around two crops of rice a year….  In the past, the community was largely an agricultural one with the raising of animals a thriving trade in cattle, pigs and poultry (mainly chickens, geese and ducks)” (North District Board, 1994). 

Many of the villages were walled to keep out the many bandits and pirates who plagued the area.  Whether walled or not the common pattern of settlement was tightly packed group of terraced houses and the outbuildings surrounded by the fields.

11.4.3.2  History of KTN NDA CHAA

As presented in previous archaeological findings, the history in the area of the KTN NDA dates back to Bronze Age.  Although it is noted that five clans had been inhabited in the Ho Sheung Heung area before the Hau clan, little record on those clans is available. 

Haus were descendants of Chun Man Hau (晉緡侯) with origin in Shanggujun (上谷郡). The Hau’s family moved southward during the Song dynasty and their descendants proliferated to six major family branches, namely at Nanhai (南海) county and Panyu (番禺) county in Guangzhou, Enping (恩平) county and Xinxing (新興) county in Zhaoqian (肇慶) and Jiayingzhou (嘉應州).

Haus in Ho Sheung Heung belonged to the one in Panyu/ Cantonese and their ancestor named Hau Ng-long (侯五郎) (1023-1086) migrated to Xin’an county in the Song dynasty. However, it was until the 11th generation ancestor of Haus, Hau Cheuk-fung (侯卓峰), the family estate was establish in Ho Sheung Heung in the early Ming period. Hau Cheukfung then (侯卓峰) became the founding ancestor in Ho Sheung Heung (Web Source AMO 1).

The Hau clan settled at the Ho Sheung Heung region since the late Yuan dynasty to early Ming dynasty (late 14th century) There are four villages in Ho Sheung Heung namely Nam Bin Wai (南邊圍), Pak Bin Wai (北邊圍), Chung Sum Tsuen (中心村) and Chung Wai Tsuen (松圍村) (San Tsuen) (Web Source AMO 1). This settlement was recorded in both the 1688 and 1819 Xin’an Gazetteer.  During the early Qing dynasty (18th century), they branched out and settled in Kam Tsin, Yin Kong and Fung Kong.

Further two villages were recorded under the 1819 Xin’an Gazetteer, they are Yin Kong village and Kwu Tung village.  Yin Kong village was branched out from Hau clan of Ho Sheung Heung, but little record on Kwu Tung village is available.  However, it is noted that according to the map of the San-On District 1866[1] and the 1905-1904 War Office Map,[2] the original Kwu Tung village was marked to the southwest of Yin Kong village and to the east/west of Kam Tsin [3]  outside KTN NDA.  It is no doubt that Kwu Tung is an established village prior to British colonised the New Territory in 1898.  However, the original location is in doubt.   The existing Kwu Tung village only stabled for decades according to the information from village representative of Kwu Tung.

According to the information from the village representative of Kwu Tung, the existing Kwu Tung village comprises the following districts: Fung Kong Tsuen, Luen Wo, Tung Fong, Shek Tsai Leng, Tong Kok, Luen Sang, Yin Lin, Tin Su and Kwu Tung Hang.  All of these districts, except Tin Su and Kwu Tung Hang, fall within the KTN NDA.  The village is a mixed surname village occupied by about 10 clan groups, including the Chan, Yiu, Cheung, Chung, Chow, Tseung, Man and Hau etc.  Some of them came from the clan groups in Ho Sheung Heung and San Tin, most of them immigrated to Hong Kong since the post war period.  As Kwu Tung village is a mixed surname village, there is no common ancestral hall at the area.  Only one Chan ancestral hall (now ruined and in poor condition) is found in Kwu Tung.  There is a common earth shrine, Tai Pak Kung, worshipped by the Kwu Tung villagers, which is located some 50 m to the south Castle Peak Road outside the KTN NDA. 

Apart from these villages there are no other established villages in the area but only some scattered village houses.  Most of the areas in Kwu Tung were dominated by paddy fields during the early 20th centuries.  However, the fields were progressively converted to cultivation fields for fruit and vegetables in the 1960-70s.  It is also noted that both sides of the San Tin Road (the existing Castle Peak Road before in was widened) were occupied by orchid garden and farm houses and the Ho Tung Yuen to the south of San Tin Road as shown in the 1960s old maps.  

Western elements were also one of the distinct characteristic of this area.  In the turn of the century (late 19th century to early 20th century), Ho Tung, bought the land in this area and made it as a farm for the family to go for weekends or outings.  It was known as the Tung Ying Hok Po where a building complex with some characteristics of Chinese farm buildings.  There was a wide circular driveway leading from the main road to the farm compound, with a round lotus pond in the centre.  The building complex comprises two buildings inside a rectangular compound, joined at either end by a wall, with a courtyard in the centre.  Peanuts, piggery, fish, li-chee, rice, fruit trees, sugar cane, tobacco, tea, silkworms had been grown in the farm and experts in growing silkworm from Shunde County in China had been employed by Ho Tung (Cheng c.1980).  However, according to the information from the local informants from Kwu Tung area and old maps of the area, the farm and the Ho Tung building were demolished when the San Tin Road was widened to form the existing Castle Peak Road in the 1970s.  The remaining buildings in relation to Ho Tung include the Lady Ho Tong (Dispensary) (south of Castle Peak Road outside the CHAA) and a recently demolished building near Yin Kong is the trace of the local history.

After the New Territories was colonized by British in 1898 and the improvement of transportation, such as the construction of Tai Po Road, Castle Peak Road and British section of Kowloon-Canton Railway, attracted wealthy merchants such as Ho Kai, Ho Tung and other merchants to purchase land for sales in the New Territories, in particular along major roads.  Some of these merchants were strongly affected by western concept, which can be reflected by the building style (colonial style) of some buildings located by the Castle Peak Road in KTN NDA. 

11.4.3.3  History of FLN NDA CHAA

FLN NDA is mostly located at the lowland floodplain along River Indus (Ng Tung River), mainly occupied by agricultural fields.  The area is dominated by the Liu clan who first settled in Tuen Mun during late Yuan Dynasty.  In Ming Dynasty, the 7th generation settled in Ng Tung River area and Sheung Shui Heung located south of the FLN NDA.  No villages dated prior to 1950s are situated within the Study Area.

11.4.4     Built Heritage Items

Desk-top review supplemented by field surveys identified a total of two Declared Monuments, two Grade 1 historic building, three Grade 2 historic buildings, seven Grade 3 historic buildings, two Nil Grade historic building, one proposed Grade 1 historic building, 25 historic buildings and structures and 104 landscape features within the CHAA.   Their locations are presented in Figures 11.1, 11.5 to11.7. Figure 11.1 presents the locations of the cultural heritage resources listed by AMO within the CHAA and Figures 11.5 to 11.7 present the locations of the historic buildings and structures landscape features within the CHAA. Details are further discussed below.

