Content


Chapter Title Page

17.1 Introduction_______________________________________________________________ 17-1

17.2 Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollutants_______________________________________ 17-1

17.2.1 Technical Requirements_____________________________________________________ 17-1

17.2.2 Literature Review___________________________________________________________ 17-1

17.2.3 Hazard Identification________________________________________________________ 17-7

17.2.4 Exposure Assessment______________________________________________________ 17-13

17.2.5 Dose-Response Assessment_________________________________________________ 17-28

17.2.6 Risk Characterisation_______________________________________________________ 17-43

17.2.7 Means to Reduce Health Impact by Air Emissions and Recommendation of Reasonably Practicable Measures______________________________________________________ 17-58

17.2.8 Uncertainty Analysis_______________________________________________________ 17-58

17.2.9 Conclusion______________________________________________________________ 17-59

17.3 Health Impact Assessment for Aircraft Noise_____________________________________ 17-60

17.3.1 Technical Requirements____________________________________________________ 17-60

17.3.2 Literature Review__________________________________________________________ 17-60

17.3.3 Methodology for Health Impact Assessment due to Aircraft Noise_____________________ 17-66

17.3.4 Evaluation and Assessment of Potential Health Impacts due to Aircraft Noise____________ 17-69

17.3.5 Health Impact Reduction by Aircraft Noise Mitigation Measures_______________________ 17-71

17.3.6 Recommendation of Reasonably Practicable Measures, if any_______________________ 17-72

17.3.7 Uncertainties and Limitations_________________________________________________ 17-72

17.3.8 Conclusions______________________________________________________________ 17-72

17.4 References______________________________________________________________ 17-73

 

Tables

Table 17.2.1: Summary of desktop research on international HIA methodology guidelines 17-2

Table 17.2.2: Summary of desktop research on HIA methodologies adopted in other airport related studies 17-3

Table 17.2.3: Summary of desktop research on HIA methodologies adopted in other EIA studies and feasibility studies 17-5

Table 17.2.4: Summary of approaches in determination of health risk identified from the literature review_ 17-5

Table 17.2.5: The limitation of different risk assessment approaches 17-6

Table 17.2.6: Ozone concentrations for with and without airport scenarios under northern wind direction_ 17-7

Table 17.2.7: Ozone concentrations for with and without airport scenarios under southern wind direction_ 17-7

Table 17.2.8: Ozone concentrations for with and without airport scenarios under western wind direction_ 17-8

Table 17.2.9: TAP considered in various international guidelines 17-8

Table 17.2.10: TAP considered in various airport-related health impact assessments / monitoring_ 17-9

Table 17.2.11: Summary of short-listed TAP_ 17-13

Table 17.2.12: Modelling scenarios to be assessed_ 17-14

Table 17.2.13: Human receptor locations considered in local and international HIA studies 17-15

Table 17.2.14: Representative existing and planned human receptors 17-16

Table 17.2.15: Potential exposure pathways for different population_ 17-20

Table 17.2.16: Methodology for determination of TAP speciation profile for airport activities 17-23

Table 17.2.17: Methodology for determination of TAP speciation profile for proximity infrastructure emission in Lantau area_ 17-25

Table 17.2.18: Methodology for determination of TAP speciation profile for proximity infrastructure emission in Tuen Mun area_ 17-25

Table 17.2.19: Modelling Methodology for different type of receivers 17-27

Table 17.2.20: Summary of emission targets in PRDEZ_ 17-28

Table 17.2.21: Summary of emission targets in HKSAR_ 17-28

Table 17.2.22: Consequences of exposure to the key TAP for airport related sources 17-29

Table 17.2.23: Basis of risk values in different guidelines 17-36

Table 17.2.24: Summary of key literature to establish the carcinogenic classification and unit risk for cancer 17-37

Table17.2.25: Cancer risk guidelines 17-38

Table 17.2.26: Toxicity criteria of the acute, carcinogenic and chronic non-carcinogenic risks of the identified TAP_ 17-38

Table 17.2.27: Percentage of excess risk (95% of confidence interval) of short-term mortalities and morbidities attributable to a 10 g/m3 increase in air pollutant concentrations (for all ages) 17-40

Table 17.2.28: Percentage of excess risk (95% of confidence interval) of long-term mortalities attributable to air pollutants 17-40

Table 17.2.29: Summary of parameters for hospital illnesses health outcome_ 17-42

Table 17.2.30: Summary of parameters for premature death mortality health outcome_