11.4.4.1  KTN NDA CHAA

There are one Declared Monument, one Grade 1, three Grade 2, four Grade 3, one proposed Grade 1 historic buildings, 22 historic buildings and structures and 69 landscape features identified within the KTN NDA CHAA.  They are summarized in Table 11.9 below and detailed in Tables 11.10 to 11.12 below and their locations are shown in Figures 11.1 and 11.5.  Detailed records of each item are presented in Appendices 11.1, 11.3a and 11.4a, and 1:1000 location plans are presented in Plans 1a to 1w in Appendix 11.2a

Table 11.9 - Summary list of built heritage items identified in the KTN NDA CHAA

Category 

Site Code

Total

Declared Monuments

DM01

1

Existing Graded Historic Buildings

 

 

   Grade 1

G102

1

   Grade 2

G201, G202, G203

3

   Grade 3

G301, G302, G303, G308

4

Proposed Graded Historic Buildings

 

 

   Grade 1

PG101

1

Historic Buildings and Structures

 

 

      Ancestral Hall

HKT01

1

      Community Hall

HKT20

1

      Residential House

HKT02, HKT03, HKT04, HKT08, HKT11, HKT12, HKT13, HKT14, HKT15, HKT16, HKT17, HKT18, HKT19, HKT21, HKT22, HKT26, HKT29, HKT37, HKT41, HKT42

20

Landscape Features

 

 

Fung shui woodlands/trees

KT70, KT71

2

      Sites of Cultural/ Historical Events

KT72, KT73, KT74, KT75

4

     Clan Grave

 

KT01, KT02, KT03, KT04, KT05, KT06, KT07, KT08, KT09, KT10, KT12, KT13, KT14, KT16, KT18, KT19, KT20, KT23, KT24, KT27, KT29, KT30, KT31, KT36, KT37, KT39, KT40, KT41, KT42, KT43, KT44, KT45,  KT46, KT47, KT48, KT49, KT50, KT51, KT52, KT53, KT54, KT55, KT56, KT57, KT58, KT59, KT60, KT61, KT62, KT63, KT64, KT65, KT66, KT67, KT68, KT69

56

      Shrines

KT15, KT17, KT22, KT25, KT26

5

      Kam Tap

KT38

1

      Entrance Gate

KT21

1

Note: Site Code G101, HKT05, HKT06, HKT07, HKT09, HKT10 and HKT23 to HKT25, HKT27 to HKT28, HKT30 to HKT36, HKT38 to HKT40, HKT43 to HKT44, KT11, KT28, KT32 to KT35 deleted.

 

Table 11.10 - Built Heritage items listed by AMO identified in the KTN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2a

Declared Monument

DM01

Hau Ku Shek Ancestral Hall, Ho Sheung Heung, Sheung Shui

The Hau Ku Shek Ancestral Hall was probably built in 1876, or before, to commemorate the 17th generation ancestor Hau Ku-shek.   It was built in the traditional three-hall-two-courtyard style.  An altar is erected in the middle hall where the sacrificial tablets of the ancestors are enshrined. The building was built with extensive use of red sandstone and the wok yee ( ) design of the gable walls at the end hall are rare.  The Ancestral Hall was once used as a village school, which was closed during the Second World War.  At present, the Hau Ku Shek Ancestral Hall is used not only as a venue for the villagers in Ho Sheung Heung to worship their ancestors, and to hold traditional festivals; it is also a venue for gatherings and meetings[4].

Plan 1j

Grade 1 Historic Building

 

G102

Hakka Wai (Residential Houses, Watch Tower, Enclosing Walls and Entrance Gate, Study Hall and Wong Shek Chung Ancestral Hall

Hakka Wai consists two rows of residences, an ancestral hall, a study hall, an entrance gate, enclosing walls and a watch tower.  It was believed that the construction of the compound was commenced between the 1900s and early 1910s and completed by 1920.  Hakka Wai was built by Wong Kin-sheung and Wong Kin-man, prominent social leaders of the Chinese community in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  The front row of the residences was built first.  The second row was added later to accommodate the families of another three brothers who moved in from Lai Chi Wo.   The Wai is embraced by an entrance gate, a watchtower and enclosing walls for security reasons.  The entrance gate and enclosing walls are built of grey bricks and the watchtower of both grey bricks and pounded earth.

The study hall served as an educational venue until the establishment of Bok Man School in 1919.

The Wong Shek Chung Ancestral Hall is situated amongst the first row of houses.   It is also known as Lung Fuk Tong and named after Kin-sheung and Kin-man’s father.  The ancestors of Wong Shek Chung’s branch are worshipped in the hall.   The Wai is current fenced off.  Photographic record of the interior of the Wai was constrained.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 1 Historic Building on 22 March 2011.

Plan 1v

Grade 2 Historic Building

 

G201

Lady Ho Tung Welfare Centre (Main Block and Bungalow)

Lady Ho Tung Welfare Centre consists of one main block and a bungalow. Construction work took place from 1932 to 1933.  The centre officially opened in 1934.  From 1934 to 1973, the building served mainly as a maternity centre and a sanatorium for Indian soldiers.  Later, it provided a specialised hospital ward for sick members of the Police Force stationed in the New Territories.  At present, Lady Ho Tung Welfare Centre is a general out-patients clinic that provides medical treatment.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 2 Historic Building on 18 December 2009.

Plan 1q

G202

Earth God Shrine of Kam Tsin

The Earth God is placed in a small but sophisticated shrine near the entrance of the village.  It is highly respected and the festival of Fuk Tak, which falls on the 18th day of the first lunar month, is celebrated among the villagers.  The Shrine is confirmed as a Grade 2 Historic Building on 17 May 2010.

Plan 1s

G203

Enchi Lodge (Main Building & Ancillary Block)

The site was constructed in 1921.  Since the late 1980s the DACARS Christian organisation used this building as a centre for drug addict counselling and rehabilitation.  Before that, the site was abandoned for a few years and subsequently used as a holiday villa by the Jardine Trading Company and later it was used as a horse riding training school.  The site compound comprises 3 buildings and two grey brick steps.  The main building has been slightly altered.  Only one side of the verandas was enclosed as rooms and windows were changed but most of the architectural characteristic of the buildings is retained.   The site is fenced off and view of the Ancillary Block is blocked, no photographic record of the Ancillary Block could be taken.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 2 Historic Building on 31 August 2010.  

Plan 1s

Grade 3 Historic Building

 

G301

Hung Shing Temple & Pai Fung Temple

The Hung Shing Temple and Pai Fung Temple in Ho Sheung Heung were originally two separate buildings built in different times.  The two temples were later connected by a kitchen which was added by the Hau clan of Ho Sheung Heung in the 1960s.  The construction date of the Hung Shing Temple is unknown.  The oldest relics of the temple date to the 16th century.  The Pai Fung Temple was originally located in Pai Fung Ling and was later moved to the present site in 1937.  The main deity honoured in the temple is Buddha.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 4 February 2010.  

Plan 1k

G302

Sin Wai Nunnery

The Sin Wai Nunnery is a two hall building with courtyard and with two side halls built in 1919 according to the plaque in the building.  The courtyard was roofed for more than 10 years.  The nunnery used to train girls as professional Buddhist ceremonial specialist.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 31 August 2010.  

Plan 1k

G303

Yeung Yuen (also known as Yeung Garden)

It is a mixed Western and Chinese style pre-war building constructed in approximately 1923.  It was owned by a Mr Yeung and was rented between the early 1970s and 1983 to Lo Hin-shing as a riding school.  Lo Hin-shing was the First Magistrate at the Hong Kong Magistracy in 1951, and was awarded an M.B.E in 1975.  Since the year 1983 it is owned by Technic Investment Co. Ltd.  It was a villa but used as storage site and is not well maintained.  It is now a fenced site.  According to old survey sheets, there was a fountain in front of the building during the 1960s to early 1980s and there was another building located to the north of it in the 1960s but demolished in early 1970s.   The site is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 17 May 2010.  

Plan 1r

G308

Yan Wah Lo (Kwu Tung)

A 3-hall Hakka house owned by Yeung’s clan constructed in 1933.  The Yeung Ngan Yau “Tso” with Mr Yeung Wun Kam as manager.  It is a typical overseas Chinese building in Hong Kong.  It was used as Oi Wah School in the 1960s.  The main building is now vacant.  The NE corner of the building is being used for domestic purposes by the member of the “Tso”.  The history of the clan is not clearly understood.  No photographs of the interior were permitted to be taken.  According to the old maps held in the Lands Department, the surrounding area was mainly cultivated land and paddy fields.  The site is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 2 September 2011. 

Plan 1r

Proposed Grade 1 Historic Building

 

PG101

Oi Yuen Villa

The building was erected before 1919.  Mr Hui Oi-chow owned the villa and lived there between 1957 and 1966.  He was a famous businessman in Zhangjiang at his early stage of life.  The villa had ever served as a venue for holding feasts, where social and political leaders would be invited to attend; it was also used regularly for performing ceremonies and celebrations among the Hui family members.  The villa to some extent, functioned as a communication channel, and acted as a binding force between the members. The site is currently fenced off that photographic record of the building was constrained. The site is proposed as a Grade 1 Historic Building but the status is not confirmed as of 14 June 2012.

Plan 1w

Note: G101 cancelled. 

 


Table 11.11 - Historic buildings and structures within the KTN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Category

Construction/ (Renovation) Year

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2a

HKT01

Chan Ancestral Hall of Fung Kong village

Ancestral Hall

1920s to 1930s

The building was built some 70-80 years ago.  The Chinese text Chan Ancestral Hall is shown in the main elevation of the ancestral hall.  The rooftop of the ancestral hall was gone and the ancestral hall is left abandoned and overgrown.  According to local informant, the Chan clan has moved away.

Plan 1f

HKT02

Village row houses of Fung Kong Village

Residential House

1920s to 1930s

The buildings were built some 70-80 years ago.  No one is now living in any of the buildings.  According to local informant, the Chan clan has moved away and only an old lady of the clan is still living in the village.

Plan 1f

HKT03

White House = Home of Loving Faithfulness (7 Castle Peak Road)

Residential House

1928(1970s, 2000-2001)

This site is now occupied by the Home of Loving Faithfulness, a Christian organisation that provides services to severely handicapped children originally established in On Lok Tsuen of Sheung Shui in 1965.  The organisation bought the land originally owned by a Chan clan and moved into the white house in 1971.

There was a wooden building near the brick built entrance gate.  It was occupied by metal window production factory.  The building was demolished when the Christian organisation occupied the site.  According to Ms Wendy Blackmur who was in charge of the site in 2000 and some local informants, the site had been occupied by the British Army, the Japanese and a Christian organisation for the blind girls.  It is also noted that many girls died in the building during the wartime.  When Ms Blackmur’s organisation occupied the site, the site was heavily altered to make more rooms and appropriate design and facilities for the handicapped people.

The historical significance of the white house is considered medium and further detailed history about the British Army, Japanese occupation and stories about girls died in the building during the wartime is yet to be explored.  Thus, it is of historical research value.

Plan 1p

HKT04

A row of old village houses at Shek Tsai Leng

Residential Houses

1941-1942

It is pitched-roof Hakka village houses.  One of the buildings is owned by a Chan clan and the others are owned by a Chung clan.  Little information about the clans’ history is known.  It is noted that the owner of the Chan clan is the 3rd generation who settled in this building.

Plan 1o

HKT08

A row of old village houses at Yin Liu

Residential Houses

Qing Dynasty

According to the Kwu Tung village representative, it is a row of 7 units of houses of over a hundred years old.  The houses had been occupied by the workers (Chau clan) for the former Ho Tung villa nearby.  The site is now owned by the Landace Universal Limited and is abandoned.   

Plan 1r

HKT11 to HKT 14

G21, G6 to G11, G19 and G20 Tsung Yuen Village

Residential Houses

Qing Dynasty (late 20th century)

Tsung Yuen Village is also known as Ho Sheung Heung San Tsuen branched off from Ho Sheung Heung.  The village is mixed with modernised buildings, 1960s buildings and traditional Chinese structure buildings, mainly one-hall with a courtyard.  These are the few remaining pre-1950 buildings in the village.

Plan 1g

HKT15 to HKT19, HKT21 and HKT22

Nos. 5-8 in Lane 4, Nos. 13-15 in Lane 3, Nos. 10-11 in Lane 3, Nos. 2-3 in Lane 2, Nos. 7-8 in Lane 2, Nos. 1-3 in Lane 1 and No. 7 in Lane 1 Yin Kong Village

Residential Houses

Qing Dynasty

Yin Kong village is the Hau clan branched off from Ho Sheung Heung in Qing Dynasty.  A majority of the buildings had been modernised, such as the façade additions with parapets, tiling on interior walls and the installation of air conditioners.  A few structures still retain the original decorative features, such as canopies, friezes and mouldings, though they are almost in poor condition.  There is no temple or ancestral hall in the village but there is a number of earth shrines associated with fung shui trees behind it.  These are the remaining pre-1950 building in the village. 

Plan 1s

HKT20

Yin Kong Rural Community House

Rural Community House

Middle 20th century

Yiu Kong village is from the Hau clan branched off from Ho Sheung Heung in Qing Dynasty. There is no temple or ancestral hall in the village but there is a number of earth shrines associated with fung shui trees behind it.  This rural community house was probably constructed in the middle 20th century. 

Plan 1s

HKT26, 29, 37, 41 and 42

Yu Lin De (HKT26), C33 (HKT41), D11 to D14 (HKT37) and E7 (HKT29) Ho Sheung Heung

Residential Houses

Early to middle 20th century. Yu Lin De renovated in 2004. 

The Hau clan was originated from Hebei Province.  During Song Dynasty, one of the branches of the clan moved southward to Panyu ( ) in Guongzhou ( ).  The 11th generation of the Hau clan moved to settle in Ho Sheung Heung home during Ming Dynasty.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clans in the New Territories.  These are the few traditional village residential houses remained in the village. 

Plan 1j

Note: Site Code HKT05, HKT06, HKT07, HKT09, HKT10 and HKT23 to HKT25, HKT27 to HKT28, HKT30 to HKT36, HKT38 to HKT40, HKT43 to HKT44 deleted.  


Table 11.12 - Landscape features within the KTN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Category

Construction/ (Renovation) Year

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2a

KT01

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1986)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased is the wife of the 18th generation of Man clan whose surname is Liu.  The Liu clan is also one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the Sheung Shui region.  The grave was renovated by the 22nd generation of the Man clan dated to 1986.

Plan 1n

KT02

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

 (1999)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region. The deceased is a couple of the 22nd generation of Man clan of San Tin.    According to the analysis of headstone information of KT1, this grave was probably constructed in the early to middle 20th century.

Plan 1n

KT03

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1978 & 2007)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region. The deceased are the 21st and 22nd generation of Man clan.  It was renovated in 1978.  The grave may have a history of over 100 years old.

Plan 1n

KT04

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1982)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region. The deceased is the 23rd generation of Man clan.  The grave was renovated in 1982.  It is believed that the grave has been established before 1950.

Plan 1n

KT05

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1988)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased are two couples belonged to the 21st and 22nd generation of Man clan and The grave was renovated in 1988 but may have established for over 100 years.

Plan 1n

KT06

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1975)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased are the 17th generation of the Man clan with his two wives.  The grave may have been established for over 150 years old.

Plan 1n

KT07

Man clan grave (the mother-in-law of Man Kin-yip) of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1981)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased is the 17th generation of the Man clan.  The grave is probably over 100 years old.

Plan 1m

KT08

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1970)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased are two couples from the 21st and 22nd generation of the Man clan.

Plan 1m

KT09

Hau clan grave from Ping Kong village

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty

The 11th generation of the Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming Dynasty.  The Ping Kong village was branched out from the Ho Sheung Heung village in Qing Dynasty.  This grave is the deceased of the 26th generation of the clan located under a camphor tree and dated to Qing Dynasty.  According to inscription, it deceased was the Hau clan from Ping Kong village.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.

Plan 1l

KT10

Man clan grave and associated Earth God

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1914)

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  It is located in a fenced area.  According to the headstone inscription, the grave is the deceased couple of the 19th generation of Man clan dated to Qing Dynasty.  The grave was renovated in 1914. 

Plan 1p

KT12

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1974 & between 2003 and 2008))

The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The deceased are a couple of the 19th generation of Man Clan. 

Plan 1o

KT13

Hau clan grave of Ho Sheung Heung

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1991)

The deceased is a couple of the Hau clan from Ho Sheung Heung.  The 11th generation of the Hau clan settled in Ho Sheung Heung since Ming Dynasty.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area. This grave was renovated in 1991. 

Plan 1f

KT14

Two Hau clan graves of Yin Kong

Clan grave

Ming Dynasty (1969)

Two clan graves of the Hau clan from Yin Kong village that branched out from Ho Sheung Heung in Qing Dynasty.  According to the village representative of Yin Kong, one of the clan graves is over 400 years old and the deceased are the 4th and 5th generation of the Hau clan from Yin Kong.   Another one is over 300 years old.  The deceased is the 11th generation of the Hau clan in Yin Kong.  Both graves were renovated in 1969.

Plan 1r

KT15

Earth Shrine of Tsung Yuen Village

Shrine

Late Qing Dynasty (1998)

An earth shrine is located at the northern end of the village.  It was probably established when Tsung Yuen Village established in Qing Dynasty.  The shrine was renovated in 1998. 

Plan 1g

KT16

Grave of unknown clan

Clan grave

1931

Illegible headstone, in poor condition and overgrown.

Plan 1r

KT17

Shrine

Shrine

1950s

Concrete built earth shrine. The headstone is cracking.  The deceased was originated from Nan Hai in Guangzhou. 

Plan 1r

KT18

Lau clan grave

Clan grave

1970s

Well maintained earth grave adjacent to KT17, probably owned by outsider.  The deceased is the wife of Lau clan with a surname Choi. 

Plan 1r

KT19

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

Late Qing Dynasty

Much of the headstone text is illegible.  However, according to the legible text, the deceases are a couple of the Hau clan probably from Tsung Yuen Village.  Tsung Yuen Village is also known as Ho Sheung Heung San Tsuen where the village is originated from Ho Sheung Heung. 

Plan 1g

KT20

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

Probably middle 20th century (1994)

The Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming dynasty by the 11th generation.  These graves are the deceased of the 27th and 28th generation of the Hau clan.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.

Plan 1f

KT21

Entrance Gate of Ho Shueng Heung

Entrance Gate

Ming Dynasty

The Hau clan was originated from Hebei Province.  During Song dynasty, one of the branches of the clan moved southward to Panyu (番禺) in Guongzhou (廣州).  The 11th generation of the Hau clan moved to settle in Ho Sheung Heung home during Ming dynasty.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clans in the New Territories.  This is probably the original entrance gate of the walled Ho Sheung Heung Village

Plan 1j

KT22

Earth Shrine and associated fung shui tree in Yin Kong Village

Shrine

Qing Dynasty

It is a Hau clan village branched out from Ho Sheung Heung in Qing Dynasty.  This site is the earth shrine of the village.  It is a small stone tablet placed in front of a fung shui tree.  Earth shrine are usually established when the village established.  Thus, this shrine may date back to Qing Dynasty.

Plan 1s

KT23

2 Hau clan grave, Ho Sheung Heung

Clan grave

1950-70s

The 11th generation Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming Dynasty.  These two graves are the deceased from the 28th generation. The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.

Plan 1g

KT24

Hau clan grave, Ho Sheung Heung

Clan grave

(1999)

The 11th generation Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming Dynasty.  This is the deceased of the 29th generation of the Hau clan.  The grave was renovated in 1999.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.

Plan 1g

KT25

Old Shrine and associated fung shui tree and stone features

Shrine

Qing Dynasty

It is a Hau clan village branched out from Ho Sheung Heung in Qing Dynasty.  This site is the earth shrine of the village.  Earth shrine are usually established when the village established.  Thus, this shrine may date back to Qing Dynasty.

Plan 1s

KT26

Earth Shrine and associated fung shui tree near Sin Wai Nunnery

Shrine

Around 1919

The Sin Wai Nunnery was built in 1919.  This shrine falls within the Nunnery.  It is believed that the shrine was constructed in similar period (i.e. around 1919). 

Plan 1k

KT27

Hau clan grave of Ho Sheung Heung

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (late 20th century)

Five deceased from the Hau clan that have been settling in the Ho Sheung Heung region since the Ming Dynasty.  The site may have existed for over 100 years old.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.

Plan 1c

KT29

Chan grave

Clan grave

(1979)

The deceased is a couple of the Chan clan from Puling County.  The grave was renovated in 1979.  Thus, it was probable established before 1950. 

Plan 1b

KT30

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

1847 (1991).

The Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming dynasty by the 11th generation.  This deceased was the seventh level officer of the Qing dynasty. 

Plan 1f

KT31

Lam grave

Clan grave

(1992)

The deceased is the ancestor of 6 branches of the Lam surname group.

Plan 1d

KT36

Chan grave

Clan grave

(1984)

The deceased is from Chan clan.  It was renovated in 1984. 

Plan 1f

KT37

Chan grave

Clan grave

(1985)

The deceased is from the Chan surname group.  It was renovated in 1985.  Thus, the grave was probably established before 1950.

Plan 1f

KT38

Kam Tap (East of Ho Sheung Heung Road)

Kam Tap

Unknown

Kam Tap without headstone.

Plan 1i

KT39

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1922)

The deceased is a couple of the 16th generation of the Man clan.  The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the San Tin region.  The grave was renovated in 1922 and probably constructed in Qing Dynasty. 

Plan 1m

KT40

Chung grave (north of Shek Tsai Leng)

Clan grave

(1953)

The deceased is a Mrs Chung.

Plan 1o

KT41

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1970)

The deceased is a couple of the Liu clan, constructed in late Qing Dynasty.  The grave was renovated in 1970. There is a granite boundary stone showing the Liu boundary.   The Liu clan is one of the five major clans dominating the Sheung Shui region.

Plan 1o

KT42

Kwan On Cemetery

Graveyard

(1923)

A public cemetery with about 330 burials.

Plan 1f

KT43

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1968)

The deceased is the 21st generation of the Man clan.  The grave was renovated in 1968. The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the San Tin area.

Plan 1n

KT44

Man clan grave of Chau Tau Tsuen

Clan grave

(1993)

The deceased is the wife from the Man clan.  The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  This grave is of similar design to KT52, thus, it belongs to the same clan. 

Plan 1m

KT45

Cheung clan grave

Clan grave

(Qing Dynasty 1890)

The deceased is a couple of the surname group Cheung.  It was constructed in Qing Dynasty and renovated in 1890.  It is located within a fenced area.  

Plan 1d

KT46

Unknown grave

Clan grave

Unknown grave

As the grave is mostly covered by vegetation and in poor condition, the headstone text cannot be examined or illegible. 

Plan 1n

KT47

Man clan grave

Clan grave

(1983)

According to headstone inscription, the decease is from the 19th generation of the Man clan.  The grave was renovated in 1983.

Plan 1a

KT48

Choi clan grave

Clan grave

(1965)

According to headstone inscription, the deceased is a lady from the Choi Uk Wai and from the 22nd generation of the clan.  It is not known when the grave was constructed but it was renovated in 1965.

Plan 1a

KT49

Grave from Liu Pok village

Clan grave

(1980)

According to headstone inscription, the deceased was from Liu Pok village.  The grave was either renovated in 1920 or 1980.  Based on the material used, it would have been renovated in 1980.

Plan 1a

KT50

Fung clan grave

Clan grave

(Middle to late 20th century)

According to headstone inscription, the deceases are a couple from the 15th generation of the Fung clan. The grave was probably established in Qing dynasty and renovated in middle to late 20th century.

Plan 1a

KT51

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long (west of Kwu Tung)

Clan grave

Ming Dynasty (1914)

The deceased are a couple of the 9th generation of the Man clan tracked back to Ming Dynasty.  The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the San Tin area.   

Plan 1n

KT52

Man clan grave of Chau Tau Tsuen

Clan grave

1796-1820 (1936, 1993)

The deceased is the wife of the 15th generation of the Man clan.  The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  

Plan 1m

KT53

Man clan grave of San Tin, Yuen Long

Clan grave

(1833)

The deceased is a couple of the Man clan.  The Man clan is one of the five major clan groups in the New Territories dominating the San Tin region.  The grave was constructed in 1833.

Plan 1l

KT54

Hau clan grave of Ho Sheung Heung

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (Apr 1994)

The grave belongs to a couple of the 25th generation of Hau clan dated to Qing Dynasty.  The 11th generation of the Hau clan settled in Ho Sheung Heung since Ming Dynasty.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area. The grave was renovated 1994.

Plan 1f

KT55

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(2001)

According to the headstone inscription, the decease is from Chung Sum village in Sheung Shui.  Chung Sum village is the occupied by Liu clan.  Thus the decease is from the Liu clan. The grave was renovated in 2001. 

Plan 1t

KT56

Kan clan grave

Clan grave

(2005)

According to headstone inscription, the decease is from the 22nd generation of the Kan clan.  It is not known when the grave was established.  The grave was renovated in 2005.

Plan 1u

KT57

Law grave

Clan grave

(1979 )

The deceased is from the Law surname group.

Plan 1f

KT58

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

Over 100 years ago

The deceased is a couple of the Hau clan.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups in New Territories dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area.  The headstone inscription is illegible.  The grave probably has over 100 years old.

Plan 1e

KT59

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(after 1911)

According to headstone inscription, the deceases are a couple from the 15th generation of the clan during the Qing dynasty.  The grave has been renovated sometime after 1911 but the inscription is illegible to identify the precise renovation year.

Plan 1u

KT60

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(2001)

According to the headstone inscription, the decease is from Chung Sum village in Sheung Shui.  Chung Sum village is the occupied by Liu clan.  Thus the decease is from the Liu clan. The grave was renovated in 2001. 

Plan 1t

KT61

Pun clan grave

Clan grave

(2007)

According to the headstone information, the grave was renovated in 2007 and the grave has a history of 40 years.  Thus, it is probably a post-1950 grave. 

Plan 1o

KT62

Wong clan grave

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1922)

The deceased is a couple of the Wong clan.  The grave was renovated in 1922. Thus, it was probably constructed in late Qing Dynasty.

Plan 1o

KT63

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

(2005)

According to headstone inscription, the grave is an ancestral grave of the Hau clan established by the 29th generation of the clan. 

Plan 1o

KT64

Lau clan grave

Clan grave

(1961)

According to headstone inscription, the deceased is from the 10th generation of the clan. The grave was renovated in 1961.

Plan 1t

KT65

Lam clan grave

Clan grave

(1887)

Well maintained.  The deceased are husband and wife of the 16th generation of the Lam family.

Plan 1c

KT66

Fung clan grave of Liu Pok Village

Clan grave

(1991)

Belongs to the 19th generation of the Fung clan of Liu Pok village located on the Western side of the Lo Wu Rifle Range of Hong Kong Police Force.

Plan 1b

KT67

Choy clan grave

Clan grave

(1948, 2000)

Belongs to the 23rd – 25th generations of the Choy clan near or within the burial ground at levels above +34mPD.

Plan 1e

KT68

Hau clan grave

Clan grave

(After 1911)

The Hau clan established the Ho Sheung Heung village during the Ming dynasty by the 11th generation.  The Hau clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Ho Sheung Heung area. This is the deceased of the 26th generation of the Hau clan.  Although many of the text on the headstone is illegible, it is believed that the deceases are a couple of the Hau clan buried in Qing dynasty a renovated after 1911.  Thus, it is a probably a pre1950 grave renovated after 1911.

Plan 1t

KT69

Lam grave

Clan grave

(1973)

The deceased is a couple of a Mr Lam from Ko Ming Village in Puling County.  Field survey is currently conducting.  Better qualify photographic record will be provided.

Plan 1l

KT70

Ho Sheung Heung fung shui Woodland

Fung shui Woodlands/trees

N/A

This fung shui woodland is located to the west of Ho Sheung Heung village.  The buildings in the village are mainly east facing with this fung shui woodland at the back of the village.

Plan 1h/1i/1j/1k

KT71

Tsung Pak Long Fung Shui Woodland

Fung shui Woodlands/trees

N/A

This small fung shui woodland is located west or south west of Tsung Pak Long village.

Plan 1v

KT72

Open Space in front of Kam Tsin Village Earth Shrine

Sites of Cultural/Historical Events

Late Qing Dynasty

The earth shrine belongs to the Kam Tsin village and the festival for the earth shrine is the most important event to the villagers.  During the Tai Wong birthday, the traditional ceremonies during Tiu-chiu will be held on the 18th of the first lunar month to pray for peace in the coming year.  Worship rituals will be held on site and the earth deity will be “invited” to the village where ceremonies and Chinese opera will be held in the village. 

Plan 1s

KT73 to 75

Open Space in Ho Sheung Heung

Sites of Cultural/Historical Events

Ming Dynasty

During traditional ceremonies such as Hung Shing Festival and other festivals, the open space in front of the Hung Shing and Pai Fung Temple (KT75), the Rural Community Centre (KT74) and the playground and open spaces in front of Hau Ku Shek Ancestral Hall (KT73) will be used to held events such as basin meals, Chinese opera performance in temporary structure built theatre and scramble for fa pau ( ).

Plan 1j/1k

Note: Site Codes KT28, KT32 to KT35 deleted.  


11.4.4.2  Built Heritage Items within FLN NDA CHAA

There are one Declared Monument, one Grade 1, three Grade 3, two Nil Grade historic buildings, 3 historic buildings and structure and 35 landscape features identified within the FLN NDA CHAA.  They are summarized in Table 11.13 below and detailed in Tables 11.14 to 11.16 below and their locations are shown in Figures 11.1 and 11.6.  Detailed records of each item are presented in Appendices 11.1, 11.3b and 11.4b, and 1:1000 location plans are presented in Plans 2a to 2p in Appendix 11.2b.

In addition, the Lung Yeuk Tau Heritage Trail is partly located within FLN NDA CHAA (see Figure 11.1).  The Trail was the second heritage trail established in the New Territories by the government initiated by the AAB.  It was officially opened to the public on 4 December 1999 located at the northeast of Luen Wo Hui in Fanling.  The trail links many traditional Chinese buildings and structures and the five walled villages (Lo Wai, Ma Wat Wai, Wing Ning Wai, Tung Kok Wai and San Wai) and six Tsuens (Ma Wat Tsuen, Wing Ning Tsuen, Tsz Tong Tsuen, San Uk Tsuen, Siu Hang Tsuen and Kun Lung Tsuen) at the Lung Yeuk Tau area.

Table 11.13 - Built heritage items identified within the FLN NDA CHAA

Category 

Site Code

Total

Declared Monument

DM02

1

Existing Graded Historic Buildings

 

 

   Grade 1

G103

1

   Grade 3

G304, G305, G309

3

   Nil Grade

GN01, GN02

2

Historic Buildings and Structures

 

 

    Residential House

HFL05, HFL06, HFL08

3

Landscape Features

 

 

    Clan Grave

 

FL01, FL02, FL06, FL07, FL08, FL09, FL11, FL12, FL13, FL14, FL15, FL16, FL17, FL18, FL20, FL23, FL24, FL25, FL26, FL34, FL35

21

      Shrines

FL05, FL21, FL36

3

      Tablet/Plaque

FL19, FL22, FL27

3

      Well

FL04

1

      Entrance Gate

FL37

1

      Kam Tap

FL10, FL28, FL29, FL31, FL32, FL33

6

Note: Site code HFL01 to 04, HFL07, FL03 and FL30 deleted.

 


Table 11.14 – Built heritage items recorded by AMO within the FLN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2b

 Declared Monument

DM02

Entrance Tower of Ma Wat Wai

 

Ma Wat Wai was built by the Tang lineage during the Qianlong reign of the Qing Dynasty.  Ma Wat Wai was originally a walled village with brick walls constructed on the four sides and a watchtower on each corner.  As a result of past development activities most of the walls and all four corner towers were demolished leaving only this entrance tower.  A stone tablet engraved with two Chinese characters denoting a place with flourishing growth of spring onions was embedded at the facade of the tower.  The tower has been fully restored with funds from the Government.

Plan 2p

 Existing Grade 1 Historic Building

G103

Kin Tak Lau, Main Building

 

Kin Tak Lau, constructed in 1911 by Pang Lok Sam, is occupied by his daughter-in-law.  It is confirmed as a Grade 1 Historic Building on 18 December 2009.

Plan 2l

Existing Grade 3 Historic Building

G304

Entrance Gate of Wing Ning Wai

Wing Ning Wai originally has rectangular enclosed wall and an entrance gate in the front wall with four watchtowers at its four corners. The entrance gate is located at the north-east of the front wall.  It was constructed in the 9th year of Qianlong (乾隆, A.D. 1744) reign of the Qing dynasty. The gate is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 24 June 2010.

Plan 2j

G305

Tsung Kyam Church

The church is located at the front row of the Shung Him Tong Tsuen.(崇謙堂村) and is surrounded by other village houses. It was built in 1927 and extended in 1951.  The old Tsung Kyam Church was the focal point of the Hakka Christian village.  The church is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 2 September 2011.

Plan 2l

G309

Man Ming Temple

Located at Fu Tei Au Tsuen of Sheung Shui, the Man Ming Temple was constructed before 1924 by the Lius of Sheung Shui Heung.  It is basically a three-hall building, with two open corridors on the two sides of the central hall as access to the end hall.  Three statues of the Civil God or Man God, the Marital God or Mo God and Fui Shing were worshipped in the building.  The Hall is confirmed as a Grade 3 Historic Building on 10 November 2010.

Plan 2a

Nil Grade Historic Building

 

GN01

Tin Hau Temple, No. 41  Hung Kiu San Tsuen

Though rebuilt in 1961, the existing Tin Hau Festival at Hung Kiu San Tsuen houses a historic bell cast with “康熙六十年" (1721). Tin Hau Festival was celebrated since 1985. Vegetarian meals are offered at the forecourt of the temple. The Lius clan of Sheung Shui, especially Yi Ngam Tso, take care of the maintenance of the temple.  The site is confirmed as a Nil Grade Historic Building on 4 February 2010.

Plan 2c

GN02

Fuk Tak Temple

The Temple is located in Siu Hang Tsuen ( ) of Fanling built by the Tang clan of the village when it was established some 100 years ago.  The temple is for the worship of the Earth God, also known as To Tei Kung ( ), Dai Pak Kung ( ) or Fuk Tak Kung ( ), the deity which would give protection to the villagers. The site is confirmed as a Nil Grade Historic Building on 4 February 2010.

Plan 2i

Note: Plan 2k cancelled.

 

Table 11.15 – Historic buildings and structures within the FLN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Category

Construction/ (Renovation) Year

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2b

HFL05 to 06

Nos. 3, 4-6, Wo Hop Shek Village

Residential House

1929

The village was resited from Shing Mum in Tsuen Wan in 1929.  These are the only few buildings remaining in the original traditional style.  

Plan 2n

HFL08

Nos. 2 to 4  Siu Hang Tsuen

Residential House

Before 1900

Built before 1900, the Siu Hang Tsuen is the youngest village of the Five Wais (walled villages) and Six Tsuens (villages) (五圍六村) of the Tang clan in Lung Yeuk Tau (龍躍頭) who first settled in the area in the 14th century.  These are the few buildings still remain the original traditional style.

Plan 2i

Note: Site code HFL01 to 04 and HFL07 deleted.  Plan 2k cancelled.

 


Table 11.16 – Landscape features identified within the FLN NDA CHAA

Site Code

Site Name

Sub –Category

Construction/ (Renovation) Year

Description

Reference Plan No in Appendix 11.2b

FL01

Cheung clan grave

Clan grave

(1967)

According to headstone inscription, the decease is from the Cheung family. 

Plan 2e

FL02

Pang clan grave of Fanling

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1915, 1987)

The deceased is from the Pang family originated from Pao’an.   They are Christian.  

Plan 2l

FL04

Old Wells in Wo Hop Shek Village

Well

1929

According to the list of villages recorded in the block lease, the village was resited from Shing Mum in Tsuen Wan in 1929.  The well was probably built when the village established.   

Plan 2n

FL05

Earth Shrine of Siu Hang Tsuen

Shrine

Before 1900

The two earthshines belong to Siu Hang Tsuen Tang clan which was established before 1900.  The shrines were probably established at the time the village established. 

Plan 2i

FL06

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(2002)

According to headstone inscriptions, the deceases are a couple from the 17th generation and a lady from Qing dynasty of the Liu family.

Plan 2d

FL07

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui

Clan grave

Ming Dynasty (1907)

Built with grey bricks and well maintained.  The deceased are the 7th and 14th generations of Liu clan in Sheung Shui. Well maintained.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2g

FL08

Wen grave

Clan grave

(1963)

The deceased is a couple of the Wen clan.

Plan 2g

FL09

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui Wai

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1984)

The deceased are the 18th generation of Liu clan.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2d

FL10

Kam Tap

Kam Tap

Late 20th century

A group of Kam Taps with a shelter structure.

Plan 2g

FL11

Liu Clan Grave

Clan grave

Late 20th century

According to headstone inscription, the decease is from the Liu family and it was renovated in the late 20th century.

Plan 2g

FL12

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(2002)

The grave comprises three burial urns without headstone.  Construction year is unknown but according to the building material, it was probably renovated in 2002 together with FL06.

Plan 2d

FL13

Cenotaph of unknown clan

Clan grave

1930

The deceased is the 18th generation of the clan. However, the headstone didn’t indicate the surname group of this cenotaph.   The grave was established by the 19th generation of the clan.

Plan 2f

FL14

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1980)

The deceased is the 12th generation of the clan.  It is well maintained in good condition.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2f

FL15

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui Wai

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1980)

The deceased is the 16th generation of the Liu clan.  It is well maintained in good condition.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2f

FL16

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui Wai

Clan grave

1928 (1970)

The deceased is a couple from the 18th generation of the Liu clan.   The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area. 

Plan 2b

FL17

Chick grave

Clan grave

(1956)

The deceased is the wife of the Chick family.

Plan 2g

FL18

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui

Clan grave

(1917)

Belongs to the 15th and 16th generations of the Liu clan; well constructed but in a poorly maintained condition.  The Lam Construction Company had leased the fenced area and used it as a workshop and storage purposes.

Plan 2c

FL19

Memorial stone for the construction of the Jian Bridge

Plaque

1919

Two memorial stones plaques for the construction of the Jian Bridge were placed by a modernized bridge.  The plaques were dated to 1919 to record the construction of the bridge with a donor list.

Plan 2j

FL20

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

1947 (1959)

The deceased is the wife of the Liu clan.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area. 

Plan 2d

FL21

Earth Shrine of Tung Hing Bridge

Shrine

1748 (2007)

The Tung Hing Bridge was originally located at the current Man Kam To crossing the Ng Tung River.  An earth shrine of the bridge was erected in 1748.  During the previous NENT study, discussion with locals and review of old maps indicated that between the years 1961 and 1973, the bridge was known as Hung Kiu (Flood Bridge).  From the late 1970s to mid 1986, a Police Post building existed to the south east of the bridge next to the Jockey Club Road and access was regarded as restricted.  The Jockey Club Road was widened in late 1980s and the Police Post was demolished.  The access was no longer regarded as restricted in mid 1980s.  The shrine was located by the footpath of the Man Kam To Road crossing the Ng Tung River.  The Man Kam To Road has recently been widened and the shrine has been relocated again on a grass land next to the Man Kam To Road by the Ng Tung River.  The old inscription tablet has been replaced by a newly erected one dated 2007.  

Plan 2c

FL22

Memorial Tablet for reconstruction of Shek Bo Tau

Tablet

1957

A stone tablet for the record of the drainage improvement work of the area in 1954.

Plan 2a

FL23

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(1972)

The deceased is the wife of the Liu clan.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area. 

Plan 2d

FL24

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(1972)

According to the inscriptions on the headstone, it was renovated in 1972.  The deceased were a couple of the Liu clan probably track back to Ming dynasty.

Plan 2o

FL25

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui Wai

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1827, 1986)

Belongs to the 9th generation of the Liu clan.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2e

FL26

Liu clan grave of Sheung Shui Wai

Clan grave

Qing Dynasty (1990)

Belongs to the 15th generation of the Liu clan.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2e

FL27

Two stone tablets of Chung Hin Bridge, Lung Yeuk Tau

Tablet

1937-38

Two Stone Tablets: one is a notice of 19 December 1937 and one is the renovation record and a list of the donators for the Chung Him Bridge recorded in 12 December 1938.

Plan 2l

FL28

12 Kam Taps

Kam Tap

Recent

A structure that housed 12 Kam Taps without headstone.

Plan 2f

FL29

4 Kam Taps of Hau clan of Sheung Shui Wai

Kam Tap

(1993)

Belongs to the 14th generation of Hau clan

Plan 2f

FL31

6 Kam Taps of Kan’s clan in Sheung Shui

Kam Tap

Late 20th century

A group of six Kam Taps of the Kan clan in Sheung Shui. 

Plan 2h

FL32

3 Kam Taps of Liu’s clan

Kam Tap

1999

The 18th and 19th generations of Liu clan in Sheung Shui.  The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2f

FL33

7 Kam Taps of unknown clan

Kam Tap

Late 20th century

7 Kam Taps and one of which is missing.  In fair condition.

Plan 2g

FL34

Liu Clan grave

Clan Grave

(1992)

According to headstone inscription, the Kam Taps are deceases from the 15th, 16th and 17th generations of the Liu clan. 

Plan 2c

FL35

Liu clan grave

Clan grave

(1873)

The deceased is a female of the Liu clan. The Liu clan is one of the five major clan groups dominating the Sheung Shui area.

Plan 2b

FL36

Earth God Shrine

Shrine

1942(1985)

Field survey currently being conducted to obtain the information.

Plan 2m

FL37

Entrance Gate

Entrance Gate

Early 20th century

A grey brick entrance gate of a building.  However, the building is demolished.

Plan 2j

Note: Site Code FL03 and FL30 deleted.  Plan 2k cancelled.

 


11.5      Identification and Evaluation of Impact

The following Designated Projects (DPs) have been included in the cultural heritage impact assessment:

The planning study for the NENT NDAs is a designated project (DP) under Item 1 Schedule 3 of EIAO – Engineering feasibility study of urban development projects with a study area covering more than 20 ha or involving a total population of more than 100,000.

In addition, the following work components also fall under various Schedule 2 DP categories as summarized in Tables 11.17a and 17b.

 

Table 11.17a – Schedule 2 Designated Projects in KTN NDA

Item

Work Component

Schedule 2 DP Category

1

San Tin Highway and Fanling Highway Kwu Tung Section Widening (between San Tin Interchange and Po Shek Wu Interchange) (Major Improvement)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road.

2

Castle Peak Road (CPR) Diversion  (Major Improvement)

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road.

3

KTN NDA Road P1 and P2 (New Road) and associated new Kwu Tung Interchange (New Road) and Pak Shek Au Interchange Improvement  (Major Improvement)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road.

4

KTN NDA Road D1 to D5 (New Road)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road.

5

New Sewage Pumping Stations (SPSs) in KTN NDA

F3

A SPS---(b) with an installed capacity of more than 2,000 m3  per day and a boundary of which is less than 150 m from an existing or planned residential area or educational institution.

6

Proposed railway station and associated facilities in KTN NDA (To be conducted under separate study).

A2

A railway and its associated facilities.

7

Utilization of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) from Shek Wu Hui Sewage Treatment Works  SWHSTW

F4

An activity for the reuse of treated sewage effluent from a treatment plant

 

Table 11.17b – Schedule 2 Designated Projects in FLN NDA

Item

Work Component

Schedule 2 DP Category

7

Utilization of TSE from SWHSTW

F4

An activity for the reuse of TSE from a treatment plant

8

Po Shek Wu Interchange Improvement (Major Improvement)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road

9

Fanling Bypass Western Section (New Road)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road

10

Fanling Bypass Eastern Section (New Road)

 

A1

A road which is an expressway, trunk road, primary distributor road or district distributor road including new roads, and major extensions or improvements to existing road.

11

Shek Wu Hui Sewage Treatment Works - Further Expansion at FLN NDA

 

F1

Sewage treatment works with an installed capacity of more than 15,000 m3 per day.         

12

Reprovision of temporary wholesale market in FLN NDA

N3

A wholesale market.

13

New SPSs in FLN NDA

F3

A SPS---(b) with an installed capacity of more than 2,000 m3  per day and a boundary of which is less than 150 m from an existing or planned residential area or educational institution.

 

11.5.1     Identification of Impacts on Sites of Cultural Heritage

11.5.1.1  Existing Disturbance

There are a variety of existing and past land uses within the CHAA where previous developments have modified or disturbed the cultural heritage resources to an unknown level:

·         Village houses in the process of ongoing development;

·         Channelled streams, rivers and drainage channels;

·         Major road access, such as Castle Peak Road;

·         Village access roads;

·         Light industrial buildings, abandoned and in use;

·         Open Storage of construction materials/vehicle repair and breaking areas, lorry /container vehicle parks and workshops / godowns;

·         Fish ponds;

